- The genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes mellitus. [Review]
- MCMol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Jun 15
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterised by loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals, ultimately resulting in in...
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterised by loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals, ultimately resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. T1D is most common among children and young adults, and the incidence is on the rise across the world. The aetiology of T1D is hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental factors that result in the T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is a strong genetic risk to T1D; with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identifying over 60 susceptibility regions within the human genome which are marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we review what is currently known about the genetics of T1D. We argue that advancing our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of T1D will require the integration of genome biology (omics-data) with GWAS data, thereby making it possible to elucidate the putative gene regulatory networks modulated by disease-associated SNPs. This approach has a potential to revolutionize clinical management of T1D in an era of precision medicine.
- Radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) causes impaired insulin secretion and increased oxidative stress in rat pancreatic islets. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Radiat Biol 2018 Jun 18; :1-20
- CONCLUSIONS: these data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets.
- Reduction in Serum Triglyceride Levels in Diabetic Patients May Result in Decreased Insulin Dependence and Disease Regression. [Journal Article]
- IMIsr Med Assoc J 2018; 20(6):363-367
- CONCLUSIONS: A decrease in high triglyceride levels in "lipotoxic" diabetic patients may improve insulin intolerance and glucose homeostasis and reduce the need for insulin therapy.
- Trace element status in type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Diagn Res 2018; 12(5):OE01-OE08
- CONCLUSIONS: Results from this meta-analysis indicate lower zinc status accompanied by increased copper and ferritin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes when compared to controls.
- Reduced Efficacy of Insulin Detemir in Controlling Hyperglycemia during Pregnancy: An Interesting Case Report. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Mar-Apr; 22(2):292-295
- Metformin reduces insulin resistance and the tendency toward hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. [Journal Article]
- OVOpen Vet J 2018; 8(2):193-199
- Hypercortisolism induces a state of insulin resistance that can occur concurrently with fasting hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and i...
Hypercortisolism induces a state of insulin resistance that can occur concurrently with fasting hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. Metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance of the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on the control of metabolic disorders of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC). Twenty-three dogs with HAC were randomly divided into two groups, consisting of a control group and a metformin group (10 mg metformin/kg/12 h). Both groups received the same treatment for HAC. At baseline and 3 months, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin concentrations, in addition to urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were measured. Dogs treated with metformin showed significantly reduced glycaemia, cholesterolaemia and triglyceridaemia. They also presented reduced hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance, as well as improved pancreatic β-cell function. The implementation of metformin as an adjuvant therapy is effective for the normalisation of metabolic disorders of dogs with HAC.
- Performance of body mass index and percentage of body fat in predicting cardiometabolic risk factors in Thai adults. [Journal Article]
- DMDiabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2018; 11:241-253
- CONCLUSIONS: Considerable sex-specific variations were observed between BMI and PBF in their associations with and predictability of numerous cardiometabolic biomarkers. No single measure provides a comprehensive risk predication as shown herein with the Thai population, and therefore both should be applied in screening activities.
- Management of hyperglycemia during and in the immediate follow-up of acute coronary syndrome. [Review]
- JSJ Saudi Heart Assoc 2018; 30(2):113-121
- Diabetes is a serious, frequent, and insidious morbidity and mortality risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease. It has been shown that carbohydrate metabolism disorders are common in acu...
Diabetes is a serious, frequent, and insidious morbidity and mortality risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease. It has been shown that carbohydrate metabolism disorders are common in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs): 30-40% of patients have diabetes, 25-36% have an intolerance to carbohydrates, and only 30-40% have a normal carbohydrate profile. Hyperglycemia occurring either in diabetic or nondiabetic patients is strongly associated with a poor prognosis. It increases the extent of myocardial necrosis, and the risk of recurrence acute coronary syndrome and hemodynamic complications, particularly heart failure and cardiogenic shock, reflecting the importance of optimal management of glucose metabolism abnormalities. The objective of this article is to suggest a screening and management guide for carbohydrate metabolism disorders during and in the immediate follow-up of ACS in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Screening must be systematic in any patient admitted for ACS, and based on hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing. Treatment of hyperglycemia in the cardiology intensive care unit is recommended in any patient admitted with hyperglycemia >1.80 g/L or postfeeding blood glucose level >1.40 g/L, and should be based on intravenous insulin with concomitant infusion of glucose solution under strict monitoring. Once the patient is no longer in intensive care, intravenous insulin therapy is no longer recommended, and the passage to a fixed insulin therapy regimen or to oral antidiabetics should be considered in consultation with diabetologists. During the rehabilitation phase, good glycemic control improves both prognosis and survival.
- Comparison of serum concentrations of humanin in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- GEGynecol Endocrinol 2018 Jun 17; :1-4
- Humanin (MT-RNR2) is an endogenous polypeptide that is involved in many diseases, including T2DM. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The aim of this stu...
Humanin (MT-RNR2) is an endogenous polypeptide that is involved in many diseases, including T2DM. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum humanin levels in women with or without GDM and to elucidate possible correlations with anthropometric parameters, metabolic parameters and the incidence of GDM. Eighty-four women with GDM and 73 control women were enrolled in this study. The clinical and biochemical parameters of all subjects were determined. Serum humanin levels were measured by an ELISA. Serum humanin levels were significantly lower in women with GDM than in control women. Moreover, humanin levels were significantly negatively correlated with the presence of GDM, body weight, BMI at 24 weeks of gestation, TG, FPG, 1 hPG, 2 hPG, FINS, and HOMA-IR. In contrast, humanin levels were significantly positively correlated with FT3 and FT4. A binary logistic analysis showed that humanin levels were associated with the incidence of GDM. Additional follow-up studies are needed to highlight whether and how decreased humanin levels play an important role in GDM.
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- [Management of diabetes in patients with hypertension]. [Journal Article]
- HRHipertens Riesgo Vasc 2017; 34 Suppl 2:30-34
- The diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases whose common link is hyperglycemia secondary to a deficit of insulin secretion, the defect of metabolic activity or both, causing micro and / or...
The diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases whose common link is hyperglycemia secondary to a deficit of insulin secretion, the defect of metabolic activity or both, causing micro and / or macrovascular chronic complications. Its prevalence is 13.6% and the direct costs of 2,500 million euros annually. Proper management of diabetes in hypertensive patients includes reaching a comprehensive control of all cardiovascular risk factors present. Objectives should be individualized depending on various factors such as age, duration of diabetes, presence or absence of complications and frequency of hypoglycemia, the capacity of each patient based on their cognitive status, support socio-family and Life expectancy. © 2017 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.