- Amyloidogenesis Induced by Diet Cholesterol and Copper in a Model Mouse for Alzheimer's Disease and Protection Effects of Zinc and Fluvastatin. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res Bull 2018 Sep 15
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the severe chronic diseases characterized with amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and formation of senile-plaque (SP) like structures. Numerous risk factors including tr...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the severe chronic diseases characterized with amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation and formation of senile-plaque (SP) like structures. Numerous risk factors including trace metals and cholesterol in diet have been identified as potential players for the onset of Aβ aggregation. To further illustrate the effects of copper and cholesterol in AD pathology, we employed an AD model mouse strain (Tg2567) and examined the histological and biochemical changes in the mouse brains and blood. When supplied with 0.1 mg/L copper in drinking water and 2% cholesterol in the food, the mice showed significant deposit of amyloid beta (Aβ) and SP plaque formation in hippocampus and temporal cortex regions in their brains. These mice also showed elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased ceruloplasmin (CP) concentration, and reduced glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) activity in the blood. The physiological function tests indicated these mice were significantly impeded on learning and memory. We further examined the counteracting effects of 0.1 mg/L zinc and 1.0 mg/L fluvastatin (Cholesterol-lowering drug). The combination of zinc and fluvastatin effectively reversed the copper/cholesterol caused memory loss, anatomic amyloid deposits and the biochemical changes in the blood. This work provides more evidence of high-level cholesterol and copper as risk factors to trigger amyloid aggregation and mental dementia; zinc and reduction of food cholesterol levels can protect the animals from amyloid accumulation and learning impairment. The beneficial outcomes of zinc and fluvastatin could hint some potential usages in preventive measures for high-risk AD individuals, but further rigorous test are needed.
- Trends in active transportation and associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors among U.S. adults, 2007-2016. [Journal Article]
- PMPrev Med 2018 Sep 15
- Active transportation (AT), or walking or bicycling for transportation, represents one way individuals can achieve recommended physical activity (PA) levels. This study describes AT prevalence and te...
Active transportation (AT), or walking or bicycling for transportation, represents one way individuals can achieve recommended physical activity (PA) levels. This study describes AT prevalence and temporal trends, and examines associations between AT levels and measured CVD risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density [HDL] cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity) among U.S. adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016 data (analyzed in 2017) were used to conduct overall trend analyses of reported AT in a typical week [none (0-9 min/week); low (10-149 min/week); or high (≥150 min/week)]. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between AT level and each CVD risk factor from NHANES 2011-2016 (n = 13,943). Covariates included age, sex, race/Hispanic origin, education, income, smoking, survey cycle, non-transportation PA, and urbanization level. U.S. adults who engaged in high AT levels increased from 13.1% in 2007-2008 to 17.9% in 2011-2012, and then decreased to 10.6% in 2015-2016 (p for quadratic trend = 0.004). Over the same period, the quadratic trend for low AT was not significant. During 2011-2016, 14.3% of adults engaged in high AT, 11.4% in low AT, and 74.4% in no AT. High AT levels were associated with decreased odds of each CVD risk factor assessed, compared to no AT. Low AT (versus no AT) was associated with decreased odds of hypertension (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.64, 0.91) and diabetes (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54, 0.85). AT prevalence among adults has fluctuated from 2007 to 2016. Despite favorable associations between AT and CVD risk factors, most U.S. adults do not engage in any AT.
- Botryosphaeran reduces obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese rats. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci 2018 Sep 15
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that botryosphaeran was effective in reducing obesity, hepatic steatosis, dyslipidaemia insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese rats, and these effects were, at least in part, associated with reduced feed intake, and AMPK and FOXO3a activities.
- Cardiovascular Risk in Xavante Indigenous Population. [Journal Article]
- ABArq Bras Cardiol 2018; 110(6):542-550
- CONCLUSIONS: The Xavante have a high cardiovascular risk according to several indicators evaluated. The present analysis of cardiovascular risk factors provides support for the development of preventive measures and early treatment, in attempt to minimize the impact of cardiovascular diseases on this population.
- Investigating potential mediator between statin and coronary artery calcification. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203702
- Statins are mainstay anti-lipidaemic treatments for preventing cardiovascular diseases but also known to increase coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, underlying relationship between statin ...
Statins are mainstay anti-lipidaemic treatments for preventing cardiovascular diseases but also known to increase coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, underlying relationship between statin and CAC is still unclear. This study explored the mediating role of five statin-related biochemical factors [i.e., low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels]. Seoul Metabolic Syndrome cohort study includes 1370 participants suspected of metabolic syndrome. For causal mediation analysis, the dataset for 2016 including 847 participants with coronary computed tomography without any missing value were analysed using the Mediation package in R software. This study identified a causal mediation mechanism of HDL-cholesterol among the five biochemical factors. It implied that statin treatment increases the HDL-cholesterol level, leading to decreasing the probability of CAC score > 0. Estimated values of interest in HDL-cholesterol mediation were (1) average causal mediation effect, -0.011 with 95% CI [-0.025, -0.003], (2) average direct effect, 0.143 with 95% CI [0.074, 0.219], and total effect, 0.132 with 95% CI [0.063, 0.209]. Its mediation effect was maintained regardless of statin intensity. Sensitivity analysis also provided a robustness of the results under potential existence of a confounder between HDL-cholesterol and CAC. This study suggests a potential causal pathway between statin and CAC (the positive association of statin on CAC) through HDL-cholesterol as an inhibitor.
- Tetrahydropalmatine Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus Auratus). [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2018 Sep 18; 24:6564-6572
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that THP attenuates hyperlipidemia by multiple effects, including hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, THP also suppressed the expressions of TLR4 and TRAF-6 in golden hamsters.
- [La educación multimedia como apoyo en el manejo de pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Estudio cuasi experimental]. [Journal Article]
- CCCir Cir 2018; 86(5):404-411
- CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a multimedia information system improves HDL-c and triglycerides in patients with diabetes. There is a need for a continuous reinforcement of the educative intervention by health professionals to improve glycemic and other indicators in metabolic control.
- Lack of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of evolocumab between Caucasian and Asian populations. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The TMDD model successfully described the PK and PD characteristics of evolocumab, and this analysis found no significant differences in the PK/PD relationship for its LDL-C lowering effects between Caucasians and Asians.
- Increased Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Diabetes and High vs. Normal Triglycerides Despite Statin-Controlled LDL Cholesterol. [Journal Article]
- DODiabetes Obes Metab 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite statin-controlled LDL-C levels, CV events were greater among patients with diabetes and high TG levels. Because we controlled for cardiometabolic risk factors, it is likely that the difference in TG levels contributed to the excess risk observed in patients with high TGs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Effects of resveratrol on regulation on UCP2 and cardiac function in diabetic rats. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol Biochem 2018 Sep 17
- Mitochondrial dysfunction is essential in the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Resveratrol (RES) is thought as a mitochondrial protector. In this study, we hypothesized tha...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is essential in the development and prognosis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Resveratrol (RES) is thought as a mitochondrial protector. In this study, we hypothesized that RES may ameliorate mitochondrial function and consequently improve cardiac function in diabetic rats, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was involved in the protective effects of RES on DCM. Thirty rats were divided into three groups: normal control, DCM, and DCM+RES groups. DCM was induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection, the rats in DCM+RES group received RES gavage for 16 weeks. RES improved the insulin resistance, and reduced the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) in DCM rats (all P < 0.05). Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed that RES treatment reversed the impaired diastolic and systolic cardiac function in DCM rats. Meanwhile, RES improved myocardial structural disorder and fibrosis, reserved mitochondrial membrane potential level (P < 0.05), and suppressed myocardial apoptosis in DCM rats (P < 0.05). Myocardial mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities were improved by RES treatment in DCM rats (P < 0.05), accompanied with attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (P < 0.05). The expression of UCP2 was further increased by RES treatment both in the myocardium of DCM rats (P < 0.05) and in the H9c2 cardiomyocytes incubated with high-glucose (P < 0.05). The protective effects of RES on high glucose-induced ROS generation, MPTP opening, Cyto c release, and cell apoptosis were all blunted by inhibiting the expression of UCP2 (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, RES treatment improved cardiac function and inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, involving in ameliorating mitochondrial function in diabetic rats. UCP2 mediated the protective effects of RES on diabetic hearts.