- High-quality human and rat spermatozoal RNA isolation for functional genomic studies. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2018 Feb 22
- Sperm RNA is a sensitive monitoring endpoint for male reproductive toxicants, and a potential biomarker to assess male infertility and sperm quality. However, isolation of sperm RNA is a challenging ...
Sperm RNA is a sensitive monitoring endpoint for male reproductive toxicants, and a potential biomarker to assess male infertility and sperm quality. However, isolation of sperm RNA is a challenging procedure due to the heterogeneous population of cells present in the ejaculate, the low yield of RNA per spermatozoon, and the absence of 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA subunits. The unique biology of spermatozoa has created some uncertainty in the field about RNA isolation methods, indicating the need for rigorous quality control checks to ensure reproducibility of data generated from sperm RNA. Therefore, we developed a reliable and effective protocol for RNA isolation from rat and human spermatozoa that delivers highly purified and intact RNA, verified using RNA-specific electrophoretic chips and molecular biology approaches such as RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The sperm RNA isolation technique was optimized using rat spermatozoa and then adapted to human spermatozoa. Three steps in the sperm isolation procedure, epididymal fluid collection, sperm purification, and spermatozoon RNA extraction, were evaluated and assessed. The sperm RNA extraction methodology consists of collection of rat epididymal fluid with repeated needle punctures of the epididymis, somatic cell elimination using detergent-based somatic cell lysis buffer (SCLB) and the use of RNA isolation Kit. Rat sperm heads are more resistant to disruption than human spermatozoa, necessitating the addition of mechanical lysis with microbeads and heat in the rat protocol, whereas the human sperm protocol only required lysis buffer. In conclusion, this methodology results in reliable and consistent isolation of high-quality sperm RNA. Using this technique will aid in translation of data collected from animal models, and reproducibility of clinical assessment of male factor fertility using RNA molecular biomarkers.
- Obesity, An Enemy of Male Fertility: A Mini Review. [Review]
- OMOman Med J 2018; 33(1):3-6
- Obesity is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide and is commonly associated with male infertility. Several etiopathological theories have been mentioned in the literature by which obe...
Obesity is a highly prevalent non-communicable disease worldwide and is commonly associated with male infertility. Several etiopathological theories have been mentioned in the literature by which obesity affects spermatogenesis, thus affecting the male fertility potential. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include endocrinopathy, increased aromatization activity, associated erectile dysfunction, psychological and thermal effects, obstructive sleep apnea, increased leptin and oxygen free radicals, and associated inflammatory and obstructive elements of epididymitis. Treatment of such a complex problem includes weight reduction (by lifestyle modification and increased physical activity), optimization of altered testosterone-to-estradiol ratio using aromatase inhibitors and/or gonadotropins, treatment of associated comorbidities by phosphodiesterase inhibitors for erectile dysfunction, and insulin-sensitizing agents for the management of diabetes. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the pathological basis of this problem and to focus on obesity as an etiology of male infertility.
- Fertility-Related Perceptions and Impact on Romantic Relationships Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2018 Feb 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Fertility-related perceptions varied among survivors, but the majority never underwent fertility testing. Uncertainty or concerns differed by current circumstances (e.g., wanting children and relationship status). Providers should routinely discuss potential infertility and offer testing throughout survivorship. A negative impact on romantic relationships may seem small, but should be considered for survivors who desire children and may discover they are infertile in the future.
- Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding. [Journal Article]
- MEMinerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19
- Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of at...
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.
- Gonadotropins and their receptors: co-evolution, genetic variants, receptor imaging, and functional antagonists. [Journal Article]
- BRBiol Reprod 2018 Feb 15
- Gonadotropins belong to the family of dimeric glycoprotein hormones and regulate gonadal physiology mediated by G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptors. These glycoprotein hormones are widel...
Gonadotropins belong to the family of dimeric glycoprotein hormones and regulate gonadal physiology mediated by G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptors. These glycoprotein hormones are widely used in the clinic to promote ovarian follicle development and for treating some cases of male infertility. We traced the co-evolution of dimeric gonadotropin hormones and their receptors, together with thyrotropin and its receptor. We updated recent findings on human genetic variants of these genes and their association with dizygotic twining, polycystic ovarian syndrome, primary ovarian insufficiency, male-limited precocious puberty and infertility. In addition to the known physiological roles of gonadotropin-receptor signaling in gonadal tissues, we also discussed emerging understanding of extra-gonadal functions of gonadotropins in bones and adipose tissues, together with recent advances in in vivo imaging of gonadotropin receptors in live animals. Recent development of gonadotropin receptor agonists and antagonists were summarized with an emphasis on the development of functional antagonists for FSH receptors to alleviate osteoporosis and obesity associated with menopause.
- [ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS TESTICLES UNDER SPERMATIC CORD STENOSIS AND AFTER BLOOD FLOW RESTORATION BY DIFFERENT METHODS]. [Journal Article]
- GMGeorgian Med News 2018; (274):143-148
- Hemodynamic disorders in the testicles cause chronic organ hypoxia with damage of its stroma and seminiferous tubules, which plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the testicular form of male in...
Hemodynamic disorders in the testicles cause chronic organ hypoxia with damage of its stroma and seminiferous tubules, which plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of the testicular form of male infertility development. The aim of the work was to establish the features of ultrastructural reorganization of the testicles tissue and its vascular bed under circulatory hypoxia conditions and after restoration of blood flow in the organ. The study was conducted on 84 white adult male rats. The control group consisted of 12 intact animals. The experimental group was divided into 3 series: with stenosis of the spermatic cord (48 animals), with stenosis of the spermatic cord and its recanalization on the 3rd day without correction (12 animals) and with stenosis of the spermatic cord and its recanalization with correction on the 3rd day (12 animals). Under conditions of dosage spermatic cord stenosis (when the ligature is applied) in the remote monitoring period, with electron microscopic study, were detected destructive changes of spermatid and spermatozoa, which were combined with significant focal intracellular and extracellular edema. In part of the cells heads were deformed, the acrosomes were sophisticated and fragmented. At one-stage decompression of the spermatic cord (removal of the stenosing ligature on the third day), the above-described changes in accordance were deepened. At 14th day of the observation, collagen fibers and an electron-transparent amorphous component were found in the perivascular space. When the proposed method of dosed decompression of the spermatic cord (successive removal of three stenosing ligatures of different diameters) has been applied changes in the testicles parenchyma and its intraorganic vessels were less severe. Functional activity of the testicle after correction of reperfusion changes, was not significantly affected, what was proved by the presence in seminiferous tubules lumen of spermatozoa mature forms.
- Review of the role of leptin in the regulation of male reproductive function. [Review]
- AAndrologia 2018 Feb 20
- Since discovered in 1994, leptin has been thought to be a pleiotropic hormone that regulates food intake, controls energy balance in the body and influences multiple tissues in the body. Leptin plays...
Since discovered in 1994, leptin has been thought to be a pleiotropic hormone that regulates food intake, controls energy balance in the body and influences multiple tissues in the body. Leptin plays an important mediating role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and can transmit the nutritional status signals to the reproductive-related central nervous system. Many studies have shown that leptin may play an important role in the control of reproductive function. Leptin can act on all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and may have local effects on the function of testis and spermatogenesis. Leptin is critical for puberty initiation and can also modulate testosterone synthesis by downregulating cAMP-dependent activation of steroidogenic genes expressions. Leptin is found to be higher in infertile men than in normal subjects. Yet, the exact role of leptin in the regulation of male reproductive function remains incomplete. The purpose of this review was to summarise the recent research about the biological effects of leptin on male reproductive system. In-depth study of leptin in reproductive system will help to reveal the pathogenesis of infertility and provide new treatment ideas for human assisted reproductive technology.
- Testicular piRNA profile comparison between successful and unsuccessful micro-TESE retrieval in NOA patients. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Assist Reprod Genet 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that testicular tissues from NOA patients with successful and unsuccessful spermatozoa retrieval exhibit differential piRNA profiles. This study provides a useful resource to further elucidate the regulatory role of piRNAs in spermatogenesis and provides a profound clue to identify useful biomarkers for predicting residual spermatogenic loci in NOA patients during assisted reproductive treatment.
- Sperm morphological normality under high magnification is correlated to male infertility and predicts embryo development. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2018 Feb 18
- Human sperm morphology has been described as an essential parameter for the diagnosis of male infertility and a prognostic indicator of natural or assisted pregnancies. Nevertheless, standard morphol...
Human sperm morphology has been described as an essential parameter for the diagnosis of male infertility and a prognostic indicator of natural or assisted pregnancies. Nevertheless, standard morphological assessment remains a subjective analysis and its impact on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is also of limited value. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) can improve semen analysis by better defining male infertility and providing a better prognosis for ICSI up to a year later. Data were obtained from 483 patients undergoing conventional semen analysis from June 2015 to June 2017 in a private university-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. The correlation of MSOME with seminal parameters was evaluated. One hundred and thirty patients underwent ICSI up to a year later, and the correlation between MSOME and ICSI outcomes was established. Except for volume, all seminal parameters were positively correlated with MSOME I+II. MSOME was also distinct between World Health Organization (WHO) classification groups, with normozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic presenting the higher and the lower proportion of MSOME I+II, respectively. MSOME I+II was prognostic for fertilization rate, high-quality cleavage-stage embryos rate, and blastocyst rate. The normality cutoff value based on blastocyst rate was MSOME I+II≥ 5.5%. MSOME could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of infertility severity as it is correlated with sperm morphology, motility, and concentration. Men who had higher MSOME I+II had better ICSI outcomes. The future use of MSOME as a routine method for semen analysis may be a reliable form of assessing male infertility.
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- Male infertility is associated with altered treatment course of men with cancer. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2018 Feb 18
- This study aims to evaluate whether cancer treatments differ in infertile men compared to men who have undergone vasectomy and age-matched controls. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health Market...
This study aims to evaluate whether cancer treatments differ in infertile men compared to men who have undergone vasectomy and age-matched controls. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan Claims database from 2001 to 2009. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes. Comparison groups included vasectomized men and an age-matched cohort who were not infertile and had not undergone vasectomy. We considered cancer types previously associated with infertility that were diagnosed after the diagnosis of infertility. The treatment regimens were determined based on the presence of claims with CPT codes for chemotherapy (CTX), radiation (RTX) or surgical treatment (ST) for each entity in all study groups. Cases with multimodal treatments were also identified. As a result, CTX was similarly distributed among the infertile, vasectomized, and control groups. In contrast, RTX treatment length was shorter in infertile men. The frequency of multimodal treatment (i.e., radiation and chemotherapy) was twofold lower in men with infertility compared to other men. By focusing on treatment patterns for each cancer type among these groups, the duration of RTX and CTX was shorter in infertile men diagnosed with NHL compared to controls. We conclude that Infertile men diagnosed with cancer and specific cancer types experience different treatment courses, with shorter RTX and less combined RTX/CTX compared to fertile and vasectomized men. These differences could reflect differences in stage at presentation, biological behavior, or treatment responses in infertile men.