- Vasoplegia after Surgical Left Ventricular Restoration: Two Year Follow-Up. [Journal Article]
- ATAnn Thorac Surg 2018 Aug 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Vasoplegia after SVR is associated with decreased survival. Despite an improved and similar cardiac function, renal function was compromised in vasoplegic patients at 2-year follow-up.
- Severe community-acquired pneumonia: Current management and future therapeutic alternatives. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018 Aug 17
- Despite advances in modern medicine, severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a potentially deadly disease. Mortality rate reaches up to the 50% in patients requiring admission to th...
Despite advances in modern medicine, severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a potentially deadly disease. Mortality rate reaches up to the 50% in patients requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) when developing septic shock. Areas covered: We aim to describe the optimal management of severe CAP including antibiotic therapy, future antimicrobial options, and non-antibiotic (so-called adjunctive) therapies. A literature search was performed to identify all clinical trials, observational studies, meta-analysis, and reviews about this topic from PubMed. Expert commentary: Antibiotic therapy, the cornerstone of the management of CAP, must be started prompt because the delay in the administration of antimicrobials is associated with mortality. Diverse observational studies have reported a lower adjusted mortality in patients with severe CAP treated with combined antibiotic therapy, especially those in septic shock or with pneumococcal bacteremia. We summarize the available information about new antibiotics in the pipeline for severe CAP. Finally, we review the available evidence about the role of corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and statins as adjunctive for CAP.
- Time Irreversibility and Criticality in the Motility of a Flagellate Microorganism. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev Lett 2018 Aug 03; 121(5):058103
- Active living organisms exhibit behavioral variability, partitioning between fast and slow dynamics. Such variability may be key to generating rapid responses in a heterogeneous, unpredictable enviro...
Active living organisms exhibit behavioral variability, partitioning between fast and slow dynamics. Such variability may be key to generating rapid responses in a heterogeneous, unpredictable environment wherein cellular activity effects continual exchanges of energy fluxes. We demonstrate a novel, noninvasive strategy for revealing nonequilibrium control of swimming-specifically, in an octoflagellate microalga. These organisms exhibit surprising features of flagellar excitability and mechanosensitivity, which characterize a novel, time-irreversible "run-stop-shock" motility comprising forward runs, knee-jerk shocks with dramatic beat reversal, and long stops during which cells are quiescent yet continue to exhibit submicron flagellar vibrations. Entropy production, associated with flux cycles arising in a reaction graph representation of the gait-switching dynamics, provides a direct measure of detailed balance violation in this primitive alga.
- Clinical characteristics of exogenous progestogen hypersensitivity. [Journal Article]
- APAsian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2018 Aug 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of exogenous PH were similar to those of type I hypersensitivity reactions, but tended to develop later and did not respond to antihistamines or steroids. As use of progesterone increases, an understanding of the clinical features of exogenous PH becomes ever-more important.
- Passive heat therapy protects against endothelial cell hypoxia-reoxygenation via effects of elevations in temperature and circulating factors. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol 2018 Aug 17
- Accumulating evidence indicates that passive heat therapy (chronic use of hot tubs or saunas) has widespread physiological benefits, including enhanced resistance against novel stressors ('stress res...
Accumulating evidence indicates that passive heat therapy (chronic use of hot tubs or saunas) has widespread physiological benefits, including enhanced resistance against novel stressors ('stress resistance'). Using a cell culture model to isolate the key stimuli that likely underlie physiological adaptation with heat therapy, we showed that both mild elevations in temperature (to 39°C) and exposure to serum from human subjects who have undergone 8 weeks of heat therapy (i.e., altered circulating factors) independently prevented oxidative and inflammatory stress associated with hypoxia-reoxygenation in cultured endothelial cells. Our results elucidate some of the mechanisms (i.e., direct effects of temperature vs. circulating factors) by which heat therapy seems to improve resistance against oxidative and inflammatory stress. Heat therapy may be a promising intervention for reducing cellular damage following ischemic events, which has broad implications for patients with cardiovascular diseases and conditions characterized by 'chronic' ischemia (e.g., peripheral artery disease, metabolic diseases, obesity).
- Characterization of three strains of Capnocytophaga canis isolated from septic patients. [Journal Article]
- MIMicrobiol Immunol 2018 Aug 17
- Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi, both commensal bacteria in the oral cavity of dogs and cats, are zoonotic pathogens. In particular, C. canimorsus causes sepsis and fatal septi...
Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi, both commensal bacteria in the oral cavity of dogs and cats, are zoonotic pathogens. In particular, C. canimorsus causes sepsis and fatal septic shock. Recently, a novel Capnocytophaga species, C. canis, was isolated from the oral cavity of healthy dogs. C. canis was reported to be oxidase-negative, thus considered to be avirulent in humans. In the present study, we found three clinical strains of C. canis from Japanese septic patients. All three strains, HP20001, HP33001, and HP40001, showed oxidase-positive. Nucleotide sequence identities of the 16S rRNA gene of the three strains to the C. canimorsus type strain ATCC35979, C. cynodegmi type strain ATCC49044, and C. canis type strain LMG29146 were 96.9-97.0%, 96.9-97.0%, and 99.7-99.8%, respectively. Multi-locus sequence analysis based on seven house-keeping genes, dnaJ, fumC, glyA, gyrB, murG, trpB, and tuf, revealed that the oxidase-positive C. canis strains isolated in Japan and oxidase-negative strains of C. canis from the canine oral cavity in Switzerland were clustered in different genetic subgroups. These results indicate that the virulence of C. canis strains in humans is associated with oxidase activity.
- 1.6 MHz scanning rate direct absorption temperature measurements using a single vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode. [Journal Article]
- AOAppl Opt 2018 Jul 10; 57(20):5680-5687
- This paper presents 1.6 MHz scan rate, non-intrusive, time-resolved temperature measurements of a normal shock reflection from a plane end wall within a shock tube. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting...
This paper presents 1.6 MHz scan rate, non-intrusive, time-resolved temperature measurements of a normal shock reflection from a plane end wall within a shock tube. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was used to conduct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with water vapor as the probe species. The results are compared with analytical predictions. Temperatures measured with this technique agree within a single-scan standard deviation of ±33 K with calculated temperatures at a VCSEL modulation frequency of 800 kHz, which is sufficiently rapid enough to be used to investigate highly transient shock wave interaction processes.
- Investigation of multiple laser shock peening on the mechanical property and corrosion resistance of shipbuilding 5083Al alloy under a simulated seawater environment. [Journal Article]
- AOAppl Opt 2018 Aug 01; 57(22):6300-6308
- To investigate the effect of laser shock peening (LSP) with different LSP impacts on the mechanical properties in artificial seawater and corrosion resistance of shipbuilding 5083Al alloy in 3.5% NaC...
To investigate the effect of laser shock peening (LSP) with different LSP impacts on the mechanical properties in artificial seawater and corrosion resistance of shipbuilding 5083Al alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution, wear property and electrochemical corrosion resistance tests were performed by a ball-on-disk sliding wear tester and electrochemical workstation. The wear mass losses of the samples treated by 1 and 3 LSP impacts are much lower, by 55.22% and 65.94%, respectively, than those of untreated specimens in artificial seawater. Compared with the untreated sample, the electrochemical corrosion rate of the treated samples decreased by 74.91% and 95.03% after being treated by 1 and 3 LSP impacts, respectively. The reasons for the enhancement of the wear properties and electrochemical corrosion behavior were caused by the increased residual stress and microhardness after the LSP treatment.
- Tissue oxygen saturation in dogs with acute hemorrhage. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Aug 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Dogs with hemorrhagic shock have lower StO2 than a population of healthy dogs.
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- A pilot study evaluating adaptive closed-loop fluid resuscitation during states of absolute and relative hypovolemia in dogs. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Aug 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Closed-loop fluid administration based on IV fluid distribution and compartmental dynamical systems can be used to provide goal directed fluid therapy during absolute or relative hypovolemia in mechanically ventilated isoflurane anesthetized dogs.