- Small RNAs to treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by gene therapy. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Virol 2019 May 18; 38:10-20
- Current drug therapies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection are effective in preventing progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome but do not eliminate the infection and ar…
Current drug therapies for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection are effective in preventing progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome but do not eliminate the infection and are associated with unwanted side effects. A potential alternative is to modify the genome of patient cells via gene therapy to confer HIV resistance to these cells. Small RNAs are the largest and most diverse group of anti-HIV genes that have been developed for engineering HIV resistant cells. In this review, we summarize progress on the three major classes of anti-HIV RNAs including short hairpin RNAs that use the RNA interference pathway, RNA decoys and aptamers that bind specifically to a protein or RNA as well as ribozymes that mediate cleavage of specific targets. We also review methods used for the delivery of these genes into the genome of patient cells and provide some perspectives on the future of small RNAs in HIV therapy.
- Granulysin: killer lymphocyte safeguard against microbes. [Review]
- COCurr Opin Immunol 2019 May 18; 60:19-29
- Primary T cell immunodeficiency and HIV-infected patients are plagued by non-viral infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites, suggesting an important and underappreciated role for T lymphoc…
Primary T cell immunodeficiency and HIV-infected patients are plagued by non-viral infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites, suggesting an important and underappreciated role for T lymphocytes in controlling microbes. Here, we review recent studies showing that killer lymphocytes use the antimicrobial cytotoxic granule pore-forming peptide granulysin, induced by microbial exposure, to permeabilize cholesterol-poor microbial membranes and deliver death-inducing granzymes into these pathogens. Granulysin and granzymes cause microptosis, programmed cell death in microbes, by inducing reactive oxygen species and destroying microbial antioxidant defenses and disrupting biosynthetic and central metabolism pathways required for their survival, including protein synthesis, glycolysis, and the Krebs cycle.
- Serum siderocalin levels in patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2019 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that active TB leads to an up-regulation of serum siderocalin regardless of the HIV status, whereas HIV infection, on the other hand, leads to a down-regulation of serum siderocalin levels in both TBneg and TBpos individuals. Further studies are needed to evaluate siderocalin as a potential marker of active TB and to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated TB.
- HLA-B*14 allele predicts HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission, in Salvador, Brazil. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Infect Dis 2019 May 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Expression of HLA-B*14 allele in children exposed to HIV-1 is predictive of vertical transmission and reinforces the important role of genetics in mother-to-child transmission.
- Effectiveness of the prevention of HIV mother -to-child transmission (PMTCT) program via early infant diagnosis (EID) data in Senegal. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0215941
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions in Senegal but indicates also that increased efforts should be continued to reduce the MTCT rate to less than 2%.
- Research to improve differentiated HIV service delivery interventions: Learning to learn as we do. [Journal Article]
- PMPLoS Med 2019; 16(5):e1002809
- In a Perspective, Elvin Geng and Charles Holmes discuss research on differentiated service delivery in HIV care.
In a Perspective, Elvin Geng and Charles Holmes discuss research on differentiated service delivery in HIV care.
- Safety analysis of German real-life cohort WIP shows rates of neuropsychiatric events leading to discontinuation of raltegravir therapy below 2. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J STD AIDS 2019; 30(7):727-728
- Two-Drug Regimen for HIV. [Journal Article]
- JAMAJAMA 2019 May 21; 321(19):1862
- Existence, Distribution, and Characteristics of STD Clinics in the United States, 2017. [Journal Article]
- PHPublic Health Rep 2019 May 21; :33354919847733
- CONCLUSIONS: This list may aid in more comprehensive national studies of clinic services, STD clinic adaptation to external policy changes (eg, in public financing or patient access policy), and long-term clinic survival, with special attention to clinic coverage in rural areas.
New Search Next
- Compliance of a Baby-Friendly Designated Hospital in Ghana With the WHO/UNICEF Baby and Mother-Friendly Care Practices. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hum Lact 2019 May 21; :890334419848728
- CONCLUSIONS: Improving staff training and maternal counseling, routinely reassessing designated facilities, and providing technical support in problematic areas might sustain implementation.