- Links Between Sexual Orientation and Disclosure Among Black MSM: Sexual Orientation and Disclosure Matter for PrEP Awareness. [Journal Article]AIDS Behav 2019AB
- The HIV epidemic in the United States has disproportionately burdened Black men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in the South. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high demonstrated efficacy, uptake is low among Black MSM. We utilized a sample of 345 HIV-negative or unknown HIV status Black MSM from Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined th…
The HIV epidemic in the United States has disproportionately burdened Black men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in the South. While pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high demonstrated efficacy, uptake is low among Black MSM. We utilized a sample of 345 HIV-negative or unknown HIV status Black MSM from Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models examined the effects of sexual orientation and disclosure on PrEP awareness and use. Despite the majority of the sample reporting PrEP awareness (91%), few Black MSM in our sample had ever used PrEP (10%). Bisexual Black MSM were less likely to have been aware of PrEP compared to their same-gender loving/gay counterparts. Black MSM who had disclosed their sexual orientation to some or all of the members of their networks were more aware of PrEP compared to their counterparts who reported lower levels of disclosure, but were not more likely to actually use PrEP. Alarmingly, the gap in PrEP awareness and use has not decreased over the past 5 years. These findings suggest that disclosure may be a relevant characteristic to consider for PrEP awareness, but there may be more to consider in closing the awareness-uptake gap among Black MSM.
- Weight Gain Following Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy: Risk Factors in Randomized Comparative Clinical Trials. [Journal Article]Clin Infect Dis 2019CI
- CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain is ubiquitous in clinical trials of ART initiation, and is multifactorial in nature, with demographic factors, HIV-related factors, and the composition of ART regimens contributing. The mechanisms by which certain ART agents differentially contribute to weight gain are unknown.
- Quasi-experimental evaluation using confirmatory procedures: A case study of an economic and social empowerment intervention to reduce girls' vulnerability to HIV in rural Mozambique. [Journal Article]Eval Program Plann 2019; 77:101721EP
- CONCLUSIONS: Although our study did not find evidence of impact on the a priori selected outcomes, we report on our experience implementing this robust methodologic design and describe how the challenges encountered in this program setting affected our ability to attain results. We recommend prospective evaluation designs with random allocation be accommodated early during planning. When not possible, quasi-experimental studies should collect data from large samples. To reduce measurement bias, biological endpoints such sexually transmitted infections should serve as primary outcomes for programs intending to reduce sexual behaviors.
- Prevention of viral transmission during lung transplantation with hepatitis C-viraemic donors: an open-label, single-centre, pilot trial. [Journal Article]Lancet Respir Med 2019LR
- CONCLUSIONS: Early and intermediate clinical outcomes were not significantly different between patients receiving viraemic HCV donor lungs and HCV-negative donor lungs. Donor organ treatment with UVC perfusate irradiation during EVLP significantly decreased HCV viral loads within the first 7 days after transplantation and shows the proof-of-concept for a novel approach of minimising viral load ex vivo before transplantation, with intent of preventing donor-recipient transmission.
- Exploring T & B-cell epitopes and designing multi-epitope subunit vaccine targeting integration step of HIV-1 lifecycle using immunoinformatics approach. [Journal Article]Microb Pathog 2019; :103791MP
- Till now, AIDS, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a severe health problem worldwide. It weakens the immune system by targeting the T-helper cells. Specifically, the severity of the pandemic HIV-1 makes the emergence of an enduring effective vaccine against HIV-1. Therefore, we have applied a series of immunoinformatics approaches to the four conserved domains of HIV-1 inte…
Till now, AIDS, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a severe health problem worldwide. It weakens the immune system by targeting the T-helper cells. Specifically, the severity of the pandemic HIV-1 makes the emergence of an enduring effective vaccine against HIV-1. Therefore, we have applied a series of immunoinformatics approaches to the four conserved domains of HIV-1 integrase proteins (IN) to design an effective multi-epitope based subunit vaccine which might induce a competent immunity against HIV-1. Therefore, we have selected three peptide fragments that contained all overlapping epitopes (35 CD4+, 8 CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and 3 B-cell epitopes) where the epitopes had a high conservancy score. The cumulative population coverage for combined CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and their respective HLA-alleles were found as 98.03% in the world which is also followed by East Asia (96.24%), South Asia (96.31%), North Africa (96.14%), North America (98.99%), and Europe (98.80%). The proposed vaccine composed by an adjuvant (β-defensin) at the N-terminal site of the vaccine constructs and three peptide fragments where the adjuvant was fused by EAAAK linker and the peptide fragments were fused by GPGPG linker. The designed final vaccine construct (length: 159 amino acid) was found to be antigenic and non-allergic, which indicates its safety. The vaccine construct was found as good antigenic, stable, higher thermostable, and hydrophilic in nature. The codon adaptation and in silico cloning ensured the high expression rate of the vaccine constructs in E. coli K12 with CAI value of 1.0. Finally, the binding affinity of the vaccine constructs with the immune receptor TLR3 was confirmed by the lowest energy score of -1026.8 evaluated by molecular docking. However, the proposed in silico vaccine construct needs experimental validation for assuring the safety and immunogenicity profile which will ensure an active immunity against HIV-1.
- Perspectives on the HIV continuum of care among adult opioid users in New York City: a qualitative study. [Journal Article]Harm Reduct J 2019; 16(1):58HR
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest expanding clinical and administrative support in primary care for PWUDs with patient navigators, case managers, mobile health interventions, and peer support networks to promote linkage and retention in care.
- Prevalence and correlates of sexual intercourse among sexually active in-school adolescents: an analysis of five sub-Sahara African countries for the adolescent's sexual health policy implications. [Journal Article]BMC Public Health 2019; 19(1):1285BP
- CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents sexual intercourse and more especially sex with multiple partners was prevalent and strongly correlated with substance use. However, the correlation was higher among female adolescents than male adolescents. A customized public health intervention that targets multiple risk factors concurrently may benefit adolescents with clustering of sexual and non-sexual risk-taking behaviors.
- Intensified household contact tracing, prevention and treatment support versus enhanced standard of care for contacts of tuberculosis cases in South Africa: study protocol for a household cluster-randomised trial. [Journal Article]BMC Infect Dis 2019; 19(1):839BI
- CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from randomised trials is required to identify cost-effective approaches to TB case-finding that can be applied at scale in sub-Saharan Africa.
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- Increases in compulsivity, inflammation, and neural injury in HIV transgenic rats with escalated methamphetamine self-administration under extended-access conditions. [Review]Brain Res 2019; :146502BR
- The abuse of stimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), is associated with treatment non-compliance, a greater risk of viral transmission, and the more rapid clinical progression of immunological and central nervous system human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The behavioral effects of METH in the setting of HIV remain largely uncharacterized. We used a state-of-the-art paradigm of the esc…
The abuse of stimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), is associated with treatment non-compliance, a greater risk of viral transmission, and the more rapid clinical progression of immunological and central nervous system human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The behavioral effects of METH in the setting of HIV remain largely uncharacterized. We used a state-of-the-art paradigm of the escalation of voluntary intravenous drug self-administration in HIV transgenic (Tg) and wildtype rats. The rats were first allowed to self-administer METH under short-access (ShA) conditions, which is characterized by a nondependent and more "recreational" pattern of METH use, and then allowed to self-administer METH under long-access (LgA) conditions, which leads to compulsive (dependent) METH intake. HIV Tg and wildtype rats self-administered equal amounts of METH under ShA conditions. HIV Tg rats under LgA METH self-administration following a 4-week enforced abstinence period to model the intermittent pattern of stimulant abuse in humans, developed greater motivation to self-administer METH and self-administered larger amounts of METH. Impairments in function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to compulsive drug and alcohol intake. Gene expression profiling of the mPFC in HIV Tg rats with a history of escalated METH self-administration under LgA conditions showed transcriptional evidence of increased inflammation, greater neural injury and impaired aerobic glucose metabolism than wildtype rats that self-administered METH under LgA conditions. The detrimental effects of the interaction between neuroHIV and escalated METH intake on the mPFC are likely key factors in the greater vulnerability to excessive drug intake in the setting of HIV.