- Audiometric and cVEMP Thresholds Show Little Correlation With Symptoms in Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- ONOtol Neurotol 2018 Aug 17
- CONCLUSIONS: While threshold audiometry and cVEMP are important tools to diagnose SCD and monitor surgical outcomes, these measures showed no significant correlation with vestibular and most auditory symptoms or their severity.
- Health Education for Musicians. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2018; 9:1137
- Context and aims: Many musicians suffer for their art, and health is often compromised during training. The Health Promotion in Schools of Music (HPSM) project has recommended that health education s...
Context and aims: Many musicians suffer for their art, and health is often compromised during training. The Health Promotion in Schools of Music (HPSM) project has recommended that health education should be included in core curricula, although few such courses have been evaluated to date. The aim of the study was to design, implement and evaluate a compulsory health education course at a UK conservatoire of music. Methods: The course design was informed by a critical appraisal of the literature on musicians' health problems and their management, existing health education courses for musicians, and the HPSM recommendations. It was delivered by a team of appropriately-qualified tutors over 5 months to 104 first-year undergraduate students, and evaluated by means of questionnaires at the beginning and end of the course. Thirty-three students who had been in their first year the year before the course was introduced served as a control group, completing the questionnaire on one occasion only. Items concerned: hearing and use of hearing protection; primary outcomes including perceived knowledge and importance of the topics taught on the course; and secondary outcomes including physical and psychological health and health-promoting behaviors. The content of the essays written by the first-year students as part of their course assessment served as a guide to the topics they found most interesting and relevant. Results: Comparatively few respondents reported using hearing protection when practicing alone, although there was some evidence of hearing loss, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. Perceived knowledge of the topics on the course, and awareness of the risks to health associated with performing music, increased, as did self-efficacy; otherwise, there were negative effects on secondary outcomes, and few differences between the intervention and control groups. The topics most frequently covered in students' essays were managing music performance anxiety, and life skills and behavior change techniques. Conclusion: There is considerable scope for improving music students' physical and psychological health and health-related behaviors through health education, and persuading senior managers, educators and students themselves that health education can contribute to performance enhancement.
- Hyperacusis in children: The Edinburgh experience. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018; 112:39-44
- CONCLUSIONS: In our paediatric cohort, hyperacusis is more common in boys and in those children with ASD. A combined treatment approach with behavioural therapy and the provision of a sound-ball has a very high success rate in our experience.
- Enhancement of the medial olivocochlear system prevents hidden hearing loss. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurosci 2018 Jul 20
- Cochlear synaptopathy produced by exposure to noise levels which only cause transient auditory threshold elevations is a condition that affects many people and is believed to contribute to poor speec...
Cochlear synaptopathy produced by exposure to noise levels which only cause transient auditory threshold elevations is a condition that affects many people and is believed to contribute to poor speech discrimination in noisy environments. These functional deficits in hearing, without changes in sensitivity, have been called hidden hearing loss (HHL). It has been proposed that activity of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system can ameliorate acoustic trauma effects. Here we explore the role of the MOC system in HHL by comparing the performance of two different mouse models: an α9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (Chrna9 KO) which lacks cholinergic transmission between efferent neurons and hair cells, and a gain of function knock-in (Chrna9L9'T KI) carrying an α9 point mutation that leads to enhanced cholinergic activity. Animals of either sex were exposed to sound pressure levels that in wild-type (WT) produced transient cochlear threshold shifts and a decrease in neural response amplitudes, together with the loss of ribbon synapses, indicative of cochlear synaptopathy. Moreover, a reduction in the number of efferent contacts to OHCs was observed. In Chrna9 KO ears, noise exposure produced permanent auditory threshold elevations together with cochlear synaptopathy. In contrast, the Chrna9L9'T KI was completely resistant to the same acoustic exposure protocol. These results show a positive correlation between the degree of HHL prevention and the level of cholinergic activity. Notably, enhancement of the MOC feedback promoted new afferent synapse formation, suggesting that it can trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms to protect and/or repair the inner ear sensory epithelium.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTNoise overexposure is a major cause of a variety of perceptual disabilities, including speech-in-noise difficulties, tinnitus and hyperacusis. Here we show that exposure to noise levels that do not cause permanent threshold elevations nor hair cell death, can produce a loss of cochlear nerve synapses to inner hair cells (IHCs) as well as degeneration of MOC terminals contacting the outer hair cells (OHCs). Enhancement of the MOC reflex can prevent both types of neuropathy, highlighting the potential use of drugs that increase α9α10 nicotinic cholinergic receptor activity as a pharmacotherapeutic strategy to avoid HHL.
- Effects of Electrical Stimulation in Tinnitus Patients: Conventional Versus High-Definition tDCS. [Journal Article]
- NNNeurorehabil Neural Repair 2018; 32(8):714-723
- CONCLUSIONS: TDCS and HD tDCS resulted in a clinically significant improvement in TFI in 32% of the patients, with the 3 stimulation positions having similar results. Future research should focus on long-term effects of electrical stimulation.
- [Musculoskeletal, hearing and skin problems related to playing the instrument]. [Journal Article]
- MPMed Pr 2018 Jul 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Playing-related health risks translate into relatively high prevalence of musculoskeletal as well as hearing and skin problems among musicians. Hence, it is essential for future studies to search for risk factors for these health problems as well as effective corrective and therapeutic measures. Med Pr 2018;69(4).
- Relationship between Otological Symptoms and TMD. [Journal Article]
- ITInt Tinnitus J 2018 Jun 01; 22(1):30-34
- CONCLUSIONS: These data support the correlation between temporomandibular disorders and otological symptoms, even without being caused directly by the ear.
- Hyperacusis in Children: A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Hypersensitivity to Sound on Speech and Language. [Journal Article]
- ITInt Tinnitus J 2018 Jun 01; 22(1):10-18
- There is a growing awareness that children may experience hyperacusis, a condition that is often associated with behavioral and developmental disorders. This preliminary study was aimed to investigat...
There is a growing awareness that children may experience hyperacusis, a condition that is often associated with behavioral and developmental disorders. This preliminary study was aimed to investigate the effects of hyperacusis alone on various components of speech and language in children without developmental disorders. This study was conducted on 109 children aged between 4 and 7 years attending kindergarten and primary school. Hyperacusis was assessed through behavioral observation of children and questionnaires for parents. Different components of speech and language were assessed through specific tests. Hyperacusis was diagnosed in fifteen children (13.8%); ten (66.7%) were attending primary school and five (33.3%) kindergarten. A significant difference between children with and without hyperacusis was found for tests evaluating the average number of words in a sentence and phonemic fluency; older children appeared to have more difficulties. Several differences in education profiles were found: parents of children with hyperacusis spent less time with their children compared to parents of children without hyperacusis. Our preliminary results suggest some difficulties in lexical access and the use of shorter sentences by children with hypersensitivity to sound; however, the small size of our sample and the largely unknown interactions between hyperacusis and developmental disorders suggest caution when interpreting these results. Further studies on larger samples are necessary to gain additional knowledge on the effects of hyperacusis on speech and language in children without developmental disorders.
- Prevalence and Characteristics of Patients with Severe Hyperacusis among Patients Seen in a Tinnitus and Hyperacusis Clinic. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Acad Audiol 2018 Jul/Aug; 29(7):626-633
- CONCLUSIONS: Severe hyperacusis is characterized by low ULLs for specific frequencies and no or mild hearing loss. Given the high incidence of tinnitus, otological abnormalities, and mental health problems, the management of patients with severe hyperacusis should involve otologists and psychiatrists in addition to audiologists.
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- Sensitivity to sounds in sport-related concussed athletes: a new clinical presentation of hyperacusis. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Jul 02; 8(1):9921
- Sensitivity to sounds is one frequent symptom of a sport-related concussion, but its assessment rarely goes beyond a single question. Here we examined sensitivity to sounds using psychoacoustic and p...
Sensitivity to sounds is one frequent symptom of a sport-related concussion, but its assessment rarely goes beyond a single question. Here we examined sensitivity to sounds using psychoacoustic and psychometric outcomes in athletes beyond the acute phase of injury. Fifty-eight college athletes with normal hearing who either had incurred one or more sport-related concussions (N = 28) or who had never suffered head injury (N = 30) participated. Results indicated that the Concussed group scored higher on the Hyperacusis questionnaire and displayed greater sensitivity to sounds in psychoacoustic tasks compared to the Control group. However, further analyses that separated the Concussed group in subgroups with Sound sensitivity symptom (N = 14) and Without sound sensitivity symptom (N = 14) revealed that athletes with the sound complaint were the ones responsible for the effect: Concussed athletes with self-reported sound sensitivity had lower Loudness Discomfort Thresholds (LDLs), higher Depression and Hyperacusis scores, and shifted loudness growth functions compared to the other subgroup. A simple mediation model disclosed that LDLs exert their influence both directly on Hyperacusis scores as well as indirectly via depressive symptoms. We thus report a new clinical presentation of hyperacusis and discuss possible mechanisms by which it could arise from concussion.