- [Acute liver failure as presentation of adult T-cell leukemia in an HTLV-1 patient]. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Peru 2018 Jan-Mar; 38(1):85-88
- Acute liver failure is the development of severe hepatic injury with deterioration of liver synthesis function and encephalopathy. Among all the variety of causes, neoplastic infiltration represents ...
Acute liver failure is the development of severe hepatic injury with deterioration of liver synthesis function and encephalopathy. Among all the variety of causes, neoplastic infiltration represents less than 0.5%. We present the case of a male patient with a past medical history of HTLV-1 infection, who reports symptoms of acute hepatitis, being diagnosed with Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Unfortunately, the patient had a rapid deterioration and passed away a few days after admission.
- Prevalence of non A to E hepatitis in Mumbai, India. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Peru 2018 Jan-Mar; 38(1):49-53
- CONCLUSIONS: Non A-E hepatitis patients tends to be older, lower SEC class and had lower albumin levels as compared to hepatitis A/E.
- Licorice root extract and magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate protect against triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity via up-regulation of the Nrf2 pathway. [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Deliv 2018; 25(1):1213-1223
- Triptolide, the predominant biologically active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., possesses numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-fertilit...
Triptolide, the predominant biologically active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., possesses numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-fertility, anti-neoplastic, and immunosuppressive effects. However, toxicity and severe adverse effects, particularly hepatotoxicity, limit the clinical application of triptolide. Licorice root extract contains various bioactive compounds and is potent hepatoprotective. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate, a magnesium salt of the 18α-glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer of glycyrrhizic acid, is used clinically in China to treat chronic viral hepatitis and acute drug-induced liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the protective effects of LE and MIG against triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity models were established in L-02 cells and rats using triptolide, and the protective effects of LE and MIG were investigated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. LE and MIG significantly protected against triptolide-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, triptolide decreased the mRNA and protein levels of Nrf2 and down-regulated Nrf2 target genes, including UGT1A, BSEP, and MRP2, while pretreatment with LE and MIG reversed these effects. Finally, Nrf2-involved antioxidant responses were activated in the presence of LE and MIG.
- Successful Management of De Novo Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection With Entecavir in a Living-Donor Liver Transplant Patient. [Journal Article]
- ECExp Clin Transplant 2018 May 23
- The risk of de novo hepatitis B virus infection is lower after liver transplant using hepatitis B core antibody-negative donors into negative recipients versus hepatitis B core antibody-positive dono...
The risk of de novo hepatitis B virus infection is lower after liver transplant using hepatitis B core antibody-negative donors into negative recipients versus hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors but can occur. Here, we present a 34-year-old male patient with acute de novo hepatitis B virus that developed 7 months after successful liver transplant. The case we report here is the first in the literature with regard to both switch from tenofovir to entecavir treatment and the presentation of de novo acute hepatitis B virus after liver transplant. The switch in treatment protocol resulted in significant improvements in serologic and biochemical levels, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on day 35 after admittance.
- Chemsex and new HIV diagnosis in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics. [Journal Article]
- HMHIV Med 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Chemsex disclosure in sexual health settings is associated with higher rates of STI diagnoses, including HIV infection and hepatitis C. GBMSM attending sexual health services should therefore be assessed for chemsex participation and disclosure should prompt health promotion, harm minimization and wellbeing interventions.
- Hepatitis E virus in South America: the current scenario. [Journal Article]
- LILiver Int 2018 May 22
- Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission worldwide. In South America the overall epidemiology has been little studied, and the burde...
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission worldwide. In South America the overall epidemiology has been little studied, and the burden of the disease remains largely unknown. A research of all scientific articles about HEV circulation in South America until November 2017 was carried out. Human seroprevalences of HEV varied according to the studied population: blood donors presented prevalence rates ranging from 1.8 to 9.8%, while reports from HIV-infected individuals, transplant recipients and patients on hemodialysis showed higher prevalence rates. Only two cases of chronic hepatitis in solid-organ transplant patients from Argentina and Brazil have been described. Detection of HEV in the swine population is widely prevalent in the region. Anti-HEV antibodies have also been detected in other animal species; among them, antibody detection was recently documented in wild boars from Uruguay. Although scarce, studies focused on environmental and food HEV detection have shown viral presence in these kind of samples, highlighting possible transmission sources of HEV in the continent. HEV genotype 3 was the most frequently detected in the region, with HEV genotype 1 detected only in Venezuela and Uruguay. HEV is widely distributed throughout South America, producing sporadic cases of acute hepatitis, but as a possible agent of chronic hepatitis. Finding the virus in humans, animals, environmental samples and food, show that it can be transmitted through many sources, alerting local governments and health systems to improve diagnosis and for the implementation of preventive measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Persistently Increased Resting Energy Expenditure Predicts Short-Term Mortality in Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn Nutr Metab 2018 May 22; 73(1):2-9
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that persistent hypermetabolism is predictive of short-term mortality in this small population.
- Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of the total flavonoids from Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et kit. in vitro and in vivo. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 May 19; 104:390-403
- Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. is traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice urinary retention, itching wet sores, infectious icteric hepatitis and influenza in Uighur medicine. This study ...
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. is traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice urinary retention, itching wet sores, infectious icteric hepatitis and influenza in Uighur medicine. This study aimed to further illuminate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of the total flavonoids (ASTF) from Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. In vitro, RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with ASTF 1 h before stimulation with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. Then, the concentrations of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 in the medium were determined. Intracellular oxidative stress was detected using DCFH-DA. Immunofluorescent analysis, western blot and qRT-PCR were carried out to illuminate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of ASTF. In vivo, mice were given an intragastric administration of ASTF 1 h before an intranasal administration of LPS. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to measure the number of total cells, macrophage and neutrophils. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF were quantified by ELISA kits. Lung specimens were isolated for histopathological examinations and lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio. We found that ASTF significantly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. ASTF can obviously inhibit the degredation of IκBa and inhibit the nucleus translocations of p-NF-κB p65, p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. ASTF also markedly decreased the protein and mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. When pretreated with ASTF, alveolar hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration, as well as pulmonary histopathologic changes, were substantially suppressed in lung tissues in the murine acute lung injury model. The lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio was strongly decreased. These results suggested that ASTF showed important anti-inflammatory activity and might provide protective effects against LPS-induced ALI. The anti-inflammatory effect of ASTF might attribute to its suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway.
- Severe acute hepatitis after thymoglobulin induction before islet transplantation. [Letter]
- TTherapie 2018 May 03
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- CTLA‑4 interferes with the HBV‑specific T cell immune response (Review). [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Med 2018 May 17
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute he...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of hepatic inflammation. Successful HBV clearance in patients is associated with sustained viral control by effector T cells. Compared with acute hepatitis B, chronic HBV infection is associated with the depletion of T cells, resulting in weak or absent virus‑specific T cells reactivity, which is described as 'exhaustion'. This exhaustion is characterized by impaired cytokine production and sustained expression of multiple coinhibitory molecules. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte‑associated antigen‑4 (CTLA‑4) is one of many coinhibitory molecules that can attenuate T cell activation by inhibiting costimulation and transmitting inhibitory signals to T cells. Persistent HBV infection results in the upregulation of CTLA‑4 on hepatic CD8+ T cells. This prompts CD8+ T cell apoptosis, and the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes is blocked. Similar to CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T helper (Th) cell proliferation is hindered following CTLA‑4 upregulation. In addition, the differentiation of CD4+ Th is polarized toward the Th2/peripherally‑inducible T regulatory cell types, increasing the levels of anti‑inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the activation of proinflammatory cells (Th1 and follicular helper T) is blocked, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines decline. This review summarizes the current literature relevant to T cell exhaustion in patients with HBV‑related chronic hepatitis, and discusses the roles of CTLA‑4 in T cell exhaustion.