- Changes in conventional cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated 10-year risk of acute myocardial infarction or cerebral stroke in Sami and non-Sami populations in two population-based cross-sectional surveys: the SAMINOR Study. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2019 Jul 19; 9(7):e028939
- CONCLUSIONS: Independent of ethnicity, there was a decline in mean cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking, hypertension (women only) and 10-year risk of AMI or CS, but waist circumference increased. Relatively minor ethnic differences were found in changes of cardiovascular risk factors.
- Combined exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic and kidney health in adolescents age 12-19 in NHANES 2009-2014. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jul 18; 131:104993
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest metals including As, Pb, Hg, Cd and their combinations may affect renal parameters, although potential reverse causation cannot be ruled out due to the cross-sectional study design. Implications of early life low-level exposure to multiple metals on kidney function may have far-reaching consequences later in life in the development of hypertension, kidney disease, and renal dysfunction. Longitudinal studies should further evaluate these relationships.
- Amido-functionalized carboxymethyl chitosan/montmorillonite composite for highly efficient and cost-effective mercury removal from aqueous solution. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Jul 13; 554:479-487
- The efficient and cost-effective removal of mercury (Hg) from water is highly desired. A biopolymer/clay composite adsorbent was developed by introducing montmorillonite modified with sulfhydryl into…
The efficient and cost-effective removal of mercury (Hg) from water is highly desired. A biopolymer/clay composite adsorbent was developed by introducing montmorillonite modified with sulfhydryl into a hyperbranched polyethylenimine functionalized carboxymethyl chitosan matrix (HPFC/MT-S), which proves to be a superior alternative for the removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The developed adsorbent exhibits excellent adsorption capacity of 1875 mg/g, representing the highest value among the reported polymer/clay composite adsorbents so far, and the concentration of Hg(II) ions was found to decrease from 1000 mg/L to 0.031 mg/L after adsorption by HPFC/28%MT-S, satisfying China's industrial wastewater emission standards. In addition, the selectivity of the composite for Hg(II) was further improved by the introduction of MT-S, yielding a high distribution coefficient value (Kd = 1.0 × 107). The adsorption capacity of HPFC/MT-S for Hg(II) is not equal to the simple sum of each component in the composite system but higher than that. The improved adsorption performance is mainly contributed to the increased porosities and chelation sites of the adsorbent. The present work suggests the great potential of polymer/clay composite materials in environmental remediation.
- Reprotoxicity of glyphosate-based formulation in Caenorhabditis elegans is not due to the active ingredient only. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jun 27; 252(Pt B):1854-1862
- Pesticides guarantee us high productivity in agriculture, but the long-term costs have proved too high. Acute and chronic intoxication of humans and animals, contamination of soil, water and food are…
Pesticides guarantee us high productivity in agriculture, but the long-term costs have proved too high. Acute and chronic intoxication of humans and animals, contamination of soil, water and food are the consequences of the current demand and sales of these products. In addition, pesticides such as glyphosate are sold in commercial formulations which have inert ingredients, substances with unknown composition and proportion. Facing this scenario, toxicological studies that investigate the interaction between the active principle and the inert ingredients are necessary. The following work proposed comparative toxicology studies between glyphosate and its commercial formulation using the alternative model Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms were exposed to different concentrations of the active ingredient (glyphosate in monoisopropylamine salt) and its commercial formulation. Reproductive capacity was evaluated through brood size, morphological analysis of oocytes and through the MD701 strain (bcIs39), which allows the visualization of germ cells in apoptosis. In addition, the metal composition in the commercial formulation was analyzed by ICP-MS. Only the commercial formulation of glyphosate showed significant negative effects on brood size, body length, oocyte size, and the number of apoptotic cells. Metal analysis showed the presence of Hg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the commercial formulation, which did not cause reprotoxicity at the concentrations found. However, metals can bioaccumulate in soil and water and cause environmental impacts. Finally, we demonstrated that the addition of inert ingredients increased the toxic profile of the active ingredient glyphosate in C. elegans, which reinforces the need of components description in the product labels.
- Results from the United States cohort of the HORIZON trial of a Schlemm canal microstent to reduce intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cataract Refract Surg 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of a Schlemm canal microstent after phacoemulsification significantly reduced diurnal IOP and medication use compared with phacoemulsification only in patients with mild to moderately severe POAG. The combination procedure was equivalent to cataract surgery alone in terms of visual acuity outcomes and the rate of adverse ocular events.
- Kinetic characteristics and predictive models of methylmercury production in paddy soils. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jul 10; 253:424-428
- Understanding the mercury (Hg) methylation process is important for the management of paddy soils contaminated by Hg. In this work, samples of eighteen paddy soils with varying soil properties were s…
Understanding the mercury (Hg) methylation process is important for the management of paddy soils contaminated by Hg. In this work, samples of eighteen paddy soils with varying soil properties were spiked with inorganic Hg and subjected to a 90 d flooding period. Soil pH and redox potential (Eh) were measured in situ at intervals, and soils were sampled for the analysis of methylmercury (MeHg). The Hg methylation efficiency increased with flooding time and reached a relatively steady state at 30 d of incubation, ranging from 0.08% to 2.52%, and was significantly correlated with the in situ soil pH and Eh. The Elovich equation could adequately describe the kinetic production of MeHg. MeHg production was well predicted by the in situ soil pH and Eh of flooded soils, in addition to the organic matter content of air-dried soil samples and flooding time. The two predictive models explained 78% and 68% of the variability of the Hg methylation efficiency. The results suggested that the methylation of inorganic Hg in paddy soils after flooding can be predicted as a function of routinely measured soil properties and flooding time, a correlation that can be utilized to improve understanding of the extent of Hg methylation and the management of Hg-contaminated paddy soils.
- Functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica/poly(m-aminothiophenol) nanocomposite for Hg(II) rapid uptake and high catalytic activity of spent Hg(II) adsorbent. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jul 11; 691:664-674
- Currently, magnetic mesoporous silica nanospheres have been employed widely as adsorbents due to their large surface area and easy recovery. Herein, the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica/orga…
Currently, magnetic mesoporous silica nanospheres have been employed widely as adsorbents due to their large surface area and easy recovery. Herein, the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica/organic polymers nanocomposite (MMSP) was fabricated by the grafted poly(m-aminothiophenol) embedded the aminated magnetic mesoporous silica nanocomposite based on Fe3O4 magnetic core, which was shelled by mesoporous silica and further modified by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane. The adsorption properties of as-developed MMSP were systematically explored by altering the experimental parameters. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity and removal percentage of the MMSP could reach 243.83 mg/g and 97.53% within only 10 min at pH 4.0, and the coexisting ions had no significant effect on the selective Hg(II) ions removal from aqueous solutions, meanwhile, the adsorbent recovered by a magnet still exhibited good adsorption performance after recycled 5 times. In addition, by analyzing experimental data, the adsorption process of Hg(II) ions belonged to spontaneous exothermic adsorption, and the possible adsorption mechanisms were proposed based on the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model. After adsorption study, the waste material adsorbed Hg(II) was developed as an efficient catalyst for transformation of phenylacetylene to acetophenone with yield of 97.06%. In this study, we designed an efficient and selective material for Hg(II) ions remove and provided a treatment of the post-adsorbed mercury adsorbent by converting the waste into an excellent catalyst, which reduced the economic and environmental impact from conventional adsorption techniques.
- Selenium decreases methylmercury and increases nutritional elements in rice growing in mercury-contaminated farmland. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jul 17; 182:109447
- Methylmercury (MeHg) in rice grains grown in Hg-contaminated areas has raised environmental health concerns. Pot experiments found that selenium (Se) could reduce MeHg levels in rice grains. However,…
Methylmercury (MeHg) in rice grains grown in Hg-contaminated areas has raised environmental health concerns. Pot experiments found that selenium (Se) could reduce MeHg levels in rice grains. However, relatively high levels of Se (up to 6 mg/kg) were applied in these pot experiments, which may have adverse effects on the soil ecology due to the toxicity of Se. The aims of this work were thus to study 1) the effect of low levels of Se on the accumulation and distribution of Hg, especially MeHg, in rice plants grown in a real Hg-contaminated paddy field and 2) the effect of Se treatment on Se and other nutritional elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn) in grains. A field study amended with different levels of Se was carried out in Hg-contaminated paddy soil in Qingzhen, Guizhou, China. The levels of MeHg and total Hg were studied using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution and relative quantification of elements in grains were examined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). This field study showed that low levels of Se (0.5 μg/mL, corresponding to 0.15 mg Se/kg soils) could significantly reduce total Hg and MeHg in rice tissues. Se treatment also reduced Hg distribution in the embryo and endosperm and increased the levels of Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in grains and especially embryos. This field study implied that treatment with an appropriate level of Se is an effective approach to not only decrease the level of MeHg but to also increase the levels of nutritional elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in rice grains, which could bring beneficial effects for rice-dependent residents living in Hg-contaminated areas.
- Formation of functionalized silica-based nanoparticles and their application for extraction and determination of Hg (II) ion in fish samples. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Jul 13; 300:125180
- An isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) chemically modified fumed silica, as a novel adsorbent, was designed for the preconcentration and determination of Hg (II) ions in fish samples via the solid pha…
An isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) chemically modified fumed silica, as a novel adsorbent, was designed for the preconcentration and determination of Hg (II) ions in fish samples via the solid phase extraction followed by the hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). In this work, the efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent was investigated to determine its ability for the extraction of the Hg (II) ions from the aqueous solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by optimizing of different experimental conditions, such as pH, sample volume, flow rate, adsorbent dosage, and eluent type. Under the optimal conditions, a linear calibration curve for the solid phase extraction method was obtained in the range of between 0.12 and 16.5 μg L-1. The obtained detection limit and preconcentration factor were 0.018 μg L-1 and 25, respectively (RSD > 3%). The proposed optimized method was successfully applied to fish samples.
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- A novel strategy to determine the compositions of inorganic elements in fruit wines using ICP-MS/MS. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Jul 12; 299:125172
- The composition of inorganic elements is a key factor in determining the quality of fruit wines. However, the use of direct sample injection is challenging for multi-elemental analysis of fruit wine …
The composition of inorganic elements is a key factor in determining the quality of fruit wines. However, the use of direct sample injection is challenging for multi-elemental analysis of fruit wine samples. In this paper, an analytical method using inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) was established for determining multiple elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in fruit wine. The fruit wine was diluted using ultrapure water and acidified with nitric acid before injecting into the ICP-MS/MS. Spectral interferences in the complex matrix composition of different fruit wine samples, in the MS/MS mode, were eliminated using mixed reaction gases of O2/H2 and NH3/He/H2 through the mass shift and on-mass methods. The limits of detection ranged from 0.41 to 58.1 ng L-1. This study demonstrates a new approach for multi-elemental analysis in fruit wine with great convenience and high accuracy.