- Human Milk Banking. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn Nutr Metab 2016; 69 Suppl 2:8-15
- Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very...
Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.
- A Pre-Clinical Safety Evaluation of SBP (HBsAg-Binding Protein) Adjuvant for Hepatitis B Vaccine. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(1):e0170313
- Although adjuvants are a common component of many vaccines, there are few adjuvants licensed for use in humans due to concerns about their toxic effects. There is a need to develop new and safe adjuv...
Although adjuvants are a common component of many vaccines, there are few adjuvants licensed for use in humans due to concerns about their toxic effects. There is a need to develop new and safe adjuvants, because some existing vaccines have low immunogenicity among certain patient groups. In this study, SBP, a hepatitis B surface antigen binding protein that was discovered through screening a human liver cDNA expression library, was introduced into hepatitis B vaccine. A good laboratory practice, non-clinical safety evaluation was performed to identify the side effects of both SBP and SBP-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine. The results indicate that SBP could enhance the HBsAg-specific immune response, thus increasing the protection provided by the hepatitis B vaccine. The safety data obtained here warrant further investigation of SBP as a vaccine adjuvant.
- HBXIP, a binding protein of HBx, regulates maintenance of the G2/M phase checkpoint induced by DNA Damage and enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Cycle 2017 Jan 19; :0
- To maintain the integrity of the genome, cells need to detect and repair DNA damage before they complete cell division. Hepatitis B x-interacting protein (HBXIP), a binding protein of HBx (Hepatitis ...
To maintain the integrity of the genome, cells need to detect and repair DNA damage before they complete cell division. Hepatitis B x-interacting protein (HBXIP), a binding protein of HBx (Hepatitis B virus x protein), is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancer cells and show to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. The present study is designed to investigate the role of HBXIP on the DNA damage response. Our results show that HBXIP acts as an important regulator of G2/M checkpoint in response to DNA damage. HBXIP knockdown increases phospho-histone H2AX expression and foci formation after treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). HBXIP regulates the ATM-Chk2 pathway following DNA damage. Depletion of HBXIP abrogates IR-induced G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, accompanying decrease the expression of phospho-Cdc25C, phospho-Cdc2 (Tyr15) and p27. We also show that down-regulation of HBXIP expression sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy, as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Our data suggest that HBXIP can function as a mediator protein for DNA damage response signals to activate the G2/M checkpoint in order to maintain genome integrity and prevent cell death.
- A Community-Based Randomized Trial of Hepatitis B Screening Among High-Risk Vietnamese Americans. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Public Health 2017 Jan 19; :e1-e8
- CONCLUSIONS: A community-based, culturally appropriate, multilevel HBV screening intervention effectively increases screening rates in a high-risk, hard-to-reach Vietnamese American population. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 19, 2017: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303600).
- Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes the stem-like properties of OV6(+) cancer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2017 Jan 19; 8(1):e2560
- Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx con...
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have both been implicated in the occurrence and development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBx contributes to the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC remains elusive. In this study, we showed that the concomitant expression of HBx and OV6 was closely associated with the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. HBx was required for the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs, including self-renewal, stem cell-associated gene expression, tumorigenicity and chemoresistance. Mechanistically, HBx enhanced expression of MDM2 by directly binding with MDM2 and inhibiting its ubiquitin-directed self-degradation. MDM2 translocation into the nucleus was also upregulated by HBx and resulted in enhanced transcriptional activity and expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 independent of p53. This change in expression activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and promoted the stem-like properties of OV6(+) liver CSCs. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of any two indicators from the HBx/MDM2/CXCR4/OV6 axis in HCC biopsies could predict the prognosis of patients with HBV-related HCC. Taken together, our findings indicate the functional role of HBx in regulating the stem-like properties of OV6(+) CSCs in HCC through the MDM2/CXCL12/CXCR4/β-catenin signaling axis, and identify HBx, MDM2, CXCR4 and OV6 as a novel prognostic pathway and potential therapeutic targets for patients with HBV-related HCC patients.
- Thimerosal exposure and disturbance of emotions specific to childhood and adolescence: A case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. [Journal Article]
- BIBrain Inj 2017 Jan 19; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: The results show a significant relationship between Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ED diagnosis.
- Farnesoid X receptor ablation sensitizes mice to hepatitis b virus X protein-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. [Journal Article]
- HepHepatology 2016 Nov 05
- CONCLUSIONS: We propose that transactivation of FXR by full-length HBx may represent a protective mechanism to inhibit HCC and that this inhibition may be compromised upon the appearance of C-terminally truncated HBx or when the expression and/or activity of FXR is decreased. (Hepatology 2017).
- Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016; 2016:1910292
- Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, te...
Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.
- Unusual Presentation of Tuberculous Thyroid Abscess in a Background of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in a Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Surg 2016; 2016:5295236
- Tuberculosis of thyroid gland is a very rare disease. It has variable presentations and may be sometimes associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We report a case of 45-year-old male, with left sided ...
Tuberculosis of thyroid gland is a very rare disease. It has variable presentations and may be sometimes associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We report a case of 45-year-old male, with left sided painless neck swelling, with a purulent discharging sinus over it associated with night sweats and loss of appetite. Thyroid imaging disclosed heterogeneous enhancement of left lobe of thyroid gland with internal vascularity and coarse calcifications. Core needle biopsy revealed caseous necrosis and AFB positivity. Patient had thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody positivity and the rest of thyroid function tests were normal. Patient had positive Mantoux test, hepatitis B surface Ag, and low viral DNA. The patient was diagnosed as being a case of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland and was put on antitubercular therapy for 2 months. Patient subsequently underwent left hemithyroidectomy when there was no response. Histopathological examination revealed tuberculosis of thyroid gland. A final diagnosis of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a chronic HBV carrier was made. Therefore, although rare tuberculosis of thyroid should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling.
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- Treatment of synchronous adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach: A case report. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Clin Oncol 2016; 5(6):783-785
- Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The majority of gastric cancers are diagnosed at an advanced or metastatic stage, with a 5-year survival rate of ~5-...
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The majority of gastric cancers are diagnosed at an advanced or metastatic stage, with a 5-year survival rate of ~5-20% and a median overall survival of <1 year. Synchronous occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma is rare, and thus far there is no consensus regarding their management. We herein describe a case of synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and the treatment strategy. A literature review with the most up-to-date treatment options and their application in similar situations was also performed.