- Bone Metabolic Markers in the Clinical Assessment of Patients with Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Treated with Middle Fossa Craniotomy. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Feb 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Bone metabolic markers may be important in the clinical assessment of SSCD patients and could be potential targets for symptom management.
- [Smartphone app-supported approaches to tinnitus therapy]. [Review]
- HNOHNO 2018 Feb 07
- In recent years, applications (apps) for medical purposes have been developed and introduced, including apps that perform diagnostics and documentation for hearing loss and tinnitus in combination wi...
In recent years, applications (apps) for medical purposes have been developed and introduced, including apps that perform diagnostics and documentation for hearing loss and tinnitus in combination with smartphones. Even therapeutic apps, particularly for chronic tinnitus, have been launched. This review discusses the existing scientific literature for these smartphone applications. For tinnitus, Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy has been developed and evaluated. For tinnitus therapy, introduced apps combine acoustic stimulation and music, or serve acoustic stimulation of cortical regions around the tinnitus frequency. Although these apps appear very innovative, their effectiveness has not yet been scientifically proven. A general problem associated with using smartphone apps lies in their safety in terms of possible side effects and personal data protection. However, Internet programs and apps can be a useful supplement to multimodal tinnitus therapies.
- Proportion and characteristics of patients who were offered, enrolled in and completed audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus and hyperacusis rehabilitation in a specialist UK clinic. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Audiol 2018 Feb 07; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: Although CBT is resource intensive, only 17% of the total patient sample received the full course of six sessions of CBT. Patients who accepted continuing CBT were younger, had worse insomnia and had better hearing than those who declined.
- Hyperacusis: major research questions. [Review]
- HNOHNO 2018 Feb 01
- CONCLUSIONS: This clinical/researcher-led project identified major research questions in hyperacusis. A further development to identify patient-prioritized research will follow.
- Increased parietal circuit-breaker activity in delta frequency band and abnormal delta/theta band connectivity in salience network in hyperacusis subjects. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(1):e0191858
- Recent studies have suggested that hyperacusis, an abnormal hypersensitivity to ordinary environmental sounds, may be characterized by certain resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns, even with n...
Recent studies have suggested that hyperacusis, an abnormal hypersensitivity to ordinary environmental sounds, may be characterized by certain resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns, even with no sound stimulus. However, previous studies are limited in that most studied subjects with other comorbidities that may have affected cortical activity. In this regard, to assess ongoing cortical oscillatory activity in idiopathic hyperacusis patients with no comorbidities, we compared differences in resting-state cortical oscillatory patterns between five idiopathic hyperacusis subjects and five normal controls. The hyperacusis group demonstrated significantly higher electrical activity in the right auditory-related cortex for the gamma frequency band and left superior parietal lobule (SPL) for the delta frequency band versus the control group. The hyperacusis group also showed significantly decreased functional connectivity between the left auditory cortex (AC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), between the left AC and left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) for the gamma band, and between the right insula and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the left AC and left sgACC for the theta band versus the control group. The higher electrical activity in the SPL may indicate a readiness of "circuit-breaker" activity to shift attention to forthcoming sound stimuli. Also, because of the disrupted salience network, consisting of the dACC and insula, abnormally increased salience to all sound stimuli may emerge, as a consequence of decreased top-down control of the AC by the dACC and dysfunctional emotional weight attached to auditory stimuli by the OFC. Taken together, abnormally enhanced attention and salience to forthcoming sound stimuli may render hyperacusis subjects hyperresponsive to non-noxious auditory stimuli.
- Tinnitus and sound intolerance: evidence and experience of a Brazilian group. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Dec 24
- CONCLUSIONS: A review on tinnitus and auditory sensitivity was presented, allowing the reader a broad view of the approach to these patients, based on scientific evidence and national experience.
- Somatic Tinnitus. [Review]
- ITInt Tinnitus J 2017 Dec 01; 21(2):112-121
- Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofasci...
Modulation of tinnitus characteristics such as pitch and loudness has been extensively described following movements of the head, neck and limbs, vertical or horizontal eye gaze, pressure on myofascial trigger points, cutaneous stimulation of the hands, electrical stimulation of the median nerve, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Modulation of tinnitus follows complex interactions between auditory and somatosensory afferents and can be favored by underlying somatic disorders. When tinnitus appears to be preceded or strictly linked to a somatic disorder, and therefore related to problems of the musculoskeletal system rather than of the ear, it is defined somatic tinnitus. A correct diagnosis and treatment of somatic disorders underlying tinnitus play a central role for a correct management of somatic tinnitus. However, the identification of somatic tinnitus may be complex in some cases. In this paper, after a general review of the current evidences for somatic tinnitus available in the literature, we present and discuss some cases of patients in which somatic modulation of tinnitus played a role-although different from case to case-in their tinnitus, describing the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches followed in each individual case and the results obtained, also highlighting unexpected findings and pitfalls that may be encountered when approaching somatic tinnitus patients.
- Attenuation of noise-induced hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus by pre-treatment with MK-801. [Journal Article]
- BRBrain Res 2018 03 01; 1682:71-77
- It has previously been hypothesized that hyperactivity of central auditory neurons following exposure to intense noise is a consequence of synaptic alterations. Recent studies suggest the involvement...
It has previously been hypothesized that hyperactivity of central auditory neurons following exposure to intense noise is a consequence of synaptic alterations. Recent studies suggest the involvement of NMDA receptors in the induction of this hyperactive state. NMDA receptors can mediate long term changes in the excitability of neurons through their involvement in excitotoxic injury and long term potentiation and depression. In this study, we examined the effect of administering an NMDA receptor blocker on the induction of hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) following intense sound exposure. Our prediction was that if hyperactivity induced by intense sound exposure is dependent on NMDA receptors, then blocking these receptors by administering an NMDA receptor antagonist just before animals are exposed to intense sound should reduce the degree of hyperactivity that subsequently emerges. We compared the levels of hyperactivity that develop in the DCN after intense sound exposure to activity recorded in control animals that were not sound exposed. One group of animals to be sound exposed received intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 twenty minutes preceding the sound exposure, while the other group received injection of saline. Recordings performed in the DCN 26-28 days post-exposure revealed increased response thresholds and widespread increases in spontaneous activity in the saline-treated animals that had been sound exposed, consistent with earlier studies. The animals treated with MK-801 preceding sound exposure showed similarly elevated thresholds but an attenuation of hyperactivity in the DCN; the attenuation was most robust in the high frequency half of the DCN, but lower levels of hyperactivity were also found in the low frequency half. These findings suggest that NMDA receptors are an important component of the hyperactivity-inducing mechanism following intense sound exposure. They further suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors may offer a useful therapeutic approach to preventing induction of noise-induced hyperactivity-related hearing disorders, such as tinnitus and hyperacusis.
- Clinical Interventions for Hyperacusis in Adults: A Scoping Review to Assess the Current Position and Determine Priorities for Research. [Review]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2017; 2017:2723715
- CONCLUSIONS: Management strategies were typically evaluated in patients reporting hyperacusis as a secondary complaint or as part of a symptom set. As such the outcomes reported only provided an indication of their effectiveness for hyperacusis. Randomised Controlled Trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for patients experiencing hyperacusis.
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- Effects of Acoustic Environment on Tinnitus Behavior in Sound-Exposed Rats. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2018 Jan 02
- Laboratory studies often rely on a damaging sound exposure to induce tinnitus in animal models. Because the time course and ultimate success of the induction process is not known in advance, it is no...
Laboratory studies often rely on a damaging sound exposure to induce tinnitus in animal models. Because the time course and ultimate success of the induction process is not known in advance, it is not unusual to maintain sound-exposed animals for months while they are periodically assessed for behavioral indications of the disorder. To demonstrate the importance of acoustic environment during this period of behavioral screening, sound-exposed rats were tested for tinnitus while housed under quiet or constant noise conditions. More than half of the quiet-housed rats developed behavioral indications of the disorder. None of the noise-housed rats exhibited tinnitus behavior during 2 months of behavioral screening. It is widely assumed that the "phantom sound" of tinnitus reflects abnormal levels of spontaneous activity in the central auditory pathways that are triggered by cochlear injury. Our results suggest that sustained patterns of noise-driven activity may prevent the injury-induced changes in central auditory processing that lead to this hyperactive state. From the perspective of laboratory studies of tinnitus, housing sound-exposed animals in uncontrolled noise levels may significantly reduce the success of induction procedures. From a broader clinical perspective, an early intervention with sound therapy may reduce the risk of tinnitus in individuals who have experienced an acute cochlear injury.