- Identification of MMP28 as a biomarker for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0203779
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that MMP28 might be a useful biomarker to improve the diagnostic certainty of IPF.
- Evaluation of Aspergillus and Mucorales specific T-cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine signatures as biomarkers of environmental mold exposure. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Med Microbiol 2018 Sep 03
- Mold specific T-cells have been described as a supportive biomarker to monitor invasive mycoses and mold exposure. This study comparatively evaluated frequencies and cytokine profiles of Aspergillus ...
Mold specific T-cells have been described as a supportive biomarker to monitor invasive mycoses and mold exposure. This study comparatively evaluated frequencies and cytokine profiles of Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucorales reactive T-cells depending on environmental mold exposure. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 35 healthy donors were stimulated with mycelial lysates of A. fumigatus and three human pathogenic Mucorales species. CD154+ specific T-cells were quantified by flow cytometry. In a second cohort of 20 additional donors, flow cytometry was complemented by 13-plex cytokine assays. Mold exposure of the subjects was determined using a previously established questionnaire. Highly exposed subjects exhibited significantly greater CD154+A. fumigatus and Mucorales specific naïve and memory T-helper cell frequencies. Significant correlation (r = 0.48 - 0.79) was found between A. fumigatus and Mucorales specific T-cell numbers. Logistic regression analyses revealed that combined analysis of mold specific T-cell frequencies and selected cytokine markers (A. fumigatus: IL-5 and TNF-α, R. arrhizus: IL-17A and IL-13) significantly improves classification performance, resulting in 75-90 % predictive power using 10-fold cross-validation. In conclusion, mold specific T-cell frequencies and their cytokine signatures offer promising potential in the assessment of environmental mold exposure. The cytokines identified in this pilot study should be validated in the clinical setting, e. g. in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
- Diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Differential Diagnosis. [Review]
- MSMed Sci (Basel) 2018 Sep 04; 6(3)
- Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and fibrotic interstitial lung disease of unknown origin with a characteristic imaging and histologic pattern called usual interstitial ...
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and fibrotic interstitial lung disease of unknown origin with a characteristic imaging and histologic pattern called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The diagnosis of IPF is a complex procedure that requires the support of various specialists, who must integrate clinical, radiological, and histological data. The multidisciplinary team (MDT) has become the new gold standard to diagnose and manage the disease, increasing the accuracy and agreement of the diagnosis between different centers. It is mandatory to exclude nonspecific interstitial pneumonia or other diseases that can cause the UIP pattern, particularly drugs or exposure diseases, including chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or systemic autoimmune disease. The role of the MDT is also to decide who could need a biopsy or to review patient diagnoses at regular intervals in those with additional information or unexpected evolution. This review provides updated information to achieve a proper IPF diagnosis.
- Lessons from the interstitial lung disease-India registry: A proposed practical scheme of classification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases in the Indian subcontinent. [Journal Article]
- LILung India 2018 Sep-Oct; 35(5):428-430
- The revelation of interstitial lung disease India registry leads one to consider a revisit into the classification of diffuse parenchymal lung disease that would be clinically relevant for the Indian...
The revelation of interstitial lung disease India registry leads one to consider a revisit into the classification of diffuse parenchymal lung disease that would be clinically relevant for the Indian subcontinent. The author ponders that a simple clinical classification based on steroid sensitivity may be worthwhile.
- Mechanisms of exercise limitation in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. [Journal Article]
- EOERJ Open Res 2018; 4(3)
- Small airway and interstitial pulmonary involvements are prominent in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP). However, their roles on exercise limitation and the relationship with functional lung...
Small airway and interstitial pulmonary involvements are prominent in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP). However, their roles on exercise limitation and the relationship with functional lung tests have not been studied in detail. Our aim was to evaluate exercise performance and its determinants in cHP. We evaluated maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing performance in 28 cHP patients (forced vital capacity 57±17% pred) and 18 healthy controls during cycling. Patients had reduced exercise performance with lower peak oxygen production (16.6 (12.3-19.98) mL·kg-1·min-1versus 25.1 (16.9-32.0), p=0.003), diminished breathing reserve (% maximal voluntary ventilation) (12 (6.4-34.8)% versus 41 (32.7-50.8)%, p<0.001) and hyperventilation (minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope 37±5 versus 31±4, p<0.001). All patients presented oxygen desaturation and augmented Borg dyspnoea scores (8 (5-10) versus 4 (1-7), p=0.004). The prevalence of dynamic hyperinflation was found in only 18% of patients. When comparing cHP patients with normal and low peak oxygen production (<84% pred, lower limit of normal), the latter exhibited a higher minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (39±5.0 versus 34±3.6, p=0.004), lower tidal volume (0.84 (0.78-0.90) L versus 1.15 (0.97-1.67) L, p=0.002), and poorer physical functioning score on the Short form-36 health survey. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that reduced lung volumes (forced vital capacity %, total lung capacity % and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon dioxide %) were high predictors of poor exercise capacity. Reduced exercise capacity was prevalent in patients because of ventilatory limitation and not due to dynamic hyperinflation. Reduced lung volumes were reliable predictors of lower performance during exercise.
- [A CASE OF ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC BIRDRELATED HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS WITH A REMARKABLE ELEVATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AVIAN ANTIGEN LEVELS]. [Journal Article]
- AArerugi 2018; 67(7):954-958
- A man in his 60's with interstitial pneumonitis who was previously admitted to another hospital was transferred to our hospital for further investigations 6 years prior to an acute exacerbation. Give...
A man in his 60's with interstitial pneumonitis who was previously admitted to another hospital was transferred to our hospital for further investigations 6 years prior to an acute exacerbation. Given his history of avian contact, the presence of antibodies specific to avian antigen, and a positive result of the inhalation provocation test using pigeon dropping extracts, he was diagnosed with bird-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis (BRHP). As such, we instructed the patient to avoid exposure to avian antigen, and regularly measured the level of avian antigen in dust samples collected from his household environment. Despite avoiding the stimulus, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were needed in view of progression of dyspnea after approximately five to six years. Four months after immunosuppressant therapy began, the patient suffered an acute exacerbation of BRHP and died. At this time, we found that the level of avian antigen was much higher than baseline. We suggest that exposure to high level of avian antigen is one cause of an acute exacerbation of BRHP.
- [FAMILIAL OCCURRENCE OF SUMMER-TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS IN DEFECTIVE HOME]. [Journal Article]
- AArerugi 2018; 67(7):948-953
- A 53-year-old-woman presented our hospital with 1 month history of exertional dyspnea and mild fever. When examined, temperature was 37.2℃ and her respiratory rate of 22/min with an O2 saturation of ...
A 53-year-old-woman presented our hospital with 1 month history of exertional dyspnea and mild fever. When examined, temperature was 37.2℃ and her respiratory rate of 22/min with an O2 saturation of 95% (02 4L/min), the rest of her vital signs were normal. The Chest X-ray was significant for ground-grass attenuation, and computed tomography showed diffuse nodular lesions bilaterally. She reported that the floorboard in the living room had been rotten last two months, and her husband was admitted to another hospital with similar symptoms the day before. We suspected that she and her husband have familial hypersensitivity pneumonitis although their children who live in the same house don't have any symptoms. After the admission, her respiratory status improved without treatment. The trans-bronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocytic infiltration in alveolar area, and epithelioid cell granuloma consisted of CD68-positive macrophages. These findings corresponded to subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed predominant lymphocytes of 92%, with a low CD4/8 ratio of 0.39. Serum anti-Trichosporon asahii antibodies were positive. With the result of positive environmental challenge test in her house, which showed elicited dyspnea and temperature increase up to 38℃ a few hours after she came back home, the patient was diagnosed as having summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Her husband was also diagnosed as the same disease, and symptoms improved with antigen avoidance and prednisolone. The patient was discharged to her relative's place for the moment of house repair. The patient's symptoms did not recur after her house was repaired.
- [DIAGNOSE CHRONIC HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS IN THIS MANNER]. [Journal Article]
- AArerugi 2018; 67(7):927-930
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Antigen diversity and disease implications. [Journal Article]
- PPulmonology 2018 Aug 17
- Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated syndrome triggered by inhalation of a wide variety of allergens, to which an individual has previously been sensitized. More than 200 agents re...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immune-mediated syndrome triggered by inhalation of a wide variety of allergens, to which an individual has previously been sensitized. More than 200 agents responsible for the disease have already been identified; however, HP occurs only in a small number of individuals exposed to causal antigens. The present report provides an overview of the role of antigen role in HP, highlighting its diversity, research methods, and prevention strategies, as well as the impact on disease prognosis following elimination of antigen. HP is an underdiagnosed disease and, therefore, it is difficult to accurately estimate its incidence. Triggering antigens can be divided into six broad categories: bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, animal and plant proteins, chemicals, and metals, represented by disease prototypes. The identification of causal antigen is a major challenge; it is impossible to obtain in about 30-60% of cases. The acute form of HP, with early detection and immediate eviction of causal antigen, tends to have an excellent prognosis. In the chronic form, partial recovery of disease is still possible; however, some cases tend to progress to fibrosis, even after removal from exposure. In conclusion, HP diagnosis should be based on a proactive search for potential antigen sources, although their identification is hampered by the lack of standardized methods of demonstrating the specific antigen sensitization. Antigen avoidance is a critical determinant in disease prognosis.
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- Elevated Levels of Intelectin-1, a Pathogen-binding Lectin, in the BAL Fluid of Patients with Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis. [Journal Article]
- IMIntern Med 2018 Aug 10
- Objective Human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1) binds to galactofuranosyl residues, which are present in the microbial cell wall, but which are absent in mammalian tissues, and has been suggested to play an i...
Objective Human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1) binds to galactofuranosyl residues, which are present in the microbial cell wall, but which are absent in mammalian tissues, and has been suggested to play an immunological role against microorganisms. However, the involvement of hITLN-1 in the pathogenesis of diffuse pulmonary diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hITLN-1 concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases. Methods The cell components and concentrations of hITLN-1 were analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of 8 patients with idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP), 3 patients with drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia (drug-EP), 4 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), 11 patients with sarcoidosis, 9 patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), and 5 patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia [fNSIP] or usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP]) Results The hITLN-1 concentrations in the BAL fluid of patients with ICEP and HP were higher than in those with other diseases. In the ICEP group, no significant difference was observed in the hITLN-1 concentrations of patients with or without a history of bronchial asthma. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that hITLN-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of ICEP and HP, and that an increase in the hITLN-1 concentration in the BAL fluid may represent a new biomarker for these diseases.