- LONGRANGE® (eprinomectin 5% w/v extended-release injection) efficacy against Hypoderma lineatum in an endemic area in southern Italy. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2019 May 14; 12(1):231
- CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the continued 'preventive' (efficacy against migrating L1) and 'therapeutic' (efficacy against L2 and L3 in warbles) efficacy of LONGRANGE® against H. lineatum infestation of cattle under contemporary field conditions.
- First report of a Hypoderma diana infestation in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Germany. [Journal Article]
- PRParasitol Res 2019; 118(6):1963-1966
- A Hypoderma larva was removed from a painful swelling in the lumbar region of a 17-month-old male alpaca kept on a farm in the Brandenburg district, eastern Germany. Morphological analysis and sequen…
A Hypoderma larva was removed from a painful swelling in the lumbar region of a 17-month-old male alpaca kept on a farm in the Brandenburg district, eastern Germany. Morphological analysis and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene demonstrated it was a second instar larvae of Hypoderma diana. The main host of H. diana is the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). This is the first description of hypodermosis caused by H. diana in a camelid species.
- Hypodermosis in cattle translocated to Tamil Nadu from Punjab. [Journal Article]
- TATrop Anim Health Prod 2019; 51(3):519-522
- Fifteen apparently healthy Kandari cross-bred cattle aged about 4 years were purchased from Rurki, Patiala district of Punjab by a private dairy farmer in Erode, Tamil Nadu. Four animals showed erupt…
Fifteen apparently healthy Kandari cross-bred cattle aged about 4 years were purchased from Rurki, Patiala district of Punjab by a private dairy farmer in Erode, Tamil Nadu. Four animals showed eruptions on the lateral thoracic and dorsal abdominal regions of the body after 15-day period of quarantine. Manual palpation of the eruptions resulted in the emergence of larval stages of dipteran flies, identified by their morphology as Hypoderma from these animals. Molecular identification based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 (COX-1) gene confirmed it to be Hypoderma lineatum. Treatment with oral ivermectin did not have any curative effects, with exacerbation of disease being noticed, as more than 500 eruptions subsequently emerged in each animal, which had to be culled. Consequences of long distance migration of host on parasite epidemiology are discussed. Awareness must be created among livestock farmers to prevent their economic loss while purchasing cattle from different parts of the country.
- Hypodermin C improves the survival of kidney allografts. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Immunol 2018; 51:45-49
- Although immunosuppressive therapies have made organ transplantation a common medical procedure worldwide, chronic toxicity is a major issue of long-term treatment. One method to improve such therapi…
Although immunosuppressive therapies have made organ transplantation a common medical procedure worldwide, chronic toxicity is a major issue of long-term treatment. One method to improve such therapies is the application of immunomodulatory agents from parasites, such as Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Hypodermin C (HC) is an enzyme secreted by H. lineatum larvae, and our previous study showed that recombinant HC could degrade guinea pig C3 and inhibit the complement pathway in vitro, suggesting potential activity for inhibiting transplant rejection. However, such properties have not been fully demonstrated in vivo. In this study, we investigated the impact of HC on a fully MHC-mismatched, life-sustaining, murine model of kidney allograft rejection using B6 donors and BABL/c (HC transgenic or wild-type) recipients. Kidney grafts were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The results suggested that HC could effectively inhibit kidney allograft rejection. These findings suggest HC is a promising strategy to improve the survival of human implants.
- Biological Morphogenetic Surgery: A Minimally Invasive Procedure to Address Different Biological Mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- ASAesthet Surg J 2018 Aug 22
- We present a methodology called biological morphogenetic surgery (BMS) that is able to recover (enlarge or reduce) the shape/volume of anatomic structures/tissues affected by congenital or acquired m…
We present a methodology called biological morphogenetic surgery (BMS) that is able to recover (enlarge or reduce) the shape/volume of anatomic structures/tissues affected by congenital or acquired malformations based on a minimally invasive procedure (MIP). This emerges as a new concept in which the main task of surgery is the biological modulation of different remodeling and repair mechanisms. When applied, for example, to a tuberous breast deformity (TBD), the "enlarging BMS" expands the retracted tissue surrounding the gland through a cutting tip of a needle being inserted through small incisions percutaneously, accounting for the biological activity of the grafted fat. Actually, the obtained spaces might be spontaneously occupied and later filled with autologous grafted fat, which promotes tissue expanding by eliciting adipogenesis and preventing fibrosis. The "reducing BMS" creates an interruption of the contact between the derma and the hypoderma of the abnormally large areola, and then promotes adipocytes to induce a fibrotic reaction, leading to areola reduction. Current evidence suggests that BMS might induce a bivalent mesenchymalization of the adipocyte, which promotes either new adipogenesis and angiogensis of local fat (expanding BMS) or the granulation tissue/fibrotic response (reducing BMS), thus leading to the physiological recovery of the affected structures/tissues to normality.
- Case Report: First Report of Autochthonous Human Cutaneous Myiasis Caused by Hypoderma lineatum in Europe. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2018; 99(3):618-619
- We report a case of human cutaneous myiasis by Hypoderma lineatum, contracted by a farmer who never traveled outside Italy. Identification at species level has been performed by both morphological ex…
We report a case of human cutaneous myiasis by Hypoderma lineatum, contracted by a farmer who never traveled outside Italy. Identification at species level has been performed by both morphological examination and sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. This is the first description of human hypodermosis by H. lineatum contracted in Europe.
- Stochastic processes govern bacterial communities from the blood of pikas and from their arthropod vectors. [Journal Article]
- FMFEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 06 01; 94(6)
- Vector-borne microbes influence pathogen transmission and blood microbiomes, thereby affecting the emergence of infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the relationship between host and vector micro…
Vector-borne microbes influence pathogen transmission and blood microbiomes, thereby affecting the emergence of infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the relationship between host and vector microbiomes is of importance. In this study, we investigated the bacterial community composition, diversity and assembly of the flea (Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina), torsalo (Hypoderma curzonial), and the blood and gut of their shared pika host, Ochotona curzoniae. Bartonella, Sphingomonas and Bradyrhizobium were enriched in blood, while Wolbachia and Fusobacterium were more abundant in fleas and torsaloes. Most of potential pathogenic microbes (belonging to Fusobacterium, Rickettsia, Kingella, Porphyromonas, Bartonella and Mycoplasma) were present in the blood of pikas and their vectors. Blood communities were more similar to those from fleas than other sample types and were independent of host factors or geographical sites. Notably, blood microbes originate mainly from fleas rather than gut or torsaloes. Interestingly, the community assembly of blood, fleas or torsaloes was primarily governed by stochastic processes, while the gut microbiome was determined by deterministic processes. Ecological drift plays a dominant role in the assembly of blood and flea microbiomes. These results reflect the difficulty for predicting and regulating the microbial ecology of fleas for the prevention of potential microbiome-associated diseases.
- Micro-computed tomography visualization of the vestigial alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies. [Journal Article]
- MVMed Vet Entomol 2018; 32(3):378-382
- Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore…
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Both O. ovis and H. lineatum adults showed significant reductions of the cardia and the diameter of the digestive tract, an absence of the helicoidal portion of the midgut typical of other cyclorrhaphous flies, and a lack of crop and salivary glands. Given the current interest in the alimentary canal in adult dipterans in biomedical and developmental biology studies, further understanding of the morphology and development of this organ system in adult oestrids may provide valuable new insights in several areas of research.
- First Molecular Characterization of Hypoderma actaeon in Cattle and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in Portugal. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Parasitol 2017; 55(6):653-658
- Hypoderma spp. larvae cause subcutaneous myiasis in several animal species. The objective of the present investigation was to identify and characterize morphologically and molecularly the larvae of H…
Hypoderma spp. larvae cause subcutaneous myiasis in several animal species. The objective of the present investigation was to identify and characterize morphologically and molecularly the larvae of Hypoderma spp. collected from cattle (Bos taurus taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the district of Castelo Branco, Portugal. For this purpose, a total of 8 larvae were collected from cattle (n=2) and red deer (n=6). After morphological identification of Hypoderma spp. larvae, molecular characterization was based on PCR-RFLP and mitochondrial CO1 gene sequence analysis. All larvae were morphologically characterized as the third instar larvae (L3) of H. actaeon. Two restriction enzymes were used for molecular identification of the larvae. TaqI restriction enzyme was not able to cut H. actaeon. However, MboII restriction enzyme differentiated Hypoderma species showing 210 and 450 bp bands in H. actaeon. Furthermore, according to the alignment of the mt-CO1 gene sequences of Hypoderma species and to PCR-RFLP findings, all the identified Hypoderma larvae were confirmed as H. actaeon. This is the first report of identification of Hypoderma spp. (Diptera; Oestridae) from cattle and red deer in Portugal, based on morphological and molecular analyses.
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- Meat inspection of reindeer - a rich source of data for monitoring food safety and animal and environmental health in Sweden. [Journal Article]
- IEInfect Ecol Epidemiol 2017; 7(1):1340695
- Background: This study scrutinized carcass conditions recorded in post mortem inspections (PMI) of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, L.) during 2015-2016 because of the importance for monitorin…
Background: This study scrutinized carcass conditions recorded in post mortem inspections (PMI) of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, L.) during 2015-2016 because of the importance for monitoring food safety and animal and environmental health threats. Material and methods: PMI results were retrieved from the National Food Agency. A negative binomial regression model was applied. For actual parameters, incident risk rate (IRR) with confidence intervals was calculated. Results and discussion: The number of conditions found in PMI varied widely between years and batches. The most common conditions (43 and 57% of all reindeer slaughtered in 2015 and 2016, respectively) derived from non-zoonotic parasites as the most abundant one, Hypoderma tarandi. Setaria sp. as well as both inflammatory processes and trauma were found in low prevalences. Further investigation of interactions with slaughterhouse size and inspector experience is needed. The conditions found rarely indicated food safety hazards and no epizooties or zoonoses have been recorded in the past two decades. Visual PMI with complementary sampling for specific hazards in slaughterhouses could thus be a helpful tool for monitoring the health and welfare of the reindeer population, the food safety risks with reindeer meat, and the status of the environment. .