- Preperitoneal Bupivacaine Infiltration Reduces Postoperative Opioid Consumption, Acute Pain, and Chronic Postsurgical Pain After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial. [Journal Article]
- OSObes Surg 2018 Jun 20
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that preperitoneal local anesthesia with bupivacaine results in a reduction in opioid consumption and postoperative pain and seems to lower the incidence rate of chronic postsurgical pain after laparoscopic bariatric surgery.
- Sleep-disordered breathing, circulating exosomes, and insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Obes (Lond) 2018 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Using in vitro adipocyte-based functional reporter assays, alterations in plasma exosomal cargo occur in SDB, and appear to contribute to adipocyte metabolic dysfunction. Further exploration of exosomal miRNA signatures in either human subjects or animal models and their putative organ and cell targets appears warranted.
- COPD Home Oxygen Therapy and Home Mechanical Ventilation: Improving Admission-Free Survival in Persistent Hypercapnic COPD. [Journal Article]
- ChestChest 2018; 153(6):1499-1500
- As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://journal.cme.chestnet.org/copd-hot-hmv), acute exacerbations of COPD are associated with significant levels of morbidity and mortality. Acute n...
As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://journal.cme.chestnet.org/copd-hot-hmv), acute exacerbations of COPD are associated with significant levels of morbidity and mortality. Acute noninvasive ventilation has been demonstrated its clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness in reducing intubation rate and mortality and in patients with acute decompensated hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD. However, those patients with evidence of chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have worse long-term outcomes compared with patients who have only transient hypercapnia during the acute phase returning to eucapnia in the recovery stage. Indeed, there are limited options available to improve the clinical outcome in these COPD patients with persistent hypercapnia. The Home Oxygen Therapy-Home Mechanical Ventilation (HOT-HMV) trial investigated admission-free survival in patients with persistent hypercapnia following a life-threatening exacerbation requiring acute noninvasive ventilation. Phenotyping patients to ensure chronic hypercapnia enriched the trial population to identify those patients at highest risk of readmission or death following an exacerbation. The addition of home noninvasive ventilation to home oxygen therapy in patients with persistent hypercapnia led to improved admission-free survival. The noninvasive ventilation was titrated to overnight measures of transcutaneous CO2 to achieve control of nocturnal hypoventilation, which improved daytime chronic respiratory failure. Home noninvasive ventilation is a complex intervention requiring a multidisciplinary team and long-term patient follow-up to maximize the clinical benefit to the patient.
- Health-related quality of life measurement in patients with chronic respiratory failure. [Review]
- RIRespir Investig 2018; 56(3):214-221
- The improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important goal in managing patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or domiciliary ...
The improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important goal in managing patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or domiciliary noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Two condition-specific HRQL questionnaires have been developed to specifically assess these patients: the Maugeri Respiratory Failure Questionnaire (MRF) and the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI). The MRF is more advantageous in its ease of completion; conversely, the SRI measures diversified health impairments more multi-dimensionally and discriminatively with greater balance, especially in patients receiving NIV. The SRI is available in many different languages as a result of back-translation and validation processes, and is widely validated for various disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, restrictive thoracic disorders, neuromuscular disorders, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome, among others. Dyspnea and psychological status were the main determinants for both questionnaires, while the MRF tended to place more emphasis on activity limitations than SRI. In comparison to existing generic questionnaires such as the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) and disease-specific questionnaires such as the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ), both the MRF and the SRI have been shown to be valid and reliable, and have better discriminatory, evaluative, and predictive features than other questionnaires. Thus, in assessing the HRQL of patients with CRF using LTOT and/or NIV, we might consider avoiding the use of the SF-36 or even the SGRQ or CRQ alone and consider using the CRF-specific SRI and MRF in addition to existing generic and/or disease-specific questionnaires.
- [Syndromic Hirschsprung′s disease and its mode of inheritance]. [Journal Article]
- ZDZhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018; 20(5):428-432
- Hirschsprung′s disease (HSCR) is one of the major causes of chronic incomplete intestinal obstruction in children. HSCR is considered a type of neurocristopathy caused by no colonization of gan...
Hirschsprung′s disease (HSCR) is one of the major causes of chronic incomplete intestinal obstruction in children. HSCR is considered a type of neurocristopathy caused by no colonization of ganglion cells on some parts of the bowel wall due to abnormal termination of the migration of vagal neural cells during embryonic development. This disease can be classified into different types according to the length of the affected intestinal canal. Most HSCR patients present with single deformity, but some HSCR patients are affected by other deformities, which constitutes syndromic HSCR, such as congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, Fryns syndrome, and cartilage-hair hypoplasia syndrome. Most syndromes have abnormal genetic material. An adequate knowledge of syndromic HSCR is of vital importance for accurate diagnosis and prognostic evaluation. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, genetic basis, and genetic modes of different types of syndromic HSCR.
- Respiratory Instability and Hypoxemia Episodes in Preterm Infants. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Perinatol 2018; 35(6):534-536
- Oxygenation instability is a very common problem in the premature infant that manifests as intermittent hypoxemia episodes (HEs). These are particularly frequent in premature infants who are on mecha...
Oxygenation instability is a very common problem in the premature infant that manifests as intermittent hypoxemia episodes (HEs). These are particularly frequent in premature infants who are on mechanical ventilation beyond the first weeks after birth. However, they can also occur in spontaneously breathing infants. Some of these episodes are due to central apnea, but in ventilated infants, they are frequently due to contractions of the abdominal musculature that can splint the respiratory pump, resulting in periods of decreased lung volume and hypoventilation. HEs are often followed by periods of hyperoxemia that results from excessive oxygen supplementation given to correct the hypoxemia. These episodes increase in frequency with postnatal age and are more common in infants with chronic lung disease. Although the evidence is not conclusive, their detrimental effects on the infant's neurologic, ocular, and respiratory system may be significant. There is no specific treatment for HEs, but several interventions are available to ameliorate the severity and duration of the episodes. Further research is needed to define the impact of HEs on the preterm infant's developing central nervous system and other organ systems and to develop effective strategies to prevent these episodes.
- Leptin Signaling in the Carotid Body Regulates a Hypoxic Ventilatory Response Through Altering TASK Channel Expression. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:249
- Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of breathing. It has been demonstrated that obesity-related hypoventilation or apnea is closely associated with lep...
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of breathing. It has been demonstrated that obesity-related hypoventilation or apnea is closely associated with leptin signaling pathways. Perturbations of leptin signaling probably contribute to the reduced sensitivity of respiratory chemoreceptors to hypoxia/hypercapnia. However, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. The present study is to test the hypothesis that leptin signaling contributes to modulating a hypoxic ventilatory response. The respiratory function was assessed in conscious obese Zucker rats or lean littermates treated with an injection of leptin. During exposure to hypoxia, the change in minute ventilation was lower in obese Zucker rats than chow-fed lean littermates or high fat diet-fed littermates. Such a change was abolished in all groups after carotid body denervation. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (pSTAT3), as well as putative O2-sensitive K+ channels including TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-2 in the carotid body, was significantly reduced in obese Zucker rats compared with the other two phenotype littermates. Chronic administration of leptin in chow-fed lean Zucker rats failed to alter basal ventilation but vigorously increased tidal volume, respiratory frequency, and therefore minute volume during exposure to hypoxia. Likewise, carotid body denervation abolished such an effect. In addition, systemic leptin elicited enhanced expression of pSTAT3 and TASK channels. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that leptin signaling facilitates hypoxic ventilatory responses probably through upregulation of pSTAT3 and TASK channels in the carotid body. These findings may help to better understand the pathogenic mechanism of obesity-related hypoventilation or apnea.
- Inhalational Anesthetics Induce Neuronal Protein Aggregation and Affect ER Trafficking. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Mar 27; 8(1):5275
- Anesthetic agents have been implicated in the causation of neurological and cognitive deficits after surgery, the exacerbation of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and were recently reported to prom...
Anesthetic agents have been implicated in the causation of neurological and cognitive deficits after surgery, the exacerbation of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and were recently reported to promote the onset of the neurologic respiratory disease Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS), related to misfolding of the transcription factor Phox2B. To study how anesthetic agents could affect neuronal function through alterations to protein folding, we created neuronal cell models emulating the graded disease severity of CCHS. We found that the gas anesthetic isoflurane and the opiate morphine potentiated aggregation and mislocalization of Phox2B variants, similar to that seen in CCHS, and observed transcript and protein level changes consistent with activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response. Attenuation of ER stress pathways did not result in a correction of Phox2B misfolding, indicating a primary effect of isoflurane on protein structure. We also observed that isoflurane hindered the folding and activity of proteins that rely heavily on ER function, like the CFTR channel. Our results show how anesthetic drugs can alter protein folding and induce ER stress, indicating a mechanism by which these agents may affect neuronal function after surgery.
- Use of autobilevel ventilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: An observational study. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sleep Res 2018 Mar 12
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-choice treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Automatic bilevel ventilation can be used to treat obstructive sleep-disordered br...
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-choice treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Automatic bilevel ventilation can be used to treat obstructive sleep-disordered breathing when CPAP is ineffective, but clinical experience is still limited. To assess the outcome of titration with CPAP and automatic bilevel ventilation, the charts of 356 outpatients (obstructive sleep apnea, n = 242; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease + obstructive sleep apnea overlap, n = 80; obesity hypoventilation syndrome [OHS], n = 34; 103 females) treated for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing from January 2014 to April 2017 were reviewed. Positive airway pressure titration was considered successful in the case of sleep-disordered breathing resolution (apnea-hypopnea index <10/hr) with cumulative time at SaO2 < 90% (CT90%) <10% and/or improved daytime arterial blood gases at the end of titration. CPAP was effective in 268 patients (75.0%). CPAP treatment failure (n = 88) occurred in 13.6% of obstructive sleep apnea, 32.5% of overlap, and 85.3% of OHS patients. Compared with successful CPAP cases, patients undergoing the automatic bilevel ventilation trial showed higher body mass index (39.3 ± 10.5 kg/m2 versus 34.8 ± 6.9 kg/m2 , p < 0.0001), worse mean nocturnal SaO2 (89.2 ± 4.0% versus 91.3 ± 4.0%, p < 0.003) and CT90% (40.6 ± 28.6% versus 24.0 ± 23.3%), but similar age (62.8 ± 11.9 years versus 60.5 ± 12.0 years, p = 0.11), apnea-hypopnea index (39.4 ± 23.2/hr versus 41.0 ± 21.2/hr, p = 0.55) and oxygen desaturation index (37.8 ± 23.5/hr versus 39.2 ± 21.1/hr, p = 0.61) at diagnosis. Automatic bilevel ventilation was successful in 79.5% of CPAP treatment failures (n = 70). Automatic bilevel ventilation failure was independently associated with baseline body mass index >40 kg/m2 (odds ratio 6.16, confidence interval 1.50-25.17, p = 0.011) and CT90% >42% (odds ratio 5.87, confidence interval 1.39-24.83, p = 0.016). During follow-up, automatic bilevel ventilation treatment failed in seven patients (10%), and compliance was similar in CPAP (4.5 ± 2.2 hr) and automatic bilevel ventilation (5.2 ± 2.3 hr, p = 0.09) groups. Automatic bilevel ventilation was useful to treat sleep-disordered breathing, but failed in patients with severe OHS.
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- Beneficial effect of nocturnal oximetric control on the clinical and gasometric situation and the prognosis of patients with home non-invasive mechanical ventilation. [Journal Article]
- MCMed Clin (Barc) 2018 Feb 28
- CONCLUSIONS: In the follow-up of patients with home NIMV in our context, values defined in home nocturnal oximetry (good MOC) are positively associated with clinical, gasometric and longer-term survival.