- Characterization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 transcription factors in ovaries of fetal, prepubertal and adult rhesus macaques. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2017 Apr 22
- The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activati...
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway negatively regulates follicle activation via the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor in rodents. FOXO3 knockout mice exhibit global activation of primordial follicles leading to early depletion of ovarian follicles and subsequent infertility. Whether a similar mechanism for follicle activation exists in the primate ovary is unclear. In the current study, protein localization of FOXO1, 3 and 4 as well as their upstream regulator, AKT/p-AKT, were examined in rhesus macaque ovaries of 3 developmental stages: fetal, prepubertal and adult. FOXO1 protein is expressed in granulosa cells of fetal, prepubertal and adult ovaries. FOXO3 is distributed sparsely in the mitotically active germ cells, but its expression decreases following follicle formation in the macaque fetal ovary. In addition, FOXO3 is seldom with inter-animal variation in the prepubertal ovary and is absent in the adult ovary. FOXO4 is nondetectable in fetal ovaries, although it is expressed in some theca cells of antral follicles and some stromal cells in prepubertal and adult ovaries. Our results suggest that the regulation and/or function of FOXO3 in the primate primordial follicle may differ than that of the rodent. Nevertheless, AKT/p-AKT is expressed in macaque primordial oocytes, suggesting that similar upstream events, but different downstream effects may regulate primordial follicle activation in nonhuman primates compared to rodents. Elucidation of the mechanism responsible for follicle activation in primates will be crucial for understanding primary ovarian insufficiency, improving female fertility, and applying techniques for in vitro maturation of follicles for fertility preservation in cancer survivors.
- [Evaluation of endometriosis fertility index in follow-up treatment of endometriosis combined with infertility patients after laparoscopic surgery]. [Journal Article]
- ZFZhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2017 Apr 25; 52(4):233-238
- CONCLUSIONS: EFI score is a useful evaluation in predicting and guiding pregnancy in endometriosis patients combined with infertility after laparoscopic surgery. EFI score guidance, strict post-operation management and positive pregnancy scheme could significantly improve the pregnancy rate of endometriosis patients with infertility.
- Psychological Disorders among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). [Journal Article]
- IJIran J Public Health 2017; 46(3):333-341
- CONCLUSIONS: Iranian infertile females and spouses of infertile males experienced more psychological disorders than infertile males and spouses of infertile females. These results may be due to the impact of cultural beliefs and gender roles in Iranian society. Anxiety, depression, obsession, paranoia and hypochondriasis should be addressed before any ART treatments.
- Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives. [Review]
- OAOpen Access J Sports Med 2017; 8:85-95
- Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as im...
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation has dramatically increased. The benefits of physical activity, including decreased risk for heart disease and diabetes as well as improved body image and self-esteem, far outweigh the risks. However, a select population of adolescent and young adult females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad (Triad), which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD). These conditions often manifest clinically as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures; an individual may suffer from 1 or all of the Triad components simultaneously. Because of the complex nature of the Triad, treatment is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, nutritionist or dietitian, physical therapist, athletic trainer, coach, family members, and most importantly, the patient. A thorough physical examination by a primary care physician is essential to identify all organs/systems that may be impacted by Triad-related conditions. Laboratory tests, assessment of bone density, nutritional assessment, and behavior health evaluation guide the management of the female athlete with Triad-related conditions. Treatment of the Triad includes adequate caloric consumption to restore a positive energy balance; this is often the first step in successful management of the Triad. In addition, determining the cause of menstrual dysfunction (MD) and resumption of menses is very important. Nonpharmacologic interventions are the first choice; pharmacologic treatment for MD is reserved only for those patients with symptoms of estrogen deficiency or infertility. Lastly, adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is critical for lifelong bone health. For this review, a comprehensive search of relevant databases from the earliest dates to July 2016 was performed. Keywords, including female athlete triad, adolescent female athlete, disordered eating, eating disorder, low energy availability, relative energy deficit, anorexia, bulimia, menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligoamenorrhea, bone mineral density, osteopenia, osteoporosis, stress fracture, and stress reaction, were utilized to search for relevant articles. Articles that directly addressed assessment and management of any 1 or all of the Triad components were included in this comprehensive review. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the reader with the latest terms used to define the components of the female athlete triad, to discuss examination and diagnosis of the Triad, and lastly, to provide the reader with the latest evidence to successfully implement a multidisciplinary treatment approach when providing care for the adolescent female athlete who may be suffering from Triad-related components.
- Intrinsic fertility of human oocytes. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2017 Apr 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The intrinsic fertility per oocyte in natural cycle is far greater than reported in hyperstimulated cycles, varying robustly from 26% to 4% with age from <35 to 42 years. The curve is relatively flat until age 34, and then declines rapidly 10% per year thereafter.
- Prohibitin-induced obesity leads to anovulation and polycystic ovary in mice. [Journal Article]
- BOBiol Open 2017 Apr 21
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder prog...
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age. Despite obesity, female Mito-Ob mice maintained glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity similar to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice showed morphologically distinct polycystic ovaries and elevated estradiol, but normal testosterone and insulin levels. Histological analysis of the ovaries showed signs of impaired follicular dynamics like preantral follicular arrest and reduced number, or absence of corpus luteum. The ovaries in infertile Mito-Ob mice were found closely surrounded by periovarian adipose tissue suggesting a potential role in anovulation. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated estradiol and obesity per se may lead to anovulation and polycystic ovaries independent of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. As obesity often coexists with other abnormalities known to be involved in the development of PCOS such as insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism, the precise role of these factors in the disease process remain unclear. The Mito-Ob mice provide an opportunity to study the effect of obesity on anovulation and ovarian cyst formation independent of the major drivers of obesity-linked PCOS.
- Controlled, prospective, observational study on the efficiency and tolerability of a combination of potential Nrf2-inducing antioxidants and micronutrients as pre-treatment for ICSI in dyspermic patients with previous failure. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017; 21(7):1645-1652
- CONCLUSIONS: Short-term treatment with micronutrients in dyspermic subjects can improve the reproductive outcome of the IVF procedure.
- Cardiovascular risk may be increased in women with unexplained infertility. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Reprod Med 2017; 44(1):28-32
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that women with unexplained infertility had an atherogenic lipid profile and elevated hs-CRP levels, suggesting a higher risk of developing CVD in the future. Further studies with larger groups are needed to investigate the nature of this link.
- A lack of coordination between sister-chromatids segregation and cytokinesis in the oocytes of B6.Y(TIR) (XY) sex-reversed female mice. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Apr 19; 7(1):960
- The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defecti...
The B6.Y(TIR) (XY) mouse develops bilateral ovaries despite the expression of the testis-determining gene Sry during gonadal differentiation. We reported that the oocytes of the XY female are defective in their cytoplasm, resulting in a failure in the second meiotic division after activation or fertilization in vitro. However, the mechanism of meiotic failure or the cause of infertility remained to be clarified. In the present study, we obtained mature oocytes from XY females by superovulation and confirmed that these oocytes also fail in zygotic development. By using confocal microscopy 3D-analysis, we demonstrated that meiotic spindles were properly positioned and oriented in the MII-oocytes from XY females. After parthenogenic activation, fewer oocytes from XY females extruded the second polar body, and in those oocytes, sister-chromatids were often separated but neither set entered the second polar body. ARP2, F-actin, and ORC4, known to play roles in asymmetric meiotic division, were initially localized along the ooplasmic membrane and concentrated over the MII-spindle but lost their cortical polarity after activation while the sister-chromatids moved away from the oolemma in the oocytes from XY females. Our results indicate that the second polar body extrusion is uncoupled from the sister-chromatids separation in the oocytes from XY female mouse.
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- Genetic relationships among female fertility disorders, female fertility traits and productivity of Holstein dairy cows in the early lactation period. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Breed Genet 2017 Apr 19
- Fertility health disorders from the early lactation period including retained placenta (REPLA), metritis (MET), corpus luteum persistence (CLP), anoestria/acyclia (AOEAC) and ovarial cysts (OC), as w...
Fertility health disorders from the early lactation period including retained placenta (REPLA), metritis (MET), corpus luteum persistence (CLP), anoestria/acyclia (AOEAC) and ovarial cysts (OC), as well as overall disease categories (disorders during the postpartal period (DPP), ovary infertility (OINF), overall trait definition "fertility disorders" (FD)), were used to estimate genetic (co)variance components with female fertility and test-day traits. The disease data set comprised 25,142 Holstein cows from parities 1, 2 and 3 resulting in 43,584 lactations. For disease traits, we used the binary trait definition (sick or healthy) and disease count data reflecting the sum of treatments for the same disease within lactation or within lactation periods. Statistical modelling included single and multiple trait repeatability animal models for all trait combinations within a Bayesian framework. Heritabilities for binary disease traits ranged from 0.04 (OC) to 0.10 (REPLA) and were slightly lower for the corresponding sum trait definitions. Correlations between both trait definitions were almost one, for genetic as well as for permanent environmental effects. Moderate to high genetic correlations were found among puerperal disorders DPP, REPLA and MET (0.45-0.98) and among the ovarian disorders OINF, AOEAC, CLP and OC (0.59-0.99). Genetic correlations between puerperal and ovarian disorders were close to zero, apart from the REPLA-OC association (0.55). With regard to fertility disorders and productivity in early lactation, a pronounced genetic antagonistic relationship was only identified between OC and protein yield. Genetic correlations between fertility disorders and test-day SCS were close to zero. OINF and all diseases contributing to OINF were strongly correlated with the female fertility traits "interval from calving to first service," "interval from service to pregnancy" and "interval from calving to pregnancy." The strong correlations imply that fertility disorders could be included in genetic evaluations of economic fertility traits as correlated predictors. Vice versa, a breeding focus on female fertility traits will reduce genetic susceptibility to OC, CLP and AOEAC.