- Do not fear the Framingham: Practical application to properly evaluate and modify cardiovascular risk in commercial divers. [Journal Article]
- UHUndersea Hyperb Med 2018 Jan-Feb; 45(1):75-82
- In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Ri...
In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). For those at elevated risk, further testing is recommended. This approach has raised concerns about potential operational and financial impacts. However, the prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk and need for additional testing among commercial divers is not known.
- Folic acid delays development of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Mol Med 2018 Mar 23
- Many studies support the cardioprotective effects of folic acid (FA). We aimed to evaluate the utility of FA supplementation in preventing the development of atherosclerotic in low-density lipoprotei...
Many studies support the cardioprotective effects of folic acid (FA). We aimed to evaluate the utility of FA supplementation in preventing the development of atherosclerotic in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and to elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect. LDLR-/- mice were randomly distributed into four groups: control group, HF group, HF + FA group and the HF + RAPA group. vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were divided into the following four groups: control group, PDGF group, PDGF + FA group and PDGF + FA + RAPA group. Blood lipid levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Atherosclerosis severity was evaluated with oil red O staining. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess atherosclerosis progression. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antismooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) antibodies and anti-osteopontin (OPN) antibodies that demonstrate VSMC dedifferentiation. The protein expression of α-SMA, OPN and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K signalling was detected by Western blot analysis. FA and rapamycin reduced serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL, inhibiting oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. Oil red O and H&E staining demonstrated that FA and rapamycin inhibited atherosclerosis. FA and rapamycin treatment inhibited VSMC dedifferentiation in vitro and in vivo, and FA and rapamycin attenuated the mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway. Our findings suggest that FA attenuates atherosclerosis development and inhibits VSMC dedifferentiation in high-fat-fed LDLR-/- mice by reduced lipid levels and inhibiting oxidative stress and the inflammatory response through mTOR/p70S6K signalling pathway.
- Frailty and Comorbidities Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Examination of a Hospital-Based Survivorship Cohort. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2018 Mar 23
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of frailty and comorbidities is high among AYA cancer survivors suggestive of accelerated aging.
- Efficacy of Exercise and Testosterone to Mitigate Atrophic Cardiovascular Remodeling. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Sports Exerc 2018 Mar 22
- CONCLUSIONS: An integrated approach with evaluation of cardiac morphology, mechanics, VO2peak, and biomarkers provides extensive phenotyping of cardiovascular atrophic remodeling. Exercise training and exercise training with low dose testosterone supplementation abrogates atrophic remodeling.
- CETP and LCAT Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Subclasses and Acute Coronary Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- LLipids 2018 Mar 23
- We evaluated whether CETP and LCAT gene polymorphisms are statistically associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size distribution, the cholesterol level of HDL subclasses, and the acute co...
We evaluated whether CETP and LCAT gene polymorphisms are statistically associated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size distribution, the cholesterol level of HDL subclasses, and the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) susceptibility. Two CETP gene polymorphisms (rs4783961 and rs708272) and one LCAT polymorphism (rs2292318) were genotyped by 5' exonuclease TaqMan assays in 619 patients with ACS and 607 control individuals. For HDL analysis, a subgroup of 100 healthy individuals was recruited; the HDL subclasses were separated via ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis under native conditions. Under a dominant model, the G allele of the rs708272 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ACS (odds ratios [OR] = 1.45, corrected p-value [pCDom] = 0.036). The linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that one of the eight possible combinations was associated with the risk of developing ACS (OR = 1.52, pC = 0.02), which suggests that it may contribute to coronary atherosclerosis. The rs708272 G allele carriers had a lower concentration of cholesterol associated with the HDL2a and HDL3a subclasses when compared with subjects carrying the A allele. Carriers of LCAT rs2292318 A allele showed a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in comparison to the GG genotype; the cholesterol associated with the each one of the five HDL subclasses was significantly lower in rs2292318 A than in GG subjects. In summary, this study demonstrates that the rs708272 polymorphism is associated with a heightened risk of developing ACS. In addition, we report the association of the rs708272 and rs2292318 polymorphisms with HDL-C levels and HDL subclasses.
- How does the risk of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular risk factor profiles differ between socioeconomic classes in Poland: A country in transition. [Journal Article]
- CJCardiol J 2018 Mar 23
- CONCLUSIONS: SES is an independent predictor of high cardiovascular (CV) risk of death. A favorable impact on the prevalence of high CV risk was demonstrated for education and partly for income in the whole group. It may reflect a transition being undergone in Poland, moreover, it predicts how socioeconomic factors may generate health inequalities in other transitioning countries.
- Xanthomatous Cells in Cutaneous Graft-Versus-Host Disease Biopsies: A Clue for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Graft-Versus-Host Disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018 Mar 21
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most common and serious complications of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation that mainly affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Hepati...
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the most common and serious complications of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation that mainly affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Hepatic GVHD is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and its diagnosis can be especially challenging because of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. It must be suspected in patients with elevated liver enzymes and cholestasis, especially in those with a history of preceding skin rash and diarrhea. We describe 3 patients with cutaneous and hepatic GVHD that presented with severe hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and no xanthomatous macular lesions, in which cutaneous biopsies revealed the presence of xanthomatous dermal histiocytes. We propose that the presence of these xanthomatous cells in skin biopsies from patients with cutaneous GVHD could be a dermatopathological clue for the diagnosis of hepatic GVHD.
- A Healthy Beverage Consumption Pattern Is Inversely Associated with the Risk of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities in Korean Adults. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Food 2018 Mar 23
- As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determin...
As the use of beverages in diets is increasing, several studies have examined the effect of beverage consumption in human health. Thus, we aimed at identifying specific beverage patterns and determining their associations with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in Korean adults. Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2012 data, 19,800 Korean adults (≥20 years) with a single 24-h dietary recall and health examination data were investigated. All beverage items consumed by participants were categorized into 15 beverage groups based on the KNHANES coding system. Three major beverage consumption patterns were identified according to factor analysis: (1) the "healthy beverage" (high intake of dairy products, 100% fruit/vegetable juices and low intake of alcoholic beverages); (2) the "sugar-sweetened beverage" (high intake of soda, sweetened coffee/tea, and fruit drink); and (3) the "unsweetened beverage" (high intake of unsweetened coffee) patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the odds of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and MetS (defined by National Cholesterol Education Program III [NCEP III]) for each beverage pattern after controlling for covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of the "healthy beverage" pattern with risks of obesity, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure (BP) were 0.88 (0.79-0.98), 0.83 (0.74-0.92), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.85 (0.79-0.98), and 0.81 (0.72-0.92), respectively. AORs (95% CIs) of associations of the "sugar-sweetened beverage" pattern with risks of abdominal obesity, elevated FBG and BP were 1.15 (1.03-1.30), 1.14 (1.01-1.29), and 1.18 (1.04-1.33), respectively. However, no associations were found between the "unsweetened beverage" pattern and any parameters examined. Intake of healthy beverages should be encouraged to reduce risks of obesity and metabolic abnormalities; however, individuals who consume sugar-sweetened beverages should be advised on the adverse effects of those beverages on the risk of obesity and MetS.
- Synergistic action of inflammation and lipid dysmetabolism on kidney damage in rats. [Journal Article]
- RFRen Fail 2018; 40(1):175-182
- In kidney disease, inflammation and lipid dysmetabolism are often associated together, however, the effect and mechanism of inflammatory mediators and lipid dysmetabolism on kidney damage is still un...
In kidney disease, inflammation and lipid dysmetabolism are often associated together, however, the effect and mechanism of inflammatory mediators and lipid dysmetabolism on kidney damage is still unclear. In this study, Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: normal diet + saline (Group N), high-fat diet (HF)+ saline (Group HF), normal diet + adriamycin (Group ADR), HF + adriamycin (Group ADR + HF). After 10 weeks of feeding, rats in each group were randomly sacrificed. We found that the protein content of urine in ADR and ADR + HF groups were significantly higher than that of group N and HF while the serum levels of total protein and albumin in the ADR and ADR + HF groups decreased correspondingly. The serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in the HF, ADR and ADR + HF groups increased. In the treatment groups, mesangial proliferation, matrix accumulation, tubular vacuolization, inflammatory cell infiltration and fat deposition were detected. These pathological changes were the most serious in the ADR + HF group. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were increased in each treatment group, especially in the ADR + HF group. Our results suggested that the inflammatory factors and abnormal lipid levels can activate the inflammatory response in kidney of the Wistar rats, and lead to a series of pathological changes in renal tissue, and inflammatory factors and lipid dysmetabolism can aggravate damage in the kidney.
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- Modeling of the weight status and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly individuals: The potential impact of the DsbA-L polymorphism on the weight status. [Journal Article]
- CPCPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2018 Mar 23
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity. Disulfide bond-forming oxidoreductase A-Like protein (DsbA-L) is known to be a key molecule in protection against obesity...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with obesity. Disulfide bond-forming oxidoreductase A-Like protein (DsbA-L) is known to be a key molecule in protection against obesity and obesity-induced inflammation. In the present study, we used a modeling and simulation approach in an attempt to develop body mass index (BMI) and BMI-based NAFLD prediction models incorporating the DsbA-L polymorphism to predict the BMI and NAFLD in 341 elderly subjects. A nonlinear mixed-effect model best represented the sigmoidal relationship between the BMI and the logit function of the probability of NAFLD prevalence. The final models for BMI and NAFLD showed that DsbA-L rs1917760 polymorphism, age and gender were associated with the BMI, whereas gender, patatin-like phospholipase 3 rs738409 polymorphism, HbA1c, and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were associated with the risk of NAFLD. This information may aid in the genetic-based prevention of obesity and NAFLD in the general elderly population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.