- The role of the bacterial microbiota on reproductive and pregnancy health. [Review]
- AAnaerobe 2016; 42:67-73
- Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microb...
Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microbiome and identifying the vast communities of microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and much work continues to examine the individual contribution of bacteria on health and disease to inform future therapies. This review explores the current literature outlining the contribution of important bacteria on reproductive health among sexually active men and women, outlines gaps in current research to determine causal and interventional relationships, and suggests future research initiatives. Novel treatments options to reduce adverse outcomes must recognize the heterogeneity of the bacteria within the microbiome and adequately assess long-term benefits in reducing disease burden and re-establishing a healthy Lactobacillus-dominant state. Recognizing other reservoirs outside of the lower genital track and within sexual partners as well as genetic and individual moderators may be most important for long-term cure and reduction of disease. It will be important to develop useful screening tools and comprehensively examine novel therapeutic options to promote the long-term reduction of high-risk bacteria and the re-establishment of healthy bacterial levels to considerably improve outcomes among pregnant women and sexually active men and women.
- [Relationship of HPV infection and BV, VVC, TV: a clinical study based on 1 261 cases of gynecologic outpatients]. [Journal Article]
- ZFZhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2016 Oct 25; 51(10):730-733
- Objective: To Explore the relationship between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis(BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC), and trichomonal vaginitis(TV). Methods: Clinical data from 1 261 gynecologic o...
Objective: To Explore the relationship between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis(BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC), and trichomonal vaginitis(TV). Methods: Clinical data from 1 261 gynecologic outpatients who underwent the vaginal microecology and HPV type detection during June 2015 to December 2015 were collected and analyzed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Results: In 1 261 patients, 328 cases infected with HPV, infection rate was 26.01%(328/1 261); vaginal infectious disease in 328 cases of HPV infections were 219 cases(66.8%, 219/328), vaginal infectious diseases in 933 cases of HPV uninfected were 503 cases(53.9%, 503/933), incidence of vaginal infectious disease in HPV infected patients was higher than that in HPV uninfected patients(χ(2)=5.87, P=0.01). 142 cases of BV had 54 cases infected with HPV(38.0%, 54/142), 296 cases of intermediate type BV had 88 cases infected with HPV(29.7%, 88/296), 231 cases of normal vaginal microecology had 51 cases infected with HPV(22.1%, 51/231), 99 cases of VVC had 15 cases infected with HPV(15.2%, 15/99), 2 patients with TV had 0 cases infected with HPV(0/2), HPV infection rate in BV, intermediate type BV patients were significantly higher than normal patients(P<0.05), while there were no statistical differences among VVC, TV and normal patients(P>0.05). The intensity of HPV infection were positively correlated with BV, intermediate type BV(OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.37-3.43, P<0.01; OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.00-2.22, P= 0.04); while, VVC, TV were uncorrelated with HPV infection(all P>0.05). Conclusions: BV, intermediate type BV are positively correlated with HPV infection, especially for the high-risk HPV. VVC and TV are not correlated with HPV infection.
- Candida vulvovaginitis: A store with a buttery and a show window. [Review]
- MMycoses 2017; 60(2):70-72
- Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC)...
Although being an utterly frequent, non-mortal, yet distressing disease, and despite good knowledge of the pathogenesis and the availability of specific and safe treatment, vulvovaginal Candida (VVC) infection remains one of the most enigmatic problems for both physicians and patients. Good treatment requires a proper diagnosis. Too many caregivers (and patients treating themselves) react too simple-minded on the symptoms of VVC and treat VVC where they see it on the vulva. In this opinion paper, we plea for a thorough examination of women with VVC, especially in those women who suffer from recurrent disease since a long time, sometimes decades, which necessitates intensive examination of the vaginal flora, as this is invariably the reservoir for relapses and recurrent vulvitis. Examination of such complicated cases requires experienced clinical judgement, expertise bedside phase contrast microscopy of fresh vaginal fluid, classical cultures on Sabouroud medium and, if still unresolved, repetitive cultures taken by the patient herself at moments of symptoms, and/or nuclear acid amplification techniques to detect Candida genes in the vaginal fluid. Even if only vulvitis is evident, thorough expert examination of vaginal fluid is obligatory to diagnose VVC.
- The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases. [Journal Article]
- VVirulence 2016 Sep 22; :1-10
- Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the comple...
Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.
- Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns. [Journal Article]
- FMFolia Med (Plovdiv) 2016 Apr-Jun; 58(2):108-14
- Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis). Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and in...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis). Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns.
- Antibiotics Prophylaxis for Operative Hysteroscopy: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. [Journal Article]
- RSReprod Sci 2016 Jul 28
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study support the recommendation not to prescribe routine antibiotic prophylaxis prior to operative hysteroscopy.
- Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2016; 11(4):e0153045
- Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. ...
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to HIV.
- Association of a variable number tandem repeat in the NLRP3 gene in women with susceptibility to RVVC. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016; 35(5):797-801
- Vaginal infections with Candida spp. frequently occur in women of childbearing age. A small proportion of these women experience recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC), which is characterized by at...
Vaginal infections with Candida spp. frequently occur in women of childbearing age. A small proportion of these women experience recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC), which is characterized by at least three episodes of infection in one year. In addition to known risk factors such as antibiotics, diabetes, or pregnancy, host genetic variation and inflammatory pathways such as the IL-1/Th17 axis have been reported to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of RVVC. In this study, we assessed a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the NLRP3 gene that encodes a component of the inflammasome, processing the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. A total of 270 RVVC patients and 583 healthy controls were analyzed, and increased diseases susceptibility was associated with the presence of the 12/9 genotype. Furthermore, functional studies demonstrate that IL-1β production at the vaginal surface is higher in RVVC patients bearing the 12/9 genotype compared to controls, whereas IL-1Ra levels were decreased and IL-18 levels remained unchanged. These findings suggest that IL-1β-mediated hyperinflammation conveyed by the NLRP3 gene plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of RVVC and may identify this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in the disease.
- Recent Biomarker-Confirmed Unprotected Vaginal Sex, But Not Self-reported Unprotected Sex, Is Associated With Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis. [Journal Article]
- STSex Transm Dis 2016; 43(3):172-6
- CONCLUSIONS: Estimates from earlier studies linking self-reported unprotected sex and BV may be biased by misclassification. Biomarkers can improve measurement of unprotected sex, a critical exposure variable in sexual health research.
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- Development and Validation of a Highly Accurate Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Microbiol 2016; 54(4):1017-24
- Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standa...
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common gynecological infection in the United States. Diagnosis based on Amsel's criteria can be challenging and can be aided by laboratory-based testing. A standard method for diagnosis in research studies is enumeration of bacterial morphotypes of a Gram-stained vaginal smear (i.e., Nugent scoring). However, this technique is subjective, requires specialized training, and is not widely available. Therefore, a highly accurate molecular assay for the diagnosis of BV would be of great utility. We analyzed 385 vaginal specimens collected prospectively from subjects who were evaluated for BV by clinical signs and Nugent scoring. We analyzed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays on DNA extracted from these specimens to quantify nine organisms associated with vaginal health or disease:Gardnerella vaginalis,Atopobium vaginae, BV-associated bacteria 2 (BVAB2, an uncultured member of the orderClostridiales),Megasphaeraphylotype 1 or 2,Lactobacillus iners,Lactobacillus crispatus,Lactobacillus gasseri, andLactobacillus jensenii We generated a logistic regression model that identifiedG. vaginalis,A. vaginae, andMegasphaeraphylotypes 1 and 2 as the organisms for which quantification provided the most accurate diagnosis of symptomatic BV, as defined by Amsel's criteria and Nugent scoring, with 92% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 94% negative predictive value. The inclusion ofLactobacillusspp. did not contribute sufficiently to the quantitative model for symptomatic BV detection. This molecular assay is a highly accurate laboratory tool to assist in the diagnosis of symptomatic BV.