- A rigorous electrochemical ammonia synthesis protocol with quantitative isotope measurements. [Journal Article]
- NatNature 2019 May 22
- The electrochemical synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen under mild conditions and using renewable electricity is in principle an attractive alternative1-4 to the demanding, energy-intense Haber-Bosch …
The electrochemical synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen under mild conditions and using renewable electricity is in principle an attractive alternative1-4 to the demanding, energy-intense Haber-Bosch process, which dominates industrial ammonia production. However, the electrochemical alternative faces considerable scientific and technical challenges5,6 and most experimental studies reported thus far achieve only low selectivities and conversions. In fact, the amount of ammonia produced is usually so small that it is difficult to firmly attribute it to electrochemical nitrogen fixation7-9 and exclude contamination due to ammonia that is either present in air, human breath or ion-conducting membranes9, or generated from labile nitrogen-containing compounds (for example, nitrates, amines, nitrites and nitrogen oxides) that are typically present in the nitrogen gas stream10, in the atmosphere or even the catalyst itself. Although these many and varied sources of potential experimental artefacts are beginning to be recognized and dealt with11,12, concerted efforts to develop effective electrochemical nitrogen reduction processes would benefit from benchmarking protocols for the reaction and from a standardized set of control experiments to identify and then eliminate or quantify contamination sources. Here we put forward such a rigorous procedure that, by making essential use of 15N2, allows us to reliably detect and quantify the electroreduction of N2 to NH3. We demonstrate experimentally the significance of various sources of contamination and show how to remove labile nitrogen-containing compounds present in the N2 gas and how to perform quantitative isotope measurements with cycling of 15N2 gas to reduce both contamination and the cost of isotope measurements. Following this protocol, we obtain negative results when using the most promising pure metal catalysts in aqueous media, and successfully confirm and quantify ammonia synthesis using lithium electrodeposition in tetrahydrofuran13.
- A novel pathogenic variant of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4 causing gallstones in a young adult. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Gastroenterol 2019 May 21
- The low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome was reported in European adults with cholelithiasis and a mutation of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4 (ABCB4). The ABCB4 e…
The low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome was reported in European adults with cholelithiasis and a mutation of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4 (ABCB4). The ABCB4 encodes multidrug resistance 3, which is a phospholipid translocator. Reduced phospholipid transport can lead to the formation of biliary cholesterol stones. Here, we describe a 31-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with recurrent biliary colic. Although he recovered quickly after endoscopic treatment for the most recent presentation, he had a family history of similar problems. His mother had required endoscopic treatment for choledocholithiasis and his maternal aunt had died at age 29 years because of liver failure (etiology unknown). We, therefore, performed genetic analysis, which revealed a heterozygous ABCB4C717S. LPAC syndrome was diagnosed and the patient has received ursodeoxycholic acid for 2 years with no recurrence. The same variant was identified in the patient's mother, who was subsequently found to have a left intrahepatic calculus requiring left-sided lobectomy. She has received ursodeoxycholic acid for 1 year with no recurrence. ABCB4C717S is a novel pathogenic variant, and this is the first patient diagnosed with LPAC syndrome in Japan. We should consider LPAC syndrome in young adults with recurrent cholesterol gallstones to ensure early therapy.
- Mass Drug Administration of Triclabendazole for Fasciola Hepatica in Bolivia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2019 May 20
- Human infection with Fasciola hepatica leads to obstruction of the common bile duct by adult worms and disease characterized by biliary colic, epigastric pain, and nausea. Recommended treatment is a …
Human infection with Fasciola hepatica leads to obstruction of the common bile duct by adult worms and disease characterized by biliary colic, epigastric pain, and nausea. Recommended treatment is a single dose of triclabendazole (TCBZ) (10 mg/kg). Because in the 1990s the Bolivian Altiplano bordering Lake Titicaca was thought to have the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis worldwide, the Bolivian Ministry of Health instituted TCBZ mass drug administration (MDA). From 2008 to 2016 (excepting 2015), one dose of 250 mg was administered, usually in September/October, to each resident of highly endemic regions willing to participate. This is apparently the first reported use of MDA for Fasciola. The proportion of persons in key regions receiving TCBZ MDA was 87% in 2016. In 2017, we resurveyed key regions, and found that the MDA program had been dramatically successful. Whereas Fasciola prevalence was reported as 26.9% in Huacullani/Tiahuanaco and 12.6% in Batallas in 1999, there was 0.7% prevalence in Huacullani/Tiahuanaco and 1% in Batallas in 2017. However, lessons from schistosomiasis control efforts suggest that for sustained control of Fasciola infection, Fasciola MDA needs to be maintained and coupled with measures to control infection in the intermediary snail and in the animal hosts of F. hepatica.
- Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and outcome of adult horses with equine coronavirus infection at a veterinary teaching hospital: 33 cases (2012-2018). [Journal Article]
- VJVet J 2019; 248:95-100
- Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently described enteric virus with worldwide outbreaks; however, there are little data available on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcome. The study objectiv…
Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a recently described enteric virus with worldwide outbreaks; however, there are little data available on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcome. The study objective was to document case management of ECoV in adult horses presented to a referral hospital and compare to a cohort of horses that tested negative for ECoV. A retrospective case series was performed based on positive real-time quantitative PCR results for ECoV on faeces from horses treated at the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1 March 2012 to 31 March 2018. Horses negative for ECoV were matched to the ECoV-positive group as controls. Data collected included signalment, history, exam findings, diagnostics, treatment, and follow-up. Thirty-three horses (median age, 11 years; range, 2-37 years) tested ECoV-positive, including three horses with co-infections. Presenting complaints for ECoV-infected horses included historic fevers (n = 25/30; 83%), anorexia (n = 14/30; 47%), and colic (n = 13/30; 43%). ECoV-positive horses had significantly lower white blood cell (median, 3.0 × 109/L; range, 0.68-16.2 × 109/L), neutrophil (median, 1.26 × 109/L; range, 0.15-14.4 × 109/L), and lymphocyte (median, 0.86 × 109/L; range, 0.42-3.47 × 109/L) counts than ECoV-negative horses. Electrolyte and metabolic derangements and scant faeces were common. Twenty-seven horses were hospitalised for a median of 5 days (range, 0.5-14 days), with 26/27 (96%) horses surviving to discharge. ECoV infection should be a differential diagnosis for adult horses with fever, colic, anorexia, and leukopenia. The disease has a low mortality rate, but horses may require intensive care to resolve severe leukopenia, systemic inflammation, and metabolic disturbances.
- Bioactivities of Flavonoids from Lopezia racemosa. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:3286489
- Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae) has been used in Mexican traditional medicine to alleviate stomachache, biliary colic, urine retention, stomach cancer, and skin, dental, buccal, and urinary infect…
Lopezia racemosa Cav. (Onagraceae) has been used in Mexican traditional medicine to alleviate stomachache, biliary colic, urine retention, stomach cancer, and skin, dental, buccal, and urinary infections. The objective of this study was to determine the bioactivities of specific parts of the plant to scientifically confirm its traditional use. Aerial parts and flowers were macerated and subsequently extracted with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. This study was focused on the analysis of polar components, and thus the methanolic fractions were selected for further investigations. These fractions were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using a panel of bacterial Gram-positive and -negative strains, as well as fungal strains, including filamentous fungi and yeasts. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of the extract was assessed by MTT using the human-derived monocytic THP-1 and the normal human fibroblast cell lines. Various fractions showed antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, although the most relevant were against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. No inhibition of yeasts was recorded. Only four fractions showed cytotoxic effects when the human-derived THP-1 and fibroblast cells were assessed. The four flavonoids isolated from the extract were luteolin, luteolin-6-C-hexoside, luteolin-8-C-hexoside, and hyperoside. The biological activities presented in this study validate some traditional uses of the plant.
- Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infancy: Impact on the Health of the Infant and Family. [Review]
- PGPediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2019; 22(3):207-216
- Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as infantile colic, constipation and colic occur in almost half of the infants. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical and updated review on…
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as infantile colic, constipation and colic occur in almost half of the infants. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical and updated review on the management of FGIDs and their impact on the health of the infant and family to health care physicians. Guidelines and expert recommendations were reviewed. FGIDs are a frequent cause of parental concern, impairment in quality of life of infants and relatives, and impose a financial burden to families, health care, and insurance. Therefore, primary management of the FGIDs should be focused on improving the infants' symptoms and quality of life of the family. If more than parental reassurance is needed, available evidence recommends nutritional advice as it is an effective strategy and most of the time devoid of adverse effects. The role of healthcare providers in reassuring parents and proposing the correct behavior and nutritional intervention by avoiding inappropriate use of medication, is essential in the management of FGIDs.
- Assistance for parents with unsettled infants in Central Vietnam: a qualitative investigation of health professionals' perspectives. [Journal Article]
- BPedBMC Pediatr 2019 May 20; 19(1):160
- CONCLUSIONS: There is an unmet need for information on infant sleep and settling for new parents and health professionals in Vietnam. Our findings suggest information for caregivers on how to respond sensitively to infant tired signs should be formally included in the training of health professionals in LALMI settings. Sleep and settling information should also be part of culturally appropriate multi-component maternal and child health interventions aimed at promoting early childhood development.
- A case of an absent gall bladder presenting as biliary colic in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2019; 69(5):731-733
- Gallbladder agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 10-65 per 100,000 populations with the incidence being more common in females with a ratio of 3:1. Although asymptomatic, some patients …
Gallbladder agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 10-65 per 100,000 populations with the incidence being more common in females with a ratio of 3:1. Although asymptomatic, some patients present with symptoms like biliary colic and often indistinguishable from common conditions leading to unnecessary surgery. A 19-year old woman presented to the hospital with epigastric and right upper quadrant pain, other signs and symptoms consistent with biliary colic. However, on laparoscopy gall bladder was absent. Ultra-sound of the abdomen is the preferred for gallbladder diseases but due to scarcity of reports on gallbladder agenesis, it is often misread due to periportal tissue and sub-phrenic folds often reported as gallbladder or calculi leading to unnecessary surgery. Agenesis, a rare anomaly, poses a diagnostic dilemma to surgeons as it is usually diagnosed during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Clinicians should keep in mind this entity when the gallbladder is poorly visualized on ultrasound and think of more detailed investigations such as Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.
- Robotic right colectomy in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Report of a case. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Surg Case Rep 2019 May 11; 59:58-62
- CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery in patients with VPS tubes was previously contraindicated because of the possibility of shunt-associated complications, that may include shunt malfunction due to increased intra-abdominal pressure, damage or infection of the catheter. Some authors reported that intracranial pressure increased up to 25 mmHg at a pneumoperitoneum pressure of 12 mmHgHerein we report, to our knowledge, the first case report of robotic assisted right colectomy for cancer in a patient with a VP shunt.Robotic assistance may allow to perform colorectal resection safely and with low risk also in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
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- No Wound for Stones <2 cm in Horseshoe Kidney: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies. [Review]
- UIUrol Int 2019 May 16; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: For a stone <2 cm in HSK, both SWL and URS are safe treatment modalities. URS alone is a more feasible and sufficient option for stone in HSK <2 cm than SWL with possibilities of a second session.