- Viral Hepatitis and a Hospital Infrastructure in Ruins in Cameroon. [Journal Article]
- MAMed Anthropol 2018 Nov 14; :1-14
- Ethnographic material dealing with the contemporary viral hepatitis B and C epidemics in Cameroon provide a window onto the acute constraints and shortcomings of hospital care for patients, families,...
Ethnographic material dealing with the contemporary viral hepatitis B and C epidemics in Cameroon provide a window onto the acute constraints and shortcomings of hospital care for patients, families, and health care workers. Although viral hepatitis has long been an invisible epidemic in international and global public health regimes, in Cameroon, it is diagnosed, made visible, and felt as a financially daunting and feared disease. Building on Ann Stoler's framework of imperial ruins, I consider hepatitis as an iatrogenic disease, emerging from scarce and unsound hospital infrastructures, such as blood transfusion techniques, as well as colonial public health vaccination practices. Such hospital technologies continue to produce anxieties, risk and excessive health expenses and hence cast their shadows on the future.
- Low occurrence of Hepatitis A virus in water samples from an urban area of Southern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RIRev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018 Nov 08; 60:e69
- Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of Picornaviridae family, is the main causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in the world, mainly in developing countries. HAV may be present in contaminated water...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a member of Picornaviridae family, is the main causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in the world, mainly in developing countries. HAV may be present in contaminated water and food and its presence is often associated to a lesser extent with socioeconomic factors and environmental quality. The main goals in the present study were to standardize a cell culture combined to a polymerase chain reaction protocol for the detection and quantification of viral viability and analyze whether the virus could be found in water samples collected in four urban streams of Sinos River watershed. Virus recovery was assayed from known virus concentrations measured in experimentally contaminated raw and ultrapure water (MilliQ®). Recovery rates ranged from 270% in raw water to 15,000% in ultrapure water. In a second step, a qPCR coupled to a previous passage in cells, demonstrated more analytical sensitivity when compared to samples assayed without a previous passage in cell cultures. HAV genome was detected in only 1 of 84 samples analyzed, pointing to a very low occurrence of HAV in water samples in the studied region. These findings are remarkable, since no more than 5% of the domestic sewage in this area is treated pointing to a low occurrence of HAV in the population living nearby during the study period.
- Hepatitis E virus infection after haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: incidence and clinical course. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Haematol 2018 Nov 13
- Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly found to cause hepatitis in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. However, little is known about HEV infection in patients recei...
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly found to cause hepatitis in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. However, little is known about HEV infection in patients receiving haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT). Here, we retrospectively evaluate the incidence and clinical course of HEV infection in haplo-HSCT patients. From January 2014 to July 2017, 177 patients with unexplained elevated transaminases after receiving haplo-HSCT at Peking University Institute of Haematology were screened for HEV using HEV serology. HEV RNA was assessed in blood samples when HEV-IgG and/or IgM antibodies were positive. Acute HEV infection was identified in 7 patients (3·9%), 1 of whom had developed a chronic HEV infection. The median time from haplo-HSCT to HEV infection was 17·5 (range, 6-55) months. HEV infection was confirmed by the presentation of anti-HEV IgM + anti-HEV IgG (rising) (n = 5) or HEV-RNA + anti-HEV IgM + anti-HEV IgG (n = 2). None of the patients died of HEV infection directly: 2 patients with HEV infection died showing signs of ongoing hepatitis, and 5 patients cleared HEV with a median duration of HEV infection of 1·5 (range, 1·0-5·7) months. In conclusion, HEV infection is a rare but serious complication after haplo-HSCT. We recommend screening of HEV in haplo-HSCT.
- MAT cross-reactions or vaccine cross-protection: retrospective study of 863 leptospirosis canine cases. [Journal Article]
- HHeliyon 2018; 4(11):e00869
- CONCLUSIONS: Common vaccination was efficient in decreasing hepatitis and kidney failure induced by field Leptospira spp infection regardless of the MAT-prominent serogroup and limited the disease severity in the remaining cases.
- Senolytic Cocktail Dasatinib+Quercetin (D+Q) Does Not Enhance the Efficacy of Senescence-Inducing Chemotherapy in Liver Cancer. [Journal Article]
- FOFront Oncol 2018; 8:459
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, which develops in the context of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic inflammation, in turn due to non-alcoholic fatty l...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death, which develops in the context of fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by chronic inflammation, in turn due to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol consumption and/or hepatitis viral infection. An increased number of senescent cells are associated with age-related tissue degeneration during NAFLD-induced HCC, or during chemotherapeutic treatment. Senolytic agents target selectively senescent cells. A combination of the senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin (D+Q) reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and alleviated age-associated physical dysfunction in mice. However, whether D+Q can impact the treatment of HCC, at the end-stage of the NAFLD inflammatory spectrum, is unknown. Here, using two well-established HCC cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7), we demonstrate that the maximal cytostatic doses for D and/or Q (1 + 1 μM) lacked efficacy in removing doxorubicin-induced β-gal-positive senescent cells. Moreover, D+Q did not affect doxorubicin-dependent induction of flattened morphology, activation of p16, expression of SASP-associated genes or formation of γH2AX foci. We then investigated the antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin, D+Q, or the combination, in xenograft studies conducted with HCC cells inoculated in athymic nude mice. Doxorubicin reduced tumor growth by 30% compared to control mice, while D+Q was ineffective in synergizing with doxorubicin and in clearing doxorubicin-induced HCC senescent cells. Unexpectedly, D+Q alone appeared to have acute pro-tumorigenic effects in control mice. While our data need to be confirmed in animal models that fully recapitulate NAFLD, we demonstrate that these compounds are ineffective, alone or in synergy with senescence-inducing chemotherapy, against experimental HCC.
- Liver Cholestasis Secondary to Syphilis in an Immunocompetent Patient. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Reports Hepatol 2018; 2018:8645068
- Liver involvement is a known feature of secondary syphilis. The prevalence of hepatitis in secondary syphilis ranges broadly from 1 to 50%. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with type 1 diabetes ...
Liver involvement is a known feature of secondary syphilis. The prevalence of hepatitis in secondary syphilis ranges broadly from 1 to 50%. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus and sickle cell trait presenting with jaundice and acute liver cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed mild hepatic fatty infiltration. RPR and Treponema pallidum IgG results were positive with a reflex titer of 1:64. Liver biopsy revealed chronic hepatitis with normal hepatic architecture, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, hepatic cholestasis, and ductal proliferation suggestive of syphilitic hepatitis.
- Characterization of rhinovirus C from a 4-year-old boy with acute onset dilated cardiomyopathy in Jakarta, Indonesia. [Journal Article]
- JCJMM Case Rep 2018; 5(9):e005139
- CONCLUSIONS: We report the possible association of rhinovirus C and myocarditis in a child presenting with acute onset of dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Perforated emphysematous cholecystitis and Streptococcus bovis. [Journal Article]
- RERev Esp Enferm Dig 2018 Nov 13; 111
- Streptococcus bovis is an uncommon cause of biliary tract infection, being acute cholecystitis including this microorganism extremely rare. This entity is more frequent in older patients with cardiov...
Streptococcus bovis is an uncommon cause of biliary tract infection, being acute cholecystitis including this microorganism extremely rare. This entity is more frequent in older patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hepatitis, or neoplasms as colon cancer.
- Role of humoral immunity against hepatitis B virus core antigen in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Nov 12
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome leading to death or liver transplantation in 80% of cases. Due to the extremely rapid clinical course, the...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome leading to death or liver transplantation in 80% of cases. Due to the extremely rapid clinical course, the difficulties in obtaining liver specimens, and the lack of an animal model, the pathogenesis of ALF remains largely unknown. Here, we performed a comprehensive genetic and functional characterization of the virus and the host in liver tissue from HBV-associated ALF and compared the results with those of classic acute hepatitis B in chimpanzees. In contrast with acute hepatitis B, HBV strains detected in ALF livers displayed highly mutated HBV core antigen (HBcAg), associated with increased HBcAg expression ex vivo, which was independent of viral replication levels. Combined gene and miRNA expression profiling revealed a dominant B cell disease signature, with extensive intrahepatic production of IgM and IgG in germline configuration exclusively targeting HBcAg with subnanomolar affinities, and complement deposition. Thus, HBV ALF appears to be an anomalous T cell-independent, HBV core-driven B cell disease, which results from the rare and unfortunate encounter between a host with an unusual B cell response and an infecting virus with a highly mutated core antigen.
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- Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 levels in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases. [Journal Article]
- BIBMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 12; 18(1):553
- CONCLUSIONS: sFGL2 levels are induced by HBV infection and correlated with the progression and clinical outcome of HBV-related liver diseases. Thus, sFGL2 may serve as a potential indicator for HBV-related liver diseases.