- Melanin Bleaching With Warm Hydrogen Peroxide and Integrated Immunohistochemical Analysis: An Automated Platform. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Pathol 2018 Feb 01; :1066896918756998
- Diagnosing melanocytic lesions is among the most challenging problems in the practice of pathology. The difficulty of physically masking melanin pigment and the similarity of its color to commonly us...
Diagnosing melanocytic lesions is among the most challenging problems in the practice of pathology. The difficulty of physically masking melanin pigment and the similarity of its color to commonly used chromogens often complicate examination of the cytomorphology and immunohistochemical staining results for tumor cells. Melanin bleach can be very helpful for histopathological diagnosis of heavily pigmented melanocytic lesions. Although various depigmentation methods have been reported, no standardized methods have been developed. This study developed a fully automated platform that incorporates hydrogen peroxide-based melanin depigmentation in an automated immunohistochemical analysis.
- Treatment Strategies for Hypopigmentation in the Context of Burn Hypertrophic Scars. [Journal Article]
- PRPlast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018; 6(1):e1642
- Dyspigmentation in burn scars can contribute to the development of psychosocial complications after injury and can be detrimental to social reintegration and quality of life for burn survivors. Altho...
Dyspigmentation in burn scars can contribute to the development of psychosocial complications after injury and can be detrimental to social reintegration and quality of life for burn survivors. Although treatments for skin lightening to treat hyperpigmentation have been well reviewed in the literature, skin-darkening strategies to treat hypopigmentation have not. The following potential treatment options in the context of burn hypertrophic scar will be discussed: use of the melanocyte-keratinocyte transplantation procedure, use of ectopic synthetic analogues of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone to initiate melanogenesis, and use of FK506 to induce melanogenesis. A proposed future direction of research in laser-assisted drug delivery of inducers of local melanin production, with the hope of developing a targeted, effective approach to dyspigmentation in hypertrophic scar is also discussed.
- Progressive Depigmentation in a Patient with Panuveitis and Meningitis. [Journal Article]
- SASkin Appendage Disord 2018; 4(1):12-14
- Antroquinonol Exerts Immunosuppressive Effect on CD8+T Cell Proliferation and Activation to Resist Depigmentation Induced by H2O2. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2017; 2017:9303054
- Antroquinonol was investigated as antioxidant and inhibition of inflammatory responses. Our study was to evaluate its immunosuppressive effect on CD8+T cells and protective effect on depigmentation. ...
Antroquinonol was investigated as antioxidant and inhibition of inflammatory responses. Our study was to evaluate its immunosuppressive effect on CD8+T cells and protective effect on depigmentation. CD8+T cells were treated with antroquinonolin vitro, and C57BL/6 mice were treated with antroquinonol with or without H2O2in vivofor 50 consecutive days. We found antroquinonol could inhibit proliferation of CD8+T cells and suppress the production of cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γand T cell activation markers CD69 and CD137in vitro. H2O2treatment induced depigmentation and reduced hair follicle length, skin thickness, and tyrosinase expressionin vivo. Whereas, antroquinonol obviously ameliorated depigmentation of mice skin and resisted the reduction of hair follicle length, skin thickness, and tyrosinase expression induced by H2O2. Antroquinonol decreased CD8+T cell infiltration in mice skin, inhibited the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and decreased the expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3. Summarily, our data shows antroquinonol inhibits CD8+T cell proliferationin vitro. It also reduces CD8+T cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine secretion and suppresses the thinning of epidermal layerin vivo. Our findings suggest that antroquinonol exerts immunosuppressive effects on CD8+T cell proliferation and activation to resist depigmentation induced by H2O2.
- CAPN3, DCT, MLANA and TYRP1 are overexpressed in skin of vitiligo vulgaris Mexican patients. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 15(3):2804-2811
- Vitiligo is a disorder causing skin depigmentation, in which several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis: Environmental, genetic and biological aspects of melanocytes, even those of the s...
Vitiligo is a disorder causing skin depigmentation, in which several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis: Environmental, genetic and biological aspects of melanocytes, even those of the surrounding keratinocytes. However, the lack of understanding of the mechanisms has complicated the task of predicting the development and progression. The present study used microarray analysis to characterize the transcriptional profile of skin from Vitiligo Vulgaris (VV) patients and the identified transcripts were validated using targeted high-throughput RNA sequencing in a broader set of patients. For microarrays, mRNA was taken from 20 skin biopsies of 10 patients with VV (pigmented and depigmented skin biopsy of each), and 5 biopsies of healthy subjects matched for age and sex were used as a control. A signature was identified that contains the expression pattern of 722 genes between depigmented vitiligo skin vs. healthy control, 1,108 between the pigmented skin of vitiligo vs. healthy controls and 1,927 between pigmented skin, depigmented vitiligo and healthy controls (P<0.05; false discovery rate, <0.1). When comparing the pigmented and depigmented skin of patients with vitiligo, which reflects the real difference between both skin types, 5 differentially expressed genes were identified and further validated in 45 additional VV patients by RNA sequencing. This analysis showed significantly higher RNA levels of calpain-3, dopachrome tautomerase, melan-A and tyrosinase-related protein-1 genes. The data revealed that the pigmented skin of vitiligo is already affected at the level of gene expression and that the main differences between pigmented and non-pigmented skin are explained by the expression of genes associated with pigment metabolism.
- Synthesis of TiO₂/Fly Ash Cenospheres by Sol-Gel Method and Their Photacatalytic Activities Under Visible Light. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 May 01; 18(5):3306-3313
- Fly ash is a solid waste discharged from thermal power plant. Specific surface area of floating fly ash cenospheres (FACs) would increase after it was modified. The photocatalytic composite of TiO2/F...
Fly ash is a solid waste discharged from thermal power plant. Specific surface area of floating fly ash cenospheres (FACs) would increase after it was modified. The photocatalytic composite of TiO2/FACs was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using the carrier of modified FACs and tetrabutyl titanate as starting materials. The different influence factors on the photocatalytic performance of TiO2/FACs composites were characterized through SEM, EDS, XRD, UV-vis DRS and BET surface measurements. The UV-vis DRS spectra revealed that the absorption edge of TiO2 is 387 nm while that of TiO2/FACs photocatalysts red-shifts to 500 nm. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2/FACs was evaluated by the photocatalytic depigmentation of methyl orange solution (MO, 20 mg L-1, pH = 6.3) under visible light irradiation. It was found that the specific surface area, surface roughness and activity of FACs were increased by NaOH solution activation. The degradation rate of MO reaches 52% in 180 min under the visible light illumination. But too much FACs could decrease its photocatalytic activity and degradation rate. And the recovery test indicated that TiO2/FACs photocatalyst was rather stable, easy to recover from the treated wastewater.
- Effect of Dickkopf1 on the senescence of melanocytes: in vitro study. [Journal Article]
- ADArch Dermatol Res 2018 Feb 13
- Fibroblasts secrete several growth factors which are important for the regulation of skin pigmentation. Dickkopf1 (DKK1) is also secreted by fibroblasts which inhibit the growth and function of melan...
Fibroblasts secrete several growth factors which are important for the regulation of skin pigmentation. Dickkopf1 (DKK1) is also secreted by fibroblasts which inhibit the growth and function of melanocytes. Therefore, the study was designed to check the role of DKK1 in vitiligo pathogenesis. This study confirmed the higher expression of DKK1 in lesional skin of vitiligo patients. In vitro effect of DKK1 on cultured melanocytes revealed decrease in the melanocytes proliferation and pigmentation. In vitro effect of DKK1 was then checked on the melanocytes senescence and found that DKK1 induced senescence in the treated melanocytes. Expression of senescence markers was significantly higher in DKK1 treated melanocytes. This study suggests that higher expression of DKK1 in the dermis induced senescence in melanocytes that may lead to hypopigmentation and play role in vitiligo pathogenesis.
- Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2017 Dec 15; 96(12):797-804
- Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigi...
Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Appropriate dermatologic history, skin examination, and skin biopsy, when appropriate, can help exclude melanoma and its precursors. In addition to addressing the underlying condition, hyperpigmentation is treated with topical agents, chemical peels, cryotherapy, light or laser therapy, or a combination of these methods. Café au lait macules are treated with surgical excision or laser therapy if treatment is desired. Hypopigmentation disorders include vitiligo, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Treatment of vitiligo depends on the distribution and extent of skin involvement, and includes topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet A therapy (with or without psoralens), narrowband ultraviolet B therapy, and cosmetic coverage. Patients with stable, self-limited vitiligo may be candidates for surgical grafting techniques, whereas those with extensive disease may be candidates for depigmentation therapy to make skin tone appear more even. Other hypopigmentation disorders may improve or resolve with treatment of the underlying condition.
- NK1R/5-HT1AR interaction is related to the regulation of melanogenesis. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2018 Feb 07; :fj201700564RR
- Substance P (SP) is a candidate mediator along the brain-skin axis and can mimic the effects of stress to regulate melanogenesis. Previously, we and others have found that the regulation of SP for pi...
Substance P (SP) is a candidate mediator along the brain-skin axis and can mimic the effects of stress to regulate melanogenesis. Previously, we and others have found that the regulation of SP for pigmentary function was mediated by neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Emerging evidence has accumulated that psychologic stress can induce dysfunction in the cutaneous serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-5-HT1A/1B receptor system, thereby resulting in skin hypopigmentation. Moreover, NK1R and 5-HTR (except 5-HT3) belong to GPCR. The present study aimed at assessing the possible existence of NK1R-5-HTR interactions and related melanogenic functions. Western blot and PCR detection revealed that SP reduced expression of 5-HT1A receptor via the NK1 receptor. Biochemical analyses showed that NK1R and 5-HT1AR could colocalize and interact in a cell and in the skin. When the N terminus of the NK1R protein was removed NK1R surface targeting was prevented, the interaction between NK1R-5-HT1AR decreased, and the depigmentation caused by SP and WAY100635 could be rescued. Importantly, pharmaceutical coadministration of NK1R agonist (SP) and 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY100635) enhanced the NK1-5-HT1A receptor coimmunoprecipitation along with the depigmentary response. SP and WAY100635 cooperation elicited activation of a signaling cascade (the extracellular, regulated protein kinase p-JNK signaling pathway) and inhibition of p70S6K1 phosphorylation and greatly reduced melanin production in vitro and in vivo in mice and zebrafish. Moreover, the SP-induced depigmentation response did not be occur in 5-htr1aa+/-zebrafish embryos. Taken together, the results of our systemic study increases our knowledge of the roles of NK1R and 5-HT1AR in melanogenesis and provides possible, novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of skin hypo/hyperpigmentation.-Wu, H., Zhao, Y., Huang, Q., Cai, M., Pan, Q., Fu, M., An, X., Xia, Z., Liu, M., Jin, Y., He, L., Shang, J. NK1R/5-HT1AR interaction is related to the regulation of melanogenesis.
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- Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome: Visualisation of the molecular pathways for two chromosomal disorders. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Biol Psychiatry 2018 Feb 09; :1-33
- CONCLUSIONS: The visualisation of the downstream pathways of PWS and AS deleted genes shows that some of the typical symptoms are caused by multiple genes and reveals critical gaps in the current knowledge.