- Chromosome positioning and male infertility: it comes with the territory. [Review]
- JAJ Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Sep 18
- The production of functional spermatozoa through spermatogenesis requires a spatially and temporally highly regulated gene expression pattern, which in case of alterations, leads to male infertility....
The production of functional spermatozoa through spermatogenesis requires a spatially and temporally highly regulated gene expression pattern, which in case of alterations, leads to male infertility. Changes of gene expression by chromosome anomalies, gene variants, and epigenetic alterations have been described as the main genetic causes of male infertility. Recent molecular and cytogenetic approaches have revealed that higher order chromosome positioning is essential for basic genome functions, including gene expression. This review addresses this issue by exposing well-founded evidences which support that alterations on the chromosome topology in spermatogenetic cells leads to defective sperm function and could be considered as an additional genetic cause of male infertility.
- Tribulus terrestris Protects against Male Reproductive Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018:5758191
- Tribulus terrestris (TT) has been considered as a potential stimulator of testosterone production, which has been related with steroidal saponins prevailing in this plant. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is th...
Tribulus terrestris (TT) has been considered as a potential stimulator of testosterone production, which has been related with steroidal saponins prevailing in this plant. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is the most commonly used anticancer and immunosuppressant drug, which causes several toxic effects, especially on the reproductive system. Patients who need to use CP therapy exhibit reduced fertility or infertility, which impacts both physically and emotionally on the decision to use this drug, especially among young men. We hypothesized that the treatment with TT dry extract would protect the male reproductive system against CP toxicity. Mice received dry extract of TT (11 mg/kg) or vehicle by gavage for 14 days. Saline or CP was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose (100 mg/kg) on the 14th day. Animals were euthanized 24 h after CP administration, and testes and epididymis were removed for biochemical and histopathological analysis and sperm evaluation. The dry extract of TT was evaluated by HPLC analysis and demonstrated the presence of protodioscin (1.48%, w/w). CP exposure increased lipid peroxidation, reactive species, and protein carbonylation and altered antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GR). Moreover, acute exposure to CP caused a reduction on 17 β-HSD activity, which may be related to the reduction in serum testosterone levels, histopathological changes observed in the testes, and the quality of the semen. The present study highlighted the role of TT dry extract to ameliorate the alterations induced by CP administration in mice testes, probably due to the presence of protodioscin.
- Establishing a stable, repeatable platform for measuring changes in sperm DNA methylation. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Epigenetics 2018 Sep 18; 10(1):119
- CONCLUSIONS: The CLIA guidelines, although not intended for high-throughput assays, can be interpreted in a way that is consistent with modern epigenetic assays. Based on such an interoperation, Illumina's Infinium platform is quite amenable to usage in a clinical setting for diagnostic work.
- Male infertility: the intracellular bacterial hypothesis. [Review]
- NMNew Microbes New Infect 2018; 26:37-41
- Infertility is a disease that affects one in seven couples. As male infertility affects approximately 30% of these couples with an unknown cause in half the cases, it represents a major public health...
Infertility is a disease that affects one in seven couples. As male infertility affects approximately 30% of these couples with an unknown cause in half the cases, it represents a major public health concern. The classic treatment of male infertility involves intrauterine insemination, with modest outcome, and in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which is known to be invasive and expensive, without treating the specific cause of infertility. Male fertility is mainly evaluated through a semen assessment where abnormal parameters such as concentration and motility can be associated with a decreased chance of conception. Infectious processes represent plausible candidates for male infertility. Chlamydia trachomatis is well known to cause female infertility through tubal damage but its role in male infertility remains controversial. The link between ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas and male infertility is also debatable. The potential negative impact of these bacteria on male fertility might not only involve semen parameters but also, as with C. trachomatis, include important physiological mechanisms such as fertilization processes that are not routinely assessed during infertility investigation. Basic research is important to help determine the exact effect of these bacteria on male fertility to develop targeted treatment and go beyond in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
- Association between expression of TNF-α, P53 and HIF1α with asthenozoospermia. [Journal Article]
- HFHum Fertil (Camb) 2018 Sep 17; :1-7
- Reduced sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) accounts for a significant percentage of male infertility and numerous factors have been suggested to explain this phenomenon among which hypoxic and inflam...
Reduced sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) accounts for a significant percentage of male infertility and numerous factors have been suggested to explain this phenomenon among which hypoxic and inflammatory markers are the least studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the main molecular markers involved in hypoxia (P53 and HIF-1α) and inflammation (TNF-α) pathways in infertile men with asthenozoospermia. Expression of these markers were assessed by qRT-PCR, and analysis of data show that mean of hypoxia markers (P53, HIF-1α) and also TNF- α were significantly higher in infertile men with asthenozoospermia compared to fertile men (p < 0.05). Unlike TNF-α, significant negative correlations were observed between expression of P53 (r = -0.568; p = 0.002) and HIF-1α (r = -0.403; p = 0.046) with sperm motility. In addition, a significant negative correlation was observed between expression of P53 with sperm concentration (r = -0.576; p < 0.001). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between hypoxia markers (P53, HIF-1α) and TNF-α (p < 0.01). However, no significant relation was observed between TNF-α and semen parameters. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the involvement of hypoxia pathway is more pronounced than the inflammatory pathway in asthenozoospermia.
- Ameliorative Influence of Ajwa Dates on Ochratoxin A-Induced Testis Toxicity. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microsc Ultrastruct 2018 Jul-Sep; 6(3):134-138
- Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera), cultivated particularly in Al-Madina Al-Monawarh in Saudi Arabia, and considered as a rich source of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins, carotenoids and pheno...
Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera), cultivated particularly in Al-Madina Al-Monawarh in Saudi Arabia, and considered as a rich source of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins, carotenoids and phenolics. It is believed that Ajwa dates have a wide range of protective effects. For this reason, this work aimed to investigate the ameliorative effect of Ajwa dates aqueous extract against ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced testicular lesions in rats. Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 28 days. Group I served as normal control, group II (OTA exposed) treated orally with 289 μg/kg/day. Group III (Ajwa dates aqueous extract) treated orally with 1 g/kg/day. The last group served as the protective group (pretreated with Ajwa dates extract, then OTA). Histological studies revealed that OTA induced lesions in the testicular structure included proliferation of sertoli cells, impairment of some spermatogenesis stages and accumulation of premeiotic germinal cells. However, pretreatment with Ajwa dates extract prevented all the testicular damage and improved spermatogenesis, as well as remarkably enhanced the testicular structure. In conclusion, Ajwa dates aqueous extract has a powerful protective effect and ameliorative influence against OTA- induced testicular damage and may be used to treat sexual impairment and male infertility.
- The Ameliorating Effect of Sodium Selenite on the Histological Changes and Expression of Caspase-3 in the Testis of Monosodium Glutamate-Treated Rats: Light and Electron Microscopic Study. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microsc Ultrastruct 2018 Apr-Jun; 6(2):105-115
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used flavor enhancer that may contribute to male infertility. Sodium selenite is inorganic chemical form of selenium (Se). Se is best known as an antioxidant....
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used flavor enhancer that may contribute to male infertility. Sodium selenite is inorganic chemical form of selenium (Se). Se is best known as an antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the possible ameliorating role of sodium selenite against MSG-induced testicular toxicity and histological changes. Forty male albino rats were allocated into four groups. Control group received distilled water, SE group received sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg/day) dissolved in distilled water orally, MSG group received MSG (6 mg/g/day) dissolved in distilled water orally, and MSG + SE group received both MSG and sodium selenite for 45 days. Testicular samples were prepared for biochemical, light, and electron microscopic studies. Immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 was done. MSG group demonstrated a significant increase in malondialdehyde level, marked damage of seminiferous tubules with a significant reduction in diameter and height of the lining epithelium. Spermatogenic cells showed disorganization, dark nuclei, reduction in number, and maturation arrest. Vacuolations of interstitial tissue and Leydig cells were also observed. Percent area of fibrosis and caspase-3 immunoexpression was significantly increased. Ultrastructurally, irregular tubular basement membrane and damaged germ cells were found. The spermatogenic, Sertoli, and Leydig cells showed irregular shrunken nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolations, and swollen mitochondria. MSG + SE group showed much better histological and ultrastructural picture and improvement of the measured biochemical and morphometric parameters. Percent area of caspase-3 immunoexpression was significantly decreased. In conclusion, sodium selenite ameliorated the testicular damaging effect of MSG through reduction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
- The possible protective role of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on testicular and epididymal structure and sperm parameters in nicotine-treated adult rats (a histological and biochemical study). [Journal Article]
- CTCell Tissue Res 2018 Sep 14
- Exposure to nicotine in smoking contributes to most unexplained male infertility but the mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element in normal growth, developmen...
Exposure to nicotine in smoking contributes to most unexplained male infertility but the mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element in normal growth, development and reproduction. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are well-known antioxidants. Therefore, this work was designed to investigate the potential ability of ZnONPs to protect testis and epididymis in nicotine-treated rats. Forty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into control group and two experimental groups (treated and supplemented rats). In the treated group, rats received nicotine at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day orally for 30 days. Rats in the supplemented group received ZnONPs (10 mg/kg/day) with nicotine (1 mg/kg/day), orally for the same period. Testicular and epididymal sections were stained with H&E to assess the histological changes. Negrosin-eosin staining of epididymal sperms was performed to assess their viability and morphological changes. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels were assessed. Also, oxidative stress parameters and semiquantitative real-time PCR for steroidogenic enzymes were measured. Morphometric studies of both organs were statistically analyzed. Mild to severe testicular and epididymal structural changes together with sperm morphological abnormalities were detected in nicotine-treated rats. Biochemical results also showed a decrease in all measured parameters except for an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level that meant deterioration of their reproductive function. On the other hand, ZnONP supplementation in the last group showed an obvious improvement in all investigated parameters.
- Zika Virus Vaccines: Challenges and Perspectives. [Review]
- VVaccines (Basel) 2018 Sep 13; 6(3)
- Zika virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread within the Americas since 2014, presenting a variety of clinical manifestations and neurological complications resulting in congenital malformation,...
Zika virus is an arbovirus that has rapidly spread within the Americas since 2014, presenting a variety of clinical manifestations and neurological complications resulting in congenital malformation, microcephaly, and possibly, in male infertility. These significant clinical manifestations have led investigators to develop several candidate vaccines specific to Zika virus. In this review we describe relevant targets for the development of vaccines specific for Zika virus, the development status of various vaccine candidates and their different platforms, as well as their clinical progression.
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- Congenital anomalies in infants conceived by infertile women through assisted reproductive technology: A cohort study 2004-2014. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(4):3179-3185
- This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyse the risk of congenital anomalies (CAs) in infants conceived by infertile women through assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 9,013 clinic...
This retrospective cohort study aimed to analyse the risk of congenital anomalies (CAs) in infants conceived by infertile women through assisted reproductive technology (ART). A total of 9,013 clinical pregnancy cycles resulting in 9,101 live births between 2004 and 2014 were analysed. Congenital anomalies were evaluated and compared with spontaneous pregnancies in infertile women. A total of 9,101 infants were born following ART. Three subgroups were established: In vitro fertilisation fresh embryo transfer (IVF-ET), n=2,919, intracytoplasmic sperm injection fresh embryo transfer (ICSI), n=1,996 and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET), n=4,186. No significant differences in perinatal outcomes were observed between the three subgroups. A total of 105 (1.15%) infants were born with CAs. The birth defect rate was slightly higher in the IVF-ET subgroup compared with the other subgroups. Among infants in the IVF-ET and ICSI-ET subgroup, the probability of birth defects increased with increased maternal age (>35 years), male factors and diminished ovarian reserve. In the FET group, the risk of birth defects was significantly increased with multiple births and maternal age >35 years. The risk of congenital anomalies following ART was not significantly different compared with spontaneous conceptions within the infertile study population. The results of the present study may provide guidance for patients who are considering treatment for infertility in China.