- The Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in Iranian Women. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Fertil Steril 2018; 12(3):213-217
- CONCLUSIONS: Although the O blood group was less dominant in Iranian women with endometriosis, we observed no significant correlation between the risk of endometriosis and the ABO and Rh blood groups. Endometriosis severity was not correlated to any of these blood groups.
- Spermatozoa: A Historical Perspective. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Fertil Steril 2018; 12(3):182-190
- The 100,000th scientific article on the subject of spermatozoa was recently published. Numerous studies evaluated the characteristics of this important cell that led to tremendous discoveries. Since ...
The 100,000th scientific article on the subject of spermatozoa was recently published. Numerous studies evaluated the characteristics of this important cell that led to tremendous discoveries. Since its first observation and description in 1677, many important characteristics have been described regarding this highly fascinating gamete. In this review, we intend to provide a historical account of the numerous milestones and breakthroughs achieved related to spermatozoa. We conducted a review of the literature by selecting the most important subjects with regards to spermatozoa. Since their discovery by van Leeuwenhoek, spermatozoa have been studied by scientists to better understand their physiology and process of interaction with their female counterpart, the oocyte, in order to treat and resolve infertility problems. Three centuries after van Leeuwenhoek's discovery, the 100,000th article about these cells was published. It is encouraging that sperm research reached this landmark, but at the same time it is clear that further research on male reproductive physiology and spermatozoa is required to shed more light on their function and pathology in order to reduce the number of unexplained infertility cases.
- Hyperandrogenism Induces Histo-Architectural Changes in the Rat Uterus. [Journal Article]
- RSReprod Sci 2018 Jan 01; :1933719118783881
- The effects of androgens on the uterus have been poorly studied and they need to be clarified to understand why androgen excess, such as observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is a ...
The effects of androgens on the uterus have been poorly studied and they need to be clarified to understand why androgen excess, such as observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is a risk factor for the development of endometrial hyperplasia, cancer, and infertility. Thus, uterine histomorphology in a PCOS experimental model was evaluated. Beginning at weaning, female rats were injected daily with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 6 mg/100 g body weight) or vehicle (sesame oil) for 20 consecutive days. On postnatal day 41 (PND41), DHEA-treated animals showed high serum testosterone levels. In addition, uterine histological analysis showed a significant increase in luminal epithelial height and glandular density without changes in cell proliferation. The thickness of the subepithelial stroma and myometrium also increased in these animals. The effect of DHEA on uterine thickness was accompanied by a significant reduction in cell density in both tissue compartments (subepithelial stroma and myometrium). Cell proliferation was not altered in the myometrium, whereas a decrease in the proliferative activity was seen at PND41 in the subepithelial stroma of DHEA animals. The analysis of the extracellular space showed that the changes in the thickness of the subepithelial stroma and myometrium were related to an increase in the organization of collagen fibers and water imbibition. The latter was associated with higher aquaporin 3 and 8 expression. This study provides evidence to further the understanding of PCOS-associated hyperandrogenism effects on uterine architecture. This could have implications for the regulation of uterine function and the development of uterine lesions.
- Enhanced differentiation potential of primary human endometrial cells cultured on 3D scaffolds. [Journal Article]
- BBiomacromolecules 2018 Jun 21
- Novel approaches for culturing primary human cells in vitro are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Conventional 2D monol...
Novel approaches for culturing primary human cells in vitro are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Conventional 2D monolayer cultures of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells fail to replicate the complex 3D architecture of tissue. A fully synthetic scaffold that mimics the microenvironment of the human endometrium can ultimately provide a robust platform for investigating tissue physiology and, hence, take significant steps towards tackling female infertility and IVF failure. In this work, emulsion-templated porous polymers (known as polyHIPEs) were investigated as scaffolds for the culture of primary human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (HEECs and HESCs). Infiltration of HEECs and HESCs into cell-seeded polyHIPE scaffolds was assessed by histological studies, and phenotype was confirmed by immunostaining. Confocal microscopy revealed that the morphology of HEECs and HESCs is representative of that found in vivo. RNA sequencing was used to investigate transcriptome differences between cells grown on polyHIPE scaffolds and in monolayer cultures. The differentiation status of HEECs and HESCs grown in polyHIPE scaffolds and in monolayer cultures was further evaluated by monitoring the expression of endometrial marker genes. Our observations suggest that a 3D cell culture model that could approximate native human endometrial architecture and function can be developed using tailored polyHIPE scaffolds.
- Use of human-derived stem cells to create a novel, in vitro model designed to explore FMR1 CGG repeat instability amongst female premutation carriers. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Jun 20
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to establish a stem cell model aimed to understand FMR1 CGG repeat instability amongst female PM carriers. Our preliminary data indicate that CGG repeat number, transcription, and translation are conserved upon induction to pluripotency.
- Activated-Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) expressed in human sperm alters its fertilizing ability. [Journal Article]
- RReproduction 2018 Jun 19
- The farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXR) is a bile acid sensor activated by binding to endogenous bile acids including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although, FXR is expressed in male reproductive tissue...
The farnesoid X receptor alpha (FXR) is a bile acid sensor activated by binding to endogenous bile acids including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Although, FXR is expressed in male reproductive tissue, the relevance of the receptor on reproduction is scarcely known. Here we demonstrated the FXR presence and its action on several human sperm features. Western blot and Immunofluorescence assays evidenced the FXR expression in human spermatozoa and the localization in the middle piece. CDCA increasing concentrations and GW4064, synthetic ligand of FXR, were used to study the FXR influence on sperm motility, survival, capacitation, acrosome reaction and on glucose as well as lipid metabolism. Interestingly, our data showed that increasing concentrations of CDCA negatively affected sperm parameters, while the receptor blockage by (Z)-Guggulsterone and by the anti-FXR Ab reversed the effects. Intriguingly, elevated CDCA levels increased triglyceride content, while lipase and G6PDH activities were reduced with respect untreated samples, thus impeding the metabolic reprogramming typical of the capacitated sperm. In conclusion, in this study we demonstrated for the first time a novel target for FXR and that the activated receptor alters the acquisition of sperm fertilizing ability. We showed that sperm itself express the FXR and it is responsive to specific ligands of the receptor, therefore bile acids impact this cell both in male and in female genital tracts. It might be hypothesized that BAs levels could be involved in infertility with idiopathic origin as these compounds are not systematically measured in men undergoing to assisted medically assisted procreation.
- Involvement of the luteinizing hormone surge in the regulation of ovary and oviduct clock gene expression in mice. [Journal Article]
- GCGenes Cells 2018 Jun 19
- Circadian dysfunction perturbs the female reproductive cycle. In particular, mice lacking the clock gene Bmal1 show severe infertility, implying that BMAL1 plays roles in ovulation and luteinization....
Circadian dysfunction perturbs the female reproductive cycle. In particular, mice lacking the clock gene Bmal1 show severe infertility, implying that BMAL1 plays roles in ovulation and luteinization. Here, we examined temporal changes in clock gene expression in the ovary and oviduct before and during gonadotropin-induced follicular growth, ovulation, and luteinization in sexually immature mice. While the oviduct did not show a drastic change in clock gene expression, Bmal1 expression in the ovary was higher than that in control mice during the period from 4 to 16 hr after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. Bmal1 expression reached a maximum at 16 hr after hCG administration, when follicle luteinization occurred. In an interesting manner, administration of hCG to ex vivo-cultured oviduct triggered a shorter circadian period and inevitably resulted in phase advance. Together, our present data suggest that LH surge induces continuous expression of BMAL1 in the mouse ovary and modulates circadian phase in the mouse oviduct.
- Prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and its related factors among infertile patients in Iran: a cross-sectional study. [Journal Article]
- HQHealth Qual Life Outcomes 2018 Jun 19; 16(1):129
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GAD is relatively high in infertile patients. We conclude that all infertile patients should be screened for symptoms of GAD and treated for this disorder as need arises.
- Novel homozygous nonsense mutations in LHCGR lead to empty follicle syndrome and 46, XY disorder of sex development. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Reprod 2018 Jun 15
- Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a disorder associated with female infertility and presents as a complete failure to retrieve oocytes during ART cycles despite normal follicle development and careful...
Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a disorder associated with female infertility and presents as a complete failure to retrieve oocytes during ART cycles despite normal follicle development and careful aspiration. To date, only two EFS cases have been reported with homozygous missense mutations in the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) gene, and both cases showed normal estradiol (E2) production during ovulation induction. The molecular genetic mechanisms of EFS remain unknown. Herein, we report two novel homozygous inactivating LHCGR mutations, c.736 C>T (p.Q246*) and c.846dupT (p.R283*), in two female EFS patients from unrelated consanguineous families. The probands had impaired E2 production during the ART process, which differs from previously reported EFS cases. The inactivating mutations not only led to EFS in the two female probands, but also resulted in 46, XY disorder of sex development (46, XY DSD) in their male siblings. As far as we know, this is the first report of LHCGR mutations leading to both EFS and 46, XY DSD within the same pedigree. Our findings provide researchers and clinicians with a better understanding of phenotype-genotype correlations between EFS and 46, XY DSD and the LHCGR gene.
New Search Next
- Chronic restraint stress disturbs meiotic resumption through APC/C-mediated cyclin B1 excessive degradation in mouse oocytes. [Journal Article]
- CCCell Cycle 2018 Jun 18
- Psychological stress, which exerts detrimental effects on human reproduction, may compromise the meiotic competence of oocytes. Meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), is the first mil...
Psychological stress, which exerts detrimental effects on human reproduction, may compromise the meiotic competence of oocytes. Meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), is the first milestone to confer meiotic competence to oocytes. In the practice of assisted reproductive technology (ART), the timing for GVBD is associated with the rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation. However, whether chronic stress compromises oocyte competence by influencing GVBD and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, a chronic restraint stress (CRS) mouse model was used to investigate the effects of stress on oocyte meiotic resumption, as well as the mechanisms. Following a 4-week chronic restraint stress in female mice, the percentage of abnormal bipolar spindles increased and indicated compromised oocyte competence in the CRS group. Furthermore, we identified a decreased percentage of GVBD and prolonged time of GVBD in the CRS mouse oocytes compared with the control group. CRS simultaneously reduced the expression of cyclin B1 (CCNB1), which represents a regulatory subunit of M-phase/mature promoting factors (MPF). However, MG132, an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), could rescue the prolonged time of GVBD and increase the expression level of CCNB1 of oocytes from the CRS mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that stress disturbed meiotic resumption through APC/C-mediated CCNB1 degradation, thus providing a novel understanding for stress-related oocyte quality decline; moreover, it may provide a non-invasive approach to select high-quality gametes and novel targets for molecular therapy to treat stress-related female infertility.