- What is diabulimia and what are the implications for practice? [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Nurs 2018 Sep 20; 27(17):980-986
- Diabulimia has become a common term used to describe a condition when a person with type 1 diabetes has an eating disorder. The individual may omit or restrict their insulin dose to lose/control weig...
Diabulimia has become a common term used to describe a condition when a person with type 1 diabetes has an eating disorder. The individual may omit or restrict their insulin dose to lose/control weight. Evidence suggests that as many as 20% of women with type 1 diabetes may have this condition. The serious acute and long-term complications of hyperglycaemia are well documented. Detection of this condition is challenging and health professionals need to be vigilant in assessing reasons for variable glycaemic control and weight changes. Management requires a collaborative response from the specialist diabetes team in conjunction with the mental health team. Nurses must ensure that they are aware that the condition may be possible in all patients with type 1 diabetes but especially younger female patients. These patients require timely intervention to prevent any severe acute or long-term complications.
- Wave reflections in hypertension: role of sex, metabolic, and ethnic factors. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hypertens 2018 Sep 17
- CONCLUSIONS: In the French-born population, CAI changes are affected by diabetes and possibly insulin-resistance, independently of sex. In African-born and Asian-born populations, CAI is sex-specific. Elevated CAI in African-born women calls for close monitoring of cardiovascular risk.
- Do glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have potential as adjuncts in the treatment of type 1 diabetes? [Journal Article]
- EOExpert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Sep 20; :1-7
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells, and inhibits glucagon secretion from the α-cells. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells, and inhibits glucagon secretion from the α-cells. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Area covered: This review covers the clinical trials of the GLP-1R agonists (exenatide and liraglutide) and their potential as adjunct treatment in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Expert opinion: GLP-1R agonists are unable to increase insulin secretion, in subjects with T1DM, who are C-peptide negative. Also, the GLP-1R agonists either have no effect or cause a small inhibition of glucagon secretion in subjects with T1DM. There is no evidence that the GLP-1R agonists cause a major reduction in HbA1c, or have a major effect on hypo- or hyperglycemia in subjects with TD1M. The main beneficial effect of the GLP-1R agonists is probably the modest weight loss, which may underlie the reduction in dose of insulin used. Given that the GLP-1R agonists cause gastrointestinal adverse effects, and with reduced insulin doses, increase the risk of ketosis, it seems to me that the risk with these agents may outweigh any benefit in T1DM, and that they have little potential as adjuncts in the treatment of T1DM.
- Thymosin β4 promotes glucose-impaired endothelial progenitor cell function via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthesis signaling pathway. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(4):3439-3444
- Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a subtype of hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into endothelial cells and restore endothelial function. However, high glucose decre...
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a subtype of hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into endothelial cells and restore endothelial function. However, high glucose decreases the number and impairs the function of EPCs. A previous study showed that thymosin β4 (Tβ4), a pleiotropic peptide beneficial for multiple functions of various types of cells, could promote EPC migration and dose-dependently upregulate the phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthesis signaling (eNOS). In present study, the hypothesis that Tβ4 can improve glucose-suppressed EPC functions via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and restores the production of nitric oxide (NO) is investigated. EPCs were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and formed a cobblestone shape after 3-4 weeks of cultivation. Then, EPCs were treated with high concentrations of glucose (25 mM) for 4 days and administrated with Tβ4 for further study. Transwell migration and tube formation assays were performed to access the migratory and angiogenic ability of EPCs. In addition, the quantity of Akt, eNOS and the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated. Functional studies showed that high concentrations of glucose significantly suppressed EPC function, while this adverse effect was reversed by the administration of Tβ4. In addition, Akt small interfering (si)RNA and eNOS siRNA were demonstrated to reduce the protective effect of Tβ4 against glucose-impaired EPC functions. These findings suggest that Tβ4 improves glucose-impaired EPC functions via the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.
- Therapeutic effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza injection combined with telmisartan in patients with diabetic nephropathy by influencing collagen IV and fibronectin: A case-control study. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(4):3405-3412
- Involvement of collagen IV (ColIV) and fibronectin (FN) in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the effects of telmisartan and Salvia miltiorrhiza injection in the treatmen...
Involvement of collagen IV (ColIV) and fibronectin (FN) in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the effects of telmisartan and Salvia miltiorrhiza injection in the treatment of the patients were investigated. Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with stage IV DN were selected as the case group, and another 110 normal healthy subjects were incorporated as the control group. Involved patients were subdivided into different groups according to different treatment therapies; patients in the telmisartan group (T group) were given oral telmisartan; patients in the Salvia miltiorrhiza injection + telmisartan (S + T group) were administered with Salvia miltiorrhiza injection combined with telmisartan treatment, and there was a group of patients who received no intervention as the placebo group. After intervention, levels of glycemic indexes and renal damage indexes indicated downwards trends both in the T group and the S + T group when compared to the placebo group; besides, levels in the S + T group were much lower than those in the T group (all P<0.05). Additionally, in comparison among the above three intervention groups, differences in the fasting blood glucose, 2 h post-prandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate were significant after treatment (all P<0.05). Further, before intervention, both Co1IV and FN in the urine were increased in the case group compared to the control group (all P<0.05). After intervention, both levels were apparently decreased. There were remarkable differences of Co1IV and FN levels in the urine when compared among three different intervention groups after treatment (P<0.05). Increased ColIV and FN levels may be partially responsible for the development of DN. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection with telmisartan have beneficial synergistic effects for DN patients through attenuating the increase in ColIV and FN, reversing hyperglycemia state and postponing ultrastructure changes of glomerular basement membrane.
- Amelioration effects of nanoencapsulated triterpenoids from petri dish-cultured Antrodia cinnamomea on reproductive function of diabetic male rats. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nanomedicine 2018; 13:5059-5073
- CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we successfully nanoencapsulated PAC and found that a very low dosage of Nano-PAC exhibited amelioration effects on the reproductive function of diabetic rats.
- Cognitive deficits and Alzheimer-like neuropathological impairments during adolescence in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- NRNeural Regen Res 2018; 13(11):1995-2004
- Numerous studies have shown that many patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit cognitive dysfunction and neuronal synaptic impairments. Therefore, growing evidence suggests that type...
Numerous studies have shown that many patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit cognitive dysfunction and neuronal synaptic impairments. Therefore, growing evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes mellitus has a close relationship with occurrence and progression of neurodegeneration and neural impairment in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relationship between metabolic disorders caused by type 2 diabetes mellitus and neurodegeneration and neural impairments in Alzheimer's disease is still not fully determined. Thus, in this study, we replicated a type 2 diabetic animal model by subcutaneous injection of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats with monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. At 3 months old, the Barnes maze assay was performed to evaluate spatial memory function. Microelectrodes were used to measure electrophysiological function in the hippocampal CA1 region. Western blot assay was used to determine expression levels of glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A (GluN2A) and GluN2B in the hippocampus. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as hippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ)1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels. Our results showed that in the rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by monosodium glutamate exposure during the neonatal period, latency was prolonged and the number of errors increased in the Barnes maze. Further, latency was increased and time in the escape platform quadrant shortened. Number of times crossing the platform was also reduced in the Morris water maze. After high frequency stimulation of the hippocampus, synaptic transmission was inhibited, expression of GluN2A and GluN2B were decreased in the hippocampus, expression of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α was increased in the hippocampus and cortex, and levels of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were increased in the hippocampus. These findings confirm that type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate exposure results in Alzheimer-like neuropathological changes and further causes cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in young adulthood.
- Knowledge, Awareness, and Eye Care-Seeking Behavior in Diabetic Retinopathy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- OTOphthalmol Ther 2018 Sep 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that although the awareness of diabetes-related eye complications was satisfactory in the patient population, eye care-seeking behavior and frequency of eye check-ups were not optimal. Efforts are needed to promote eye care-seeking behavior in this patient group.
- Gluconeogenesis and risk for fasting hyperglycemia in Black and White women. [Journal Article]
- JIJCI Insight 2018 Sep 20; 3(18)
- Black women, compared with White women, have high rates of whole-body insulin resistance but a lower prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. This dissociation of whole-body insulin...
Black women, compared with White women, have high rates of whole-body insulin resistance but a lower prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. This dissociation of whole-body insulin resistance from fasting hyperglycemia may be explained by racial differences in gluconeogenesis, hepatic fat, or tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Two groups of premenopausal federally employed women, without diabetes were studied. Using stable isotope tracers, [2H2O] and [6,62-H2]glucose, basal glucose production was partitioned into its components (gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis) and basal whole-body lipolysis ([2H5]glycerol) was measured. Indices of insulin sensitivity, whole-body (SI), hepatic (HISIGPR), and adipose tissue, were calculated. Hepatic fat was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Black women had less hepatic fat and lower fractional and absolute gluconeogenesis. Whole-body SI, HISIGPR, and adipose tissue sensitivity were similar by race, but at any given level of whole-body SI, Black women had higher HISIGPR. Therefore, fasting hyperglycemia may be a less common early pathological feature of prediabetes in Black women compared with White women, because gluconeogenesis remains lower despite similar whole-body SI.
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- Reduced GLP-1 Secretion at 30 Minutes After a 75g Oral Glucose Load is Observed in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- DDiabetes 2018 Sep 19
- Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels may be reduced in type 2 diabetes but it has not been established whether a similar impairment exists in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We studied this in...
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels may be reduced in type 2 diabetes but it has not been established whether a similar impairment exists in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We studied this in a prospective cohort study of pregnant women (n=144) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GLP-1, glucose and insulin were sampled at 30-minute intervals during a 2-hour 75g OGTT and indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity calculated. In a nested case-control study, women with GDM (n=19) had 12% lower total GLP-1 secretion (area under the curve; AUC) compared to age, ethnicity and gestational-age matched controls (n=19), selected from within the lowest quartile of glucose120min values in our cohort. GDM had lower GLP-1 response in the first 30 minutes (19% lower GLP-130min and 17% lower AUC0to30min) after adjustment for possible confounders. Their glucose levels began to diverge at 30 minutes of the OGTT with increasing insulin levels, and by 120 minutes, their insulin levels were three times higher. In a secondary cohort of 57 women, which included 'high-normal' glucose120min values, low GLP-1 AUC0to30min was independently associated with lower indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity. In conclusion, we have observed that women with GDM have lower GLP-1 response at 30 minutes of an OGTT and hyperglycaemia at 120 minutes despite significant hyperinsulinaemia.