- Deficiency in GnRH receptor trafficking due to a novel homozygous mutation causes idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in three prepubertal siblings. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2018 May 16
- Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is characterized by low levels of gonadotropins and delayed or absent sexual development. Most of the patients are diagnosed in late adolescence or earl...
Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is characterized by low levels of gonadotropins and delayed or absent sexual development. Most of the patients are diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood. Determining the diagnosis of IHH in prepubertal patients can be challenging. Making a timely, correct diagnosis has important clinical implications. Here we aimed to identify the genetic cause of IHH in three prepubertal siblings from a Chinese Han family and give appropriate treatment advice. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), we identified a novel homozygous GNRHR mutation (NM_000406; c.364C>T, p.L122F) in two prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism and micropenis. Sanger sequencing showed that their younger asymptomatic sister also had the homozygous GNRHR mutation. This mutation was inherited from the father and the mother. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that in permeabilized cells, expression of the mutant receptor on the cell membrane was significantly lower than that of wild-type. Calcium mobilization assays demonstrated that c.364C>T in the GNRHR gene is a complete loss-of-function mutation that caused IHH. These results may contribute to the genetic diagnosis of the three prepubertal siblings with IHH. According to this diagnosis, timely hormonal treatment can be given for the three prepubertal patients to induce pubertal development, especially for the asymptomatic female.
- Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: an unusual cause of hypopituitarism. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- Granular cell tumours (GCT) are rare, slow-growing, benign neoplasms that are usually located in the head and neck. They are more frequent in the female gender and typically have an asymptomatic clin...
Granular cell tumours (GCT) are rare, slow-growing, benign neoplasms that are usually located in the head and neck. They are more frequent in the female gender and typically have an asymptomatic clinical course, being diagnosed only at autopsy. Symptomatic GCT of the neurohypophysis are exceedingly rare, being less than 70 cases described so far. The authors report on a case of a 28-year-old male that presented to the Endocrinology clinic with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. He also reported minor headaches without any major visual symptoms. Further laboratory tests confirmed hypopituitarism (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism) and central nervous system imaging revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient underwent transcranial pituitary adenoma resection and the pathology report described a GCT of the neurohypophysis with low mitotic index. The reported case is noteworthy for the rarity of the clinicopathological entity.
- Comprehensive Endocrine-Metabolic Evaluation of Patients with Alström Syndrome Compared to BMI-Matched Controls. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Apr 27
- CONCLUSIONS: Severe insulin resistance and T2DM are the hallmarks of AS. However, patients with AS may present with multiple other endocrinopathies affecting growth and development.
- Short-term Assessment of HSCT Effects on the Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Pediatric Thalassemic Patients. [Journal Article]
- AIArch Iran Med 2018 Feb 01; 21(2):56-60
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering the small sample size and short duration of the study, it is difficult to reach any conclusion however it seems HSCT does not appear to have an overall positive or negative effect on prevalence of pituitary- hypothalamus axis disorders in pediatric thalassemic patients in 3 months.
- Late effects after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for beta-thalassemia major: the French national experience. [Journal Article]
- HHaematologica 2018 Mar 29
- In this retrospective study, we evaluate long-term complications in nearly all β-thalassemia-major patients who successfully received, in France, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 9...
In this retrospective study, we evaluate long-term complications in nearly all β-thalassemia-major patients who successfully received, in France, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 99 patients were analysed with a median age of 5.9 years at transplantation. The median duration of clinical follow-up was 12 years. All conditioning regimen were myeloablative, most often based on busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide and more than 90% of patients underwent a transplant from a matched sibling donor. After transplantation, 11% of patients developed thyroid dysfunction, 5% diabetes and 2% heart failure. Hypogonadism was present in 56% of females and 14% of males. Female patients who developed normal puberty after transplant were significantly younger at transplantation than those who experienced delayed puberty (median age 2.5 versus 8.7 years). Fertility was preserved in 9/27 females aged 20 and above and 2 other patients became pregnant following oocyte donation. In addition to patient's age and higher serum ferritin levels at transplantation, time elapsed since transplant was significantly associated with decreased height growth in multivariate analysis. Weight growth increased after transplantation particularly in females, 36% of adults being overweight at last evaluation. A comprehensive long-term monitoring especially of endocrine late-effects is required after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia.
- A rare cause of primary adrenal insufficiency due to a homozygous Arg188Cys mutation in theSTARgene. [Journal Article]
- EDEndocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018; 2018
- Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) is a key protein for the intracellular transport of cholesterol to the mitochondrium in endocrine organs (e.g. adrenal gland, ovaries, testes) and essent...
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) is a key protein for the intracellular transport of cholesterol to the mitochondrium in endocrine organs (e.g. adrenal gland, ovaries, testes) and essential for the synthesis of all steroid hormones. Several mutations have been described and the clinical phenotype varies strongly and may be grouped into classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH), in which all steroidogenesis is disrupted, and non-classic LCAH, which resembles familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), which affects predominantly adrenal functions. Classic LCAH is characterized by early and potentially life-threatening manifestation of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) with electrolyte disturbances and 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) in males as well as lack of pubertal development in both sexes. Non-classic LCAH manifests usually later in life with PAI. Nevertheless, life-long follow-up of gonadal function is warranted. We describe a 26-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with PAI early in life without detailed diagnostic work-up. At the age of 14 months, she presented with hyperpigmentation, elevated ACTH and low cortisol levels. As her older brother was diagnosed with PAI two years earlier, she was put on hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone replacement therapy before an Addisonian crisis occurred. Upon review of her case in adulthood, consanguinity was noted in the family. Genetic analysis for PAI revealed a homozygous mutation in theSTARgene (c.562C>T, p.Arg188Cys) in both siblings. This mutation has been previously described in non-classic LCAH. This case illustrates that early onset, familial PAI is likely due to autosomal recessive genetic mutations in known genes causing PAI.
- Fertility and infertility: Definition and epidemiology. [Review]
- CBClin Biochem 2018 Mar 16
- Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of r...
Infertility is a disease characterized by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. It is estimated to affect between 8 and 12% of reproductive-aged couples worldwide. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases but contribute to 50% of cases overall. Secondary infertility is the most common form of female infertility around the globe, often due to reproductive tract infections. The three major factors influencing the spontaneous probability of conception are the time of unwanted non-conception, the age of the female partner and the disease-related infertility. The chance of becoming spontaneously pregnant declines with the duration before conception. The fertility decline in female already starts around 25-30 years of age and the median age at last birth is 40-41 years in most studied populations experiencing natural fertility. The disease-related infertility may affect both genders or be specific to one gender. The factors affecting both genders' fertility are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, disorders of ciliary function, cystic fibrosis, infections, systemic diseases and lifestyle related factors/diseases. Premature ovarian insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids and endometrial polyps may play a role in female infertility. Male infertility may be due to testicular and post-testicular deficiencies. Semen decline that has been observed over the years, endocrine disrupting chemicals and consanguinity are other factors that may be involved.
- Disorders of spermatogenesis: Perspectives for novel genetic diagnostics after 20 years of unchanged routine. [Review]
- MGMed Genet 2018; 30(1):12-20
- Infertility is a common condition estimated to affect 10-15% of couples. The clinical causes are attributed in equal parts to the male and female partners. Diagnosing male infertility mostly relies o...
Infertility is a common condition estimated to affect 10-15% of couples. The clinical causes are attributed in equal parts to the male and female partners. Diagnosing male infertility mostly relies on semen (and hormone) analysis, which results in classification into the two major phenotypes of oligo- and azoospermia. The clinical routine analyses have not changed over the last 20 years and comprise screening for chromosomal aberrations and Y‑chromosomal azoospermia factor deletions. These tests establish a causal genetic diagnosis in about 4% of unselected men in infertile couples and 20% of azoospermic men. Gene sequencing is currently only performed in very rare cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and theCFTRgene is routinely analysed in men with obstructive azoospermia. Still, a large number of genes have been proposed to be associated with male infertility by, for example, knock-out mouse models. In particular, those that are exclusively expressed in the testes are potential candidates for further analyses. However, the genome-wide analyses (a few array-CGH, six GWAS, and some small exome sequencing studies) performed so far have not lead to improved clinical diagnostic testing. In 2017, we started to routinely analyse the three validated male infertility genes:NR5A1, DMRT1, andTEX11. Preliminary analyses demonstrated highly likely pathogenic mutations in these genes as a cause of azoospermia in 4 men, equalling 5% of the 80 patients analysed so far, and increasing the diagnostic yield in this group to 25%. Over the past few years, we have observed a steep increase in publications on novel candidate genes for male infertility, especially in men with azoospermia. In addition, concerted efforts to achieve progress in elucidating genetic causes of male infertility and to introduce novel testing strategies into clinical routine have been made recently. Thus, we are confident that major breakthroughs concerning the genetics of male infertility will be achieved in the near future and will translate into clinical routine to improve patient/couple care.
- [Clinical characteristics of central diabetes insipidus: a retrospective analysis of 230 cases]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2018 Mar 01; 57(3):201-205
- Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and etiologies of central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Methods: The clinical data of 230 patients with CDI in the Department of Endocrinology of Chi...
Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics and etiologies of central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Methods: The clinical data of 230 patients with CDI in the Department of Endocrinology of Chinese PLA General Hospital from 2008 June to 2014 December were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The three most common causes of CDI were idiopathic CDI, lymphocytic hypophysitis and intracranial germ cell tumors. Among all the CDI, the idiopathic CDI accounted for 37.48%. There were significant differences in age onset and gender distribution among the different causes of CDI. The patients with intracranial germ cell tumors [age of onset(19.2±10.2) years] were younger than the other types of CDI. Germ cell tumors patients were more common in male, and lymphocytic hypophysitis patients were more common in female. The most frequent abnormality of anterior pituitary in patients with CDI was growth hormone deficiency, followed by hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. The dysfunction of thyroid axis and adrenal axis in patients with germ cell tumor was more common than those in patients with idiopathic and lymphocytic hypophysitis. Conclusions: The most common causes of central diabetes insipidus were idiopathic CDI, lymphocytic hypophysitis and intracranial germ cell tumors. There were differences in age of onset, gender distribution and abnormal production of anterior pituitary hormones among all causes of CDI patients.
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- Estrogen Deficiency Promotes Hepatic Steatosis via a Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Mechanism in Mice. [Journal Article]
- CRCell Rep 2018 Mar 06; 22(10):2690-2701
- Glucocorticoids (GCs) are master regulators of systemic metabolism. Intriguingly, Cushing's syndrome, a disorder of excessive GCs, phenocopies several menopause-induced metabolic pathologies. Here, w...
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are master regulators of systemic metabolism. Intriguingly, Cushing's syndrome, a disorder of excessive GCs, phenocopies several menopause-induced metabolic pathologies. Here, we show that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) drives steatosis in hypogonadal female mice because hepatocyte-specific GR knockout mice are refractory to developing ovariectomy-induced steatosis. Intriguingly, transcriptional profiling revealed that ovariectomy elicits hepatic GC hypersensitivity globally. Hypogonadism-induced GC hypersensitivity results from a loss of systemic but not hepatic estrogen (E2) signaling, given that hepatocyte-specific E2 receptor deletion does not confer GC hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, enhanced chromatin recruitment and ligand-dependent hyperphosphorylation of GR underlie ovariectomy-induced glucocorticoid hypersensitivity. The dysregulated glucocorticoid-mediated signaling present in hypogonadal females is a product of increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production because FSH treatment in ovary-intact mice recapitulates glucocorticoid hypersensitivity similar to hypogonadal female mice. Our findings uncover a regulatory axis between estradiol, FSH, and hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling that, when disrupted, as in menopause, promotes hepatic steatosis.