- Anabolism to Catabolism: Serologic Clues to Nutritional Status in Heart Failure. [Review]Curr Heart Fail Rep 2019CH
- Malnutrition, sarcopenia, and cachexia are areas of increasing interest in the management of patients with heart failure (HF). This review aims to examine the serological markers useful in guiding the physician in identification of these patients.
Malnutrition, sarcopenia, and cachexia are areas of increasing interest in the management of patients with heart failure (HF). This review aims to examine the serological markers useful in guiding the physician in identification of these patients.
- Relationship between 'on-treatment platelet reactivity', shear stress, and micro-embolic signals in asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. [Journal Article]J Neurol 2019JN
- CONCLUSIONS: Recently symptomatic moderate-severe carotid stenosis patients had a lower prevalence of aspirin-HTPR than their asymptomatic counterparts on the PFA-100®, likely related to higher aspirin doses. The prevalence of antiplatelet-HTPR was positively influenced by higher shear stress levels, but not MES status.
- Tryptophan metabolite concentrations in depressed patients before and after electroconvulsive therapy. [Journal Article]Brain Behav Immun 2019BB
- Tryptophan and kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. We aimed to investigate their plasma concentrations in medicated patients with depression (n = 94) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 57), and in patients with depression after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a real-world clinical setting, taking account of co-variables i…
Tryptophan and kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. We aimed to investigate their plasma concentrations in medicated patients with depression (n = 94) compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 57), and in patients with depression after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a real-world clinical setting, taking account of co-variables including ECT modality and heterogenous psychopathology. Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D24). Tryptophan (TRP) and kynurenine (KYN) metabolite concentrations [anthranilic acid (AA), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA), picolinic acid (PA), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and xanthurenic acid (XA)] and KYNA/KYN and KYNA/quinolinic acid (QUIN) ratios were lower in patients compared to controls. For the total group there was no significant change in KP metabolites post-ECT or correlations with mood ratings. However, improvements in mood score were correlated with increased KYN, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK), 3HAA, QUIN, and KYN/TRP in a subgroup of unipolar depressed patients. Additionally, in remitters baseline KYN, 3HK, and QUIN were associated with baseline HAM-D24 scores, and changes in 3HK and 3HAA concentrations post-ECT correlated with improvement in mood. KYN, KYNA, AA, 3HK, XA, PA, and QUIN were increased in a smaller 3-month follow-up group (n=19) compared to pre-ECT concentrations. Overall, the results indicate that ECT mobilizes the KP, where a moderate association between selected metabolites and treatment response in unipolar depressed patients is evident.
- Predicting Prostate Cancer Death with Different Pretreatment Risk Stratification Tools: A Head-to-head Comparison in a Nationwide Cohort Study. [Journal Article]Eur Urol 2019EU
- CONCLUSIONS: A total of 139 515 men were included in the main analysis, of whom 15 961 died from prostate cancer during follow-up. The C-index at 10 yr of follow-up ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.73) to 0.81 (95% CI: 0.80-0.81) across the compared tools. The MSKCC nomogram (C-index: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.80-0.81), CAPRA score (C-index: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.79-0.81), and CPG system (C-index: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.78-0.79) performed the best. The order of performance between the tools remained in analyses stratified by primary treatment and year of diagnosis. The predicted cumulative incidences were close to the observed ones, with some underestimation at 5 yr. It is a limitation that the study was conducted solely in a Swedish setting (ie, case mix).The MSKCC nomogram, CAPRA score, and CPG risk grouping system performed better in discriminating prostate cancer death than the D'Amico and D'Amico-derived systems (NICE, GUROC, EAU, AUA, and NCCN). Use of these tools may improve clinical decision making.
- Predictors of the dietary inflammatory index in children and associations with childhood weight status: A longitudinal analysis in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. [Journal Article]Clin Nutr 2019CN
- CONCLUSIONS: A more pro-inflammatory dietary score was associated with childhood overweight and obesity. Parental, familial and personal factors independently influenced the C-DII score.
- Defining the chance of cure after resection for hepatocellular carcinoma within and beyond the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer guidelines: A multi-institutional analysis of 1,010 patients. [Journal Article]Surgery 2019S
- CONCLUSIONS: Roughly 4 in 10 patients could be considered "cured" after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Although cure was achieved more often after resection for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-A hepatocellular carcinoma, surgery still provided a reasonable probability of cure among select patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-B hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Evaluation on the Use of Italian High-Speed Rail to Support Transportation Network for Transplantation Activities. [Journal Article]Transplant Proc 2019TP
- CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge and analysis of transportation alternatives for human organs with less stringent safety and preservation criteria allow a more efficient allocation of resources both at the local and national level-without compromising quality and reliability of the system.
- Complex and dynamic transcriptional changes allow the helminth Fasciola gigantica to adjust to its intermediate snail and definitive mammalian hosts. [Journal Article]BMC Genomics 2019; 20(1):729BG
- CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional profiling of the F. gigantica lifecycle identified key metabolic, growth and developmental processes the parasite undergoes as it encounters vastly different environments within two very different hosts. Comparative analysis with F. hepatica provides insight into the similarities and differences of these parasites that diverged > 20 million years ago, crucial for the future development of novel control strategies against both species.
- Transient Immune Activation in BCG-Vaccinated Infant Rhesus Macaques Is Not Sufficient to Influence Oral Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. [Journal Article]J Infect Dis 2019JI
- BCG vaccination has been demonstrated to increase levels of activated CD4+ T cells, thus potentially influencing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the risk of BCG vaccination in HIV infection, we randomly assigned newborn rhesus macaques to receive BCG vaccine or remain unvaccinated and then undergo oral simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges 3 …
BCG vaccination has been demonstrated to increase levels of activated CD4+ T cells, thus potentially influencing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To assess the risk of BCG vaccination in HIV infection, we randomly assigned newborn rhesus macaques to receive BCG vaccine or remain unvaccinated and then undergo oral simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges 3 weeks later. We observed elevated levels of activated peripheral CD4+ T cells (ie, HLA-DR+CD38+CCR5+ CD4+ T cells) by week 3 after vaccination. BCG was also associated with an altered immune gene expression profile, as well as with monocyte activation in both peripheral blood and the draining axillary lymph node, indicating significant BCG vaccine-induced immune activation. Despite these effects, BCG vaccination did not increase the rate of SIV oral transmission or disease progression. Our findings therefore identify patterns of T-cell and monocyte activation that occur after BCG vaccination but do not support the hypothesis that BCG vaccination is a risk factor for postnatal HIV transmission or increased pathogenesis in infants.
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- Automated Mobile Phone-Based Mental Health Resource for Homeless Youth: Pilot Study Assessing Feasibility and Acceptability. [Journal Article]JMIR Ment Health 2019; 6(10):e15144JM
- CONCLUSIONS: Automated mental health interventions seem to be an acceptable way to engage homeless youth in mental health support. The participants preferred fully automated features and brief interventions over features requiring interaction with others or more engagement. Future research should explore ways to retain homeless youth in interventions and evaluate the clinical impact of automated technology-based interventions for improving mental health.