- Etiologies of community-onset urinary tract infections requiring hospitalization and antimicrobial susceptibilities of causative microorganisms. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microbiol Immunol Infect 2016 Dec 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Third-generation cephalosporins effectively treated CoUTIs. However, patients with nasogastric tube retention more commonly experienced cephalosporin resistance. Cefepime, imipenem, and amikacin may be used in patients with higher antimicrobial resistance. In selected patients, cefazolin may still be an adequate drug of choice for CoUTIs.
- The impact of obesity on febrile urinary tract infection and renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Urol 2016 Oct 01
- CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between obesity and UTI are controversial. Some studies have shown positive results; however, other studies have shown opposite results. The main limitations of this study were the retrospective data collection via electronic medical records, and the small number of subjects.This study showed that obesity in patients with VUR has an effect on fUTI and renal scar formation. If the patients with VUR have obesity, close follow-up should be performed, and VUR patients should be started on a weight-loss program, which could reduce the number of patients with chronic kidney disease in the future.
- Contact Isolation Precautions in Trauma Patients: An Analysis of Infectious Complications. [Journal Article]
- SISurg Infect (Larchmt) 2017 Jan 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The development of pneumonia and UTI in patients with trauma was significantly associated with the use of CI. Because the majority of these patients had CI precautions in place for asymptomatic colonization, the CI provided them no direct benefit. Because the use of CI is associated with multiple negative outcomes, its use in the trauma population needs to be carefully re-evaluated.
- Chronic Colovesical Fistula Leading to Chronic Urinary Tract Infection Resulting in End-Stage Renal Disease in a Chronic Granulomatous Disease Patient. [Journal Article]
- UCUrol Case Rep 2017; 11:37-38
- A 46-year old man with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) being followed at the National Institute of Health with uncontrolled CGD colitis who developed chronic colovesical fistula, and end...
A 46-year old man with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) being followed at the National Institute of Health with uncontrolled CGD colitis who developed chronic colovesical fistula, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite aggressive medical management of symptoms with immunomodulators and antibiotic prophylaxis, the chronic colovesical fistula led to chronic pyelonephritis, recurrent urinary tract infections, persistent air in the collecting system and bladder, and post-renal obstruction resulting in renal failure. Patient is now hemodialysis dependent and required diverting loop ileostomy placement. This report highlights multiple potential etiologies of rising serum creatinine in patients with CGD.
- Risk Factors Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Neurogenic Bladders Managed by Clean Intermittent Catheterization. [Journal Article]
- UUrology 2017 Jan 05
- CONCLUSIONS: The risk of UTI among individuals with spina bifida or tethered cord declines with increasing age. Bladder function based on urodynamic parameters did not correlate with frequent UTIs.
- Copper is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine During Urinary Tract Infection to Impair Bacterial Colonization. [Journal Article]
- IIInfect Immun 2016 Dec 28
- Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPE...
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulate the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine compared to healthy controls, and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine in a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in non-human primates recapitulates increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC indicating that Cu is involved in limiting bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization in the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmenting Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limit bacterial colonization during UTI.
- Probiotics in Curing Allergic and Inflammatory Conditions - Research Progress and Futuristic Vision. [Journal Article]
- RPRecent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2016 Dec 26
- CONCLUSIONS: Present review gives an insight towards potent utility of this branch of beneficial microbial therapy in allergy and inflammations, which is still in the emerging phase and more scientific evidences need to be explored regarding exploration of the mechanisms of action, further experimental trials and validation of controlled clinical studies in humans along with designing novel strategies for monitoring the possible microbial changes in their composition and metabolism associated with their interaction upon host immune system.
- Comparison of quinolone and beta-lactam resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections. [Journal Article]
- IMInfez Med 2016 12 01; 24(4):326-330
- The growing frequency of antibiotic resistances is now a universal problem. Increasing resistance to new generations of β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is...
The growing frequency of antibiotic resistances is now a universal problem. Increasing resistance to new generations of β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates is considered an emergency health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs). In our study ESBL-producing isolates were assessed by screening methods. After determination of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs and quinolone resistance genes was performed. A total of 97 ESBL-producing E. coli were determined. The bla-TEM, bla-SHV and bla-CTX-M genes were detected in 90 isolates. The bla-TEM was the most frequently detected gene (46.4%), followed by bla-SHV (31.9%) and bla-CTX-M (14.4%). The most prevalent quinolone resistance gene among ESBL-producing isolates was oqxAB which was found in 67 isolates (69.1%). The frequencies of the aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnr and qepA were 65 (67%), 8 (8.2%) and 6 (6.2%), respectively. Our data indicate that the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in ESBL-positive isolates is increasing. The co-dissemination of PMQR and ESBL genes among E. coli isolates can be considered a threat to public health. Therefore, prescription of antibiotics against infectious disease should be managed carefully.
- Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among the pediatric population: who is at risk and why? Results from a single-centre prospective study. [Journal Article]
- IMInfez Med 2016 12 01; 24(4):318-325
- A prospective 18-month case-control study was performed in a tertiary Paediatric Centre in Turin (Italy) to analyse the disease burden and identify risk factors for acquisition of Extended Spectrum B...
A prospective 18-month case-control study was performed in a tertiary Paediatric Centre in Turin (Italy) to analyse the disease burden and identify risk factors for acquisition of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-pE). Children with ESBL-pE isolation were enrolled as cases, with controls matched according to age, type of pathogen isolated and sample of isolation. Out of 83 children (37 males, mean age 4.7 ± 5.46 years), 45 were identified as infected (54.2%) and 38 as colonised (45.8%) by ESBL-pE. Twenty-nine (64.4%) infectious disease episodes were categorised as community-acquired, 16 (35.6%) as healthcare-associated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen (52, 62.7%) and the urinary tract the most frequent site involved (26, 57.9%). No deaths occurred, even in bloodstream infection cases. Hospitalisation and exposure to broad-spectrum penicillins and III/IV generation cephalosporins in the 90-day period before bacteria isolation were found to be independent risk factors at multivariate analysis. Immunodepression, prolonged central venous catheter (CVC) and urine catheter stay, and receiving a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in the previous 30 days were otherwise recognized as potential risk factors at univariated analysis. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections are a growing threat even in children. Careful recognition of patients at risk should promote targeted interventions in order to reduce the ESBL burden.
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- Outcome of bloodstream infections among spinal cord injury patients and impact of multidrug-resistant organisms. [Journal Article]
- SCSpinal Cord 2016 Dec 20
- CONCLUSIONS: BSI occurring in SCI population were often severe but mortality remained low. MDROs were frequent but not associated with severity or mortality of BSI episodes. Risk factors associated with mortality were initial severe presentation, RTI, immunosuppressive therapy and BSI due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/sc.2016.176.