- [Acute Urinary Retention Caused by Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis : A Case Report]. [Journal Article]
- HKHinyokika Kiyo 2018; 64(1):17-20
- An 11-year-old boy was referred to our department with the chief complaint of acute urinary retention. He had had a history of viral enteritis a few days before the onset of dysuria. He presented wit...
An 11-year-old boy was referred to our department with the chief complaint of acute urinary retention. He had had a history of viral enteritis a few days before the onset of dysuria. He presented with a slight fever, mild headache and weakness of the extremities. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed the elevation of cell number (cell number : 158/3, polynuclear cells : 29/3, and mononuclear cells : 129/3). Although spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show abnormal findings, fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image of the brain MRI showed a high signal area on the cerebral cortex. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was suspected from the clinical course, the cerebrospinal fluid examination, and brain MRI findings. A urethral catheter was indwelled for urinary retention, and steroid pulse therapy was promptly started. After removal of the urethral catheter seven days after the therapy initiation, normal urination without residual urine was observed. Findings of a cerebrospinal fluid test and brain MRI also showed improvement.
- Should acute Q-fever patients be screened for valvulopathy to prevent endocarditis? [Journal Article]
- CIClin Infect Dis 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in outcome between patients with and without a valvulopathy newly detected by echocardiographic screening. In retrospect, the two above-mentioned patients could have benefitted from antibiotic prophylaxis, but its omission must be weighed against the unnecessary large-scale and long-term use of antibiotics that would have resulted from universal echocardiographic screening.
- Interspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory patterns and heat dissipation behaviours in a subtropical desert. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2018 Feb 19
- Deserts are physiologically challenging environments for birds, with scarce, unpredictable water resources combined with air temperatures (Tair) regularly exceeding avian body temperature (Tb). For a...
Deserts are physiologically challenging environments for birds, with scarce, unpredictable water resources combined with air temperatures (Tair) regularly exceeding avian body temperature (Tb). For arid-zone birds, mismatches between water supply and demand are a constant threat, yet interspecific variation in trade-offs between hyperthermia avoidance and dehydration avoidance remain poorly understood, particularly for free-ranging individuals. We examined behavioural and physiological responses to high Tairin nine species representing three orders that vary substantially in their heat dissipation thresholds, specifically pant50, the Tairat which panting behaviour is present in 50% of observations. Birds housed during mid-summer in large free-flight aviaries in the Kalahari Desert each received a surgically-implanted Tblogger, and we quantified shade-seeking, activity and panting behaviours to examine relationships between species-specific pant50and Tbregulation. Overall, species setpoint Tbvalues were higher (range: 41.4 ± 0.5 °C to 43.1 ± 0.4 °C) than expected with maximum Tbvalues of 43.4-45.5 °C. Interspecific variation in Tbpatterns at high Tairwas substantial, with Tbincreasing with Tairin most species, whereas in others no pattern or a negative relationship between Tband Tairwas evident. Most species avoided prolonged hyperthermia, with reductions in activity and increased shade-seeking evidently adequate to manage heat load without resorting to hyperthermia in in several of our study species. Access to drinking water and food resources in captivity may have affected Tbpatterns. Our data reveal that thermoregulation varies substantially among species, and suggest that free-ranging birds in hot, arid environments may maintain higher Tbthan currently thought.
- Dengue viruses and promising envelope protein domain III-based vaccines. [Review]
- AMAppl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Feb 22
- Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because ...
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections. Infection by any serotype creates life-long immunity against the corresponding serotype and temporary immunity to the others. This transient immunity declines after a while (6 months to 2 years) and is not protective against other serotypes, even may enhance the severity of a secondary heterotypic infection with a different serotype through a phenomenon known as antibody-depended enhancement (ADE). Although, it can be one of the possible explanations for more severe dengue diseases in individuals infected with a different serotype after primary infection. The envelope protein (E protein) of dengue virus is responsible for a wide range of biological activities, including binding to host cell receptors and fusion to and entry into host cells. The E protein, and especially its domain III (EDIII), stimulates host immunity responses by inducing protective and neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the dengue E protein is an important antigen for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. Here, we have provided a comprehensive review of dengue disease, vaccine design challenges, and various approaches in dengue vaccine development with emphasizing on newly developed envelope domain III-based dengue vaccine candidates.
- Lassa fever-induced sensorineural hearing loss: A neglected public health and social burden. [Review]
- PNPLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(2):e0006187
- Although an association between Lassa fever (LF) and sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was confirmed clinically in 1990, the prevalence of LF-induced SNHL in endemic countries is still u...
Although an association between Lassa fever (LF) and sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was confirmed clinically in 1990, the prevalence of LF-induced SNHL in endemic countries is still underestimated. LF, a viral hemorrhagic fever disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa, causing an estimated 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths per year. Sudden-onset SNHL, one complication of LF, occurs in approximately one-third of survivors and constitutes a neglected public health and social burden. In the endemic countries, where access to hearing aids is limited, SNHL results in a decline of the quality of life for those affected. In addition, hearing loss costs Nigeria approximately 43 million dollars per year. The epidemiology of LF-induced SNHL has not been characterized well. The complication of LF induced by SNHL is also an important consideration for vaccine development and treatments. However, research into the mechanism has been hindered by the lack of autopsy samples and relevant small animal models. Recently, the first animal model that mimics the symptoms of SNHL associated with LF was developed. Preliminary data from the new animal model as well as the clinical case studies support the mechanism of immune-mediated injury that causes SNHL in LF patients. This article summarizes clinical findings of hearing loss in LF patients highlighting the association between LASV infection and SNHL as well as the potential mechanism(s) for LF-induced SNHL. Further research is necessary to identify the mechanism and the epidemiology of LF-induced SNHL.
- Leptospira Genomospecies and Sequence Type Prevalence in Small Mammal Populations in Germany. [Journal Article]
- VBVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Feb 22
- Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira...
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany. Initial screening of kidney tissues of 3,950 animals by PCR targeting the lipl32 gene revealed 435 rodents of 6 species and 89 shrews of three species positive for leptospiral DNA. PCR-based analyses resulted in the identification of the genomospecies L. kirschneri (62.7%), Leptospira interrogans (28.3%), and Leptospira borgpetersenii (9.0%), which are represented by four, one, and two STs, respectively. The average Leptospira prevalence was highest (∼30%) in common voles (Microtus arvalis) and field voles (Microtus agrestis). Both species were exclusively infected with L. kirschneri. In contrast, in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), DNA of all three genomospecies was detected, and in common shrews (Sorex araneus) DNA of L. kirschneri and L. borgpetersenii was identified. The association between individual infection status and demographic factors varied between species; infection status was always positively correlated to body weight. In conclusion, the study confirmed a broad geographical distribution of Leptospira in small mammals and suggested an important public health relevance of common and field voles as reservoirs of L. kirschneri. Furthermore, the investigations identified seasonal, habitat-related, as well as individual influences on Leptospira prevalence in small mammals that might impact public health.
- Genomic and structural features of the yellow fever virus from the 2016-2017 Brazilian outbreak. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Virol 2018 Feb 22
- Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South ...
Southeastern Brazil has been suffering a rapid expansion of a severe sylvatic yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak since late 2016, which has reached one of the most populated zones in Brazil and South America, heretofore a yellow fever-free zone for more than 70 years. In the current study, we describe the complete genome of 12 YFV samples from mosquitoes, humans and non-human primates from the Brazilian 2017 epidemic. All of the YFV sequences belong to the modern lineage (sub-lineage 1E) of South American genotype I, having been circulating for several months prior to the December 2016 detection. Our data confirm that viral strains associated with the most severe YF epidemic in South America in the last 70 years display unique amino acid substitutions that are mainly located in highly conserved positions in non-structural proteins. Our data also corroborate that YFV has spread southward into Rio de Janeiro state following two main sylvatic dispersion routes that converged at the border of the great metropolitan area comprising nearly 12 million unvaccinated inhabitants. Our original results can help public health authorities to guide the surveillance, prophylaxis and control measures required to face such a severe epidemiological problem. Finally, it will also inspire other workers to further investigate the epidemiological and biological significance of the amino acid polymorphisms detected in the Brazilian 2017 YFV strains.
- [Epidemiological analysis of imported malaria in Yancheng City from 2011 to 2015]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Oct 19; 29(6):746-748
- CONCLUSIONS: There are no local malaria cases in Yancheng City from 2011 to 2015, and in the next stage, the monitoring and prevention should be focused on imported malaria, including shortening the confirmed diagnostic time and improving the diagnostic efficiency.
- [Clinical features of 14 cases of cerebral schistosomiasis in Jiangxi Province]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Oct 25; 29(6):740-742
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of cerebral schistosomiasis mainly include seizure, headache, dizziness and fever. In the enhanced head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesions are clustered and merged into lumps, which is the characteristic image of cerebral schistosomiasis japonica. The praziquantel treatment can achieve a good prognosis.
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- [Clinical features of imported schistosomiasis mansoni in Beijing City：a report of 6 cases]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi 2017 Mar 10; 29(2):150-154
- CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive analysis of clinical data including epidemiological history, specific manifestations, laboratory tests and intestinal mucosa pathology may be benefit of the management of schistosomiasis mansoni.