- High-throughput label-free microcontact printing graphene-based biosensor for valley fever. [Journal Article]
- CSColloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Jun 18; 170:219-223
- The highly prevalent and virulent disease in the Western Hemisphere Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, can cause serious illness such as severe pneumonia with respiratory failure. It can...
The highly prevalent and virulent disease in the Western Hemisphere Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, can cause serious illness such as severe pneumonia with respiratory failure. It can also take on a disseminated form where the infection spreads throughout the body. Thus, a serious impetus exists to develop effective detection of the disease that can also operate in a rapid and high-throughput fashion. Here, we report the assembly of a highly sensitive biosensor using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with Coccidioides(cocci) antibodies as the target analytes. The facile design made possible by the scalable microcontact printing (μCP) surface patterning technique which enables rapid, ultrasensitive detection. It provides a wide linear range and sub picomolar (2.5 pg/ml) detection, while also delivering high selectivity and reproducibility. This work demonstrates an important advancement in the development of a sensitive label-free rGO biosensor for Coccidioidomycosis detection. This result also provides the potential application of direct pathogen diagnosis for the future biosensor development.
- Solvothermal Synthesis of Magnetic Spinel Ferrites. [Review]
- JMJ Med Signals Sens 2018 Apr-Jun; 8(2):108-118
- At present, solvothermal fabrication method has widely been applied in the synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles (SFNs), which is mainly because of its great advantages such as precise control ov...
At present, solvothermal fabrication method has widely been applied in the synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles (SFNs), which is mainly because of its great advantages such as precise control over size, shape distribution, and high crystallinity that do not require postannealing treatment. Among various SFNs, Fe3O4 nanoparticles have attracted tremendous attention because of their favorable physical and structural properties which are advantageous, especially in biomedical applications, among which the vast application of these materials as targeted drug delivery systems, hyperthermia, and imaging agents in cancer therapy can be mentioned. The main focus of this study is to present an introduction to solvothermal method and key synthesis parameters of SFNs through this synthesis route. Moreover, most recent progress on the potential applications of Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the most important compound among the spinel ferrites family members is discussed.
- Is multiple session of intralesional bleomycin mandatory for complete resolution of macrocystic lymphatic malformation? [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Plast Surg 2018 Jan-Apr; 51(1):60-65
- CONCLUSIONS: Intralesional bleomycin is an effective treatment for macrocystic lesion, and complete resolution may be achieved by single session of ILS if proper principle are followed.
- The association between temperature, rainfall and humidity with common climate-sensitive infectious diseases in Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(6):e0199579
- Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries for climate change. This observational study examined the association of temperature, humidity and rainfall with six common climate-sensitiv...
Bangladesh is one of the world's most vulnerable countries for climate change. This observational study examined the association of temperature, humidity and rainfall with six common climate-sensitive infectious diseases in adults (malaria, diarrheal disease, enteric fever, encephalitis, pneumonia and bacterial meningitis) in northeastern Bangladesh. Subjects admitted to the adult medicine ward of a tertiary referral hospital in Sylhet, Bangladesh from 2008 to 2012 with a diagnosis of one of the six chosen climate-sensitive infectious diseases were enrolled in the study. Climate-related data were collected from the Bangladesh Meteorological Institute. Disease incidence was then analyzed against mean temperature, humidity and average rainfall for the Sylhet region. Statistical significance was determined using Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test and ANOVA testing. 5033 patients were enrolled (58% male, 42% female, ratio 1.3:1). All six diseases showed highly significant (p = 0.01) rises in incidence between the study years 2008 (540 cases) and 2012 (1330 cases), compared with no significant rise in overall all-cause hospital admissions in the same period (p = 0.19). The highest number of malaria (135), diarrhea (266) and pneumonia (371) cases occurred during the rainy season. On the other hand, the maximum number of enteric fever (408), encephalitis (183) and meningitis (151) cases occurred during autumn, which follows the rainy season. A positive (P = 0.01) correlation was observed between increased temperature and the incidence of malaria, enteric fever and diarrhea, and a negative correlation with encephalitis, meningitis and pneumonia. Higher humidity correlated (P = 0.01) with a higher number of cases of malaria and diarrhea, but inversely correlated with meningitis and encephalitis. Higher incidences of encephalitis and meningitis occurred while there was low rainfall. Incidences of diarrhea, malaria and enteric fever, increased with rainfall, and then gradually decreased. The findings support a relationship between weather patterns and disease incidence, and provide essential baseline data for future large prospective studies.
- Use of Axenic Culture Tools to Study Coxiella burnetii. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Protoc Microbiol 2018 May 18; :e52
- Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of the zoonosis Query (Q) fever. This Gram-negative gamma-proteobacterium has adapted to replicate ...
Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of the zoonosis Query (Q) fever. This Gram-negative gamma-proteobacterium has adapted to replicate within a specialized compartment in mammalian phagocytic cells, known as the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). Knowledge of critical characteristics of the CCV microenvironment (e.g., luminal pH), analysis of the C. burnetii genome sequence, and strategic metabolic profiling have provided the basis for determining the physicochemical and nutritional conditions necessary to support axenic replication of C. burnetii. In this unit, the media currently utilized for axenic culture of C. burnetii are described, with emphasis on application. To aid in experimental reproducibility and interpretation of results, considerations and limitations are discussed. Lastly, expected results for C. burnetii axenic growth under control conditions are provided as a reference. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Towards using a focussed phased array of millimetre length scale elements for ultrasound imaging. [Journal Article]
- PMPhys Med Biol 2018 Jun 21
- Sparse phased array ultrasound transducers with millimetre length scale elements have previously been proposed for generating hyperthermia but not for imaging. Numerical simulation with a pseudospect...
Sparse phased array ultrasound transducers with millimetre length scale elements have previously been proposed for generating hyperthermia but not for imaging. Numerical simulation with a pseudospectral solver was used to investigate: (a) how the position of the maximum pressure in the focal region changed with element diameter and frequency; (b) how the size and position of the focal region changed with focal distance under steering; and (c) the imaging performance of 15 element random arrays. These analyses were performed for both piston-like and non piston-like millimetre diameter elements since previous work has shown a shift in the distance to the maximum pressure in the focal region with the latter. The results for these elements were compared with elements where the diameter was <λ/2. The distance from the array to the position of maximum pressure in the focal region diverged from the value with element diameter <λ/2; values for piston-like elements increased positively whilst values for non piston-like elements increased negatively. With distances in expressed λ, no difference was found for arrays at 1MHz and 2.5MHz. For piston-like elements, but not for non piston-like elements, two peaks were found in the focal region which were in-line with the direction of propagation for a focus on the central axis but which rotated to become parallel with the direction of propagation when steering exceeded 20°. The size and position of the focal region under steering was similar for the non piston-like elements and elements with diameter <λ/2. Little difference was found in image quality or the size of the point spread function (PSF) between images at 2.5MHz with piston-like and non piston-like behaviour for steering angles less than 20° when compared with a linear array of similar size. These results suggest that imaging with random arrays of millimetre length scale elements is possible.
- [Infective endocarditis:an emergency well too minimized]. [Classical Article]
- RMRev Med Liege 2018; 73(5-6):283-289
- Infective endocarditis is a rare disease that can lead to some diagnostic wandering because of its often nonspecific and polymorphic clinical manifestations. This latency is at the origin of severe c...
Infective endocarditis is a rare disease that can lead to some diagnostic wandering because of its often nonspecific and polymorphic clinical manifestations. This latency is at the origin of severe cardiac and extra-cardiac complications, yet highly fatal. The clinician should always bear in mind the differential diagnosis of a patient with fever of undetermined origin, with risk factors for valve infection such as foreign material, and history recent invasive procedures (including dental procedures) or recent hospitalization. The current medical tools make it possible to highlight the infection and its complications in a fast and complete manner, so as not to delay the patient's management, particularly with the introduction of urgent empirical antibiotherapy.
- Effectiveness and Safety of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Delivery during Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients. [Journal Article]
- TRTuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2018 Jun 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of HFNC during BAL procedure in ARF patients was effective and safe. However, there were no significant differences in oxygen saturation level and complications comparing "without HFNC" group in mild ARF. More studies are needed for moderate to severe ARF patients.
- Sudden death from acute epiglottitis in a toddler. [Journal Article]
- FSForensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Jun 20
- The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudde...
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudden death. The incidence of Hib-induced epiglottitis in children has declined since the introduction of vaccinations in countries where such vaccinations are routinely administered. We herein present a case involving a 2.5-year-old boy who died suddenly at home. He had developed acute-onset throat and abdominal pain and a high fever. Despite an emergency cricothyrotomy due to a complicated intubation because of a massively swollen epiglottis, the efforts to resuscitate the child were unsuccessful. He was a previously healthy toddler, but he had not yet been vaccinated. Microbiologic analysis revealed the pathogenic bacterium Hib. The main autopsy finding was acute epiglottitis with swelling and cherry-red coloring of the epiglottis. Postmortem cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid and heart blood also revealed Hib as the pathogenic agent. Acute pneumonia was also diagnosed microscopically. The present report describes a rare case of Hib-induced acute epiglottitis and presents the key findings of forensic investigations in this type of disease.
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- Breakthrough infection of Geotrichum capitatum during empirical caspofungin therapy after umbilical cord blood transplantation. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Hematol 2018 Jun 20
- We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had re...
We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had received umbilical cord blood transplantation after two courses of induction therapy. Empirical therapy with caspofungin was initiated 5 days before transplantation. Tacrolimus was continuously infused to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A minidose of methotrexate was intravenously administered on days 1 and 3 post-transplantation, which was changed to prednisolone from day 7 due to severe mucositis. During a recurrence of fever on day 11, blood cultures were found to be positive for a yeast-like organism, which was later confirmed by mass spectrometry to be G. capitatum. The serum levels of beta-D-glucan were elevated to 747 pg/mL. Caspofungin was switched to liposomal amphotericin B; however, radiological findings revealed pulmonary, splenic, and central nervous system involvement. Progressive renal and hepatic dysfunction subsequently developed. The patient died on day 25 post-transplantation secondary to the development of hemophagocytic syndrome and respiratory failure. We emphasize that recurrent febrile episodes, prolonged neutropenia, and underlying gastrointestinal mucosal damage require extreme caution due to the possibility of breakthrough infection caused by new fungal pathogens during empirical therapy with caspofungin.