- Clinical and Genetic Analysis of an Infertile Male with 46,XX/46,XY Chimerism. [Case Reports]
- AAndrologia 2018 Dec 10; :e13215
- The sex chromosome-discordant chimerism 46,XX/46,XY is rarely found in humans with a phenotypically normal appearance, and this lack of phenotypic changes and the rarity of chimerism make it difficul...
The sex chromosome-discordant chimerism 46,XX/46,XY is rarely found in humans with a phenotypically normal appearance, and this lack of phenotypic changes and the rarity of chimerism make it difficult to identify its exact incidence. Here, we report a case of this sex chromosome-discordant chimerism diagnosed by cytogenic and molecular analyses of peripheral blood in a phenotypically normal male who was referred to our facility for infertility. Based on the karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and short tandem repeat (STR) analyses, the type of this chimerism was determined to be tetragametic presenting four alleles at two loci on chromosomes 16 and 21.
- Role of Mitochondria in the Oxidative Stress Induced by Electromagnetic Fields: Focus on Reproductive Systems. [Review]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2018; 2018:5076271
- Modern technologies relying on wireless communication systems have brought increasing levels of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This increased research interest in the effects of these radiatio...
Modern technologies relying on wireless communication systems have brought increasing levels of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This increased research interest in the effects of these radiations on human health. There is compelling evidence that EMFs affect cell physiology by altering redox-related processes. Considering the importance of redox milieu in the biological competence of oocyte and sperm, we reviewed the existing literature regarding the effects of EMFs on reproductive systems. Given the role of mitochondria as the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we focused on the hypothesis of a mitochondrial basis of EMF-induced reproductive toxicity. MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus database were examined for peer-reviewed original articles by searching for the following keywords: "extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs)," "radiofrequency (RF)," "microwaves," "Wi-Fi," "mobile phone," "oxidative stress," "mitochondria," "fertility," "sperm," "testis," "oocyte," "ovarian follicle," and "embryo." These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure. Future and more standardized studies are required for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying EMF potential challenge to our reproductive system in order to improve preventive strategies.
- Effect of molybdenum on reproductive function of male mice treated with busulfan. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2018 Dec 03; 126:49-54
- Infertility is a serious public health problem worldwide. Molybdenum (Mo) plays an important role in maintaining normal metabolism. To explore the therapeutic efficacy of molybdenum (Mo) on male infe...
Infertility is a serious public health problem worldwide. Molybdenum (Mo) plays an important role in maintaining normal metabolism. To explore the therapeutic efficacy of molybdenum (Mo) on male infertility, 90 mice were randomly divided into control, busulfan and busulfan + Mo groups. The male mice in the busulfan and busulfan + Mo groups were exposed to busulfan (20 mg/kg body weight) with a single intraperitoneal injection to establish the infertility model. The sterile mice were successfully obtained 30 days after busulfan exposure. Then, the male mice in the busulfan + Mo group were given drinking water containing 20 mg/L Mo continuously for 42 days. At 72 Day after treatment, 30 mice in the three groups were tested for various indices, and 60 mice were mated with females in spontaneous estrus. Mo significantly reversed the thinner seminiferous tubules and disappeared tubule and germ cells. Mo also normalized previously abnormal levels of testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde. Furthermore, expression levels expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 returned to control levels; and finally, Mo-treated sterile mice obtained offspring with normal number and gender ratio. These results suggested that Mo at 20 mg/L had a significant therapeutic effect on reproductive dysfunction in sterile mice. Its mechanism could via repair of damaged testicular structures, regulation of abnormal reproductive hormone levels, decreased oxidative stress or and resistance to cell apoptosis. Mo may be a new candidate medicine for treatment of male infertility.
- Effects of Moringa oleifera Lam Extract (MOLE) in the heat shock protein 70 expression and germ cell apoptosis on experimentally induced cryptorchid testes of rats. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2018 Dec 06
- Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a plant known for having high antioxidant potency, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective etc. and many more activities. Besides these, Moringaceae has the p...
Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) is a plant known for having high antioxidant potency, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective etc. and many more activities. Besides these, Moringaceae has the potential for attenuating the male sexual dysfunction. Reactive oxygen species/ROS were increased in cryptorchidism and therefore cause infertility by damaging sperm DNA and germ cell apoptosis. There was an increase in heat shock proteins (HSP) in cells, which is affected by heat shock. In the present study, the antioxidant effects of two different doses of M. oleifera Lam Extract (MOLE) on experimentally induced cryptorchid testes of rats was investigated. Forty two male rats (16 days old) were divided into four groups: a normal control group, a cryptorchidism-induced control group and two cryptorchidism-induced groups treated orally with either 400 or 800 mg/kg MOLE for 2 weeks. Our study showed that there were ruptures from interstitial spaces, separation of the germ cells from basal membrane, falling of the germ cells into the lumen, perivascular fibrosis, oedema, increased level of HSP70, apoptosis, malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) after the cryptorchidism. We found that pathological damages, oxidative stress, expression of the HSP70 and germ cell apoptosis were decreased in treated groups with MOLE. In brief, we can say that aqueous extract of M. oleifera reduces the oxidative stress in a unilateral cryptorchidism induced rats, and it might attenuate histopathological damages, HSP expression and germ cell apoptosis.
- Novel and conventional approaches for the analysis of quantitative proteomic data are complementary towards the identification of seminal plasma alterations in infertile patients. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2018 Dec 05
- Our aim was to define seminal plasma proteome signatures of infertile patients categorized according to their seminal parameters using TMT-LC-MS/MS. To that extent, quantitative proteomic data was an...
Our aim was to define seminal plasma proteome signatures of infertile patients categorized according to their seminal parameters using TMT-LC-MS/MS. To that extent, quantitative proteomic data was analyzed following two complementary strategies: (i) the conventional approach based on standard statistical analyses of relative protein quantification values; and (ii) a novel strategy focused on establishing stable-protein pairs. By conventional analyses, the abundance of some seminal plasma proteins was found to be positively correlated with sperm concentration. However, this correlation was not found for all the peptides within a specific protein, bringing to light the high heterogeneity existing in the seminal plasma proteome due to both the proteolytic fragments and/or the post-translational modifications. This issue was overcome by conducting the novel stable-protein pairs analysis proposed herein. A total of 182 correlations comprising 24 different proteins were identified in the normozoospermic-control population, while this proportion was drastically reduced in infertile patients with altered seminal parameters (18 in patients with reduced sperm motility, 0 in patients with low sperm concentration and 3 in patients with no sperm in the ejaculate). These results suggest the existence of multiple etiologies causing the same alteration in seminal parameters. Additionally, the repetition of the stable-protein pair analysis in the control group by adding the data from a single patient at a time enabled to identify alterations in the stable-protein pairs profile of individual patients with altered seminal parameters. These results suggest potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms in individual infertile patients, and might open up a window to its application in the personalized diagnostic of male infertility.
- Chromosomal translocations and semen quality: A study on 144 male translocation carriers. [Journal Article]
- RBReprod Biomed Online 2018 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: The NPS-ASP appears to be a good parameter to assess sperm function and would be a useful tool to detect chromosomal translocations. Four redundant regions have been identified on four chromosomes, suggesting that they may contain genes of interest to study sperm functions.
- Downregulation of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Molecules in Cumulus Cells of Infertile Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women with and without Insulin Resistance. [Journal Article]
- CJCell J 2019; 21(1):35-42
- CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of ECM and cell adhesion molecules seem to be related to PCOS. Gene expression profile alterations in cumulus cells from both the IS and IR groups of PCOS patients seems to be involved in the composition and regulation of ECM during the ovulation process. This study highlights the association of ECM gene alteration as a viewpoint for additional understanding of the etiology of PCOS.
- Phyllanthus emblica leaf extract ameliorates testicular damage in rats with chronic stress. [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2018 Dec.; 19(12):948-959
- Stress affects the male reproductive system and can cause sub-fertility or infertility. Although Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) extract has been shown to have high antioxidant capacity and protective pr...
Stress affects the male reproductive system and can cause sub-fertility or infertility. Although Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) extract has been shown to have high antioxidant capacity and protective properties in damaged tissue, the preventive effects of PE extract on testicular function from stress-related impairment have never been demonstrated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PE aqueous leaf extract on testicular impairment and protein marker changes in rats suffering from chronic stress. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: a control group, a chronic stress (CS) group, and two groups with CS that received different doses of PE extract (50 or 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)). In the treatment groups, the animals were given PE extract daily before stress induction for 42 consecutive days. Stress was induced through immobilization (4 h/d) followed by forced cold swimming (15 min/d). Sperm quality and the histology of the testes and caudal epididymis were examined, as were levels of serum corticosterone, testosterone, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were investigated using immuno-Western blot analysis, as these proteins are assumed to play important roles in spermatogenesis and androgen synthesis. The results showed that PE (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased sperm concentration and testosterone levels, while decreasing corticosterone levels, MDA levels, sperm head abnormalities, and acrosome-reacted sperm in CS rats. In addition, PE at both doses was found to diminish testicular histopathology in the CS rats. We also found that 50 mg/kg BW of PE significantly improved StAR protein expression and altered the intensities of some tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in testis. We conclude that PE leaf extract at 50 mg/kg BW can prevent testicular damage in rats with CS.
- Association of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)-c.565C>G transversion with male infertility: A case-control study from Iran. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 02
- Dioxins (eg, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/TCDD), as environmental endocrine disruptors and toxic carcinogens, can affect male reproductive health. The influence of dioxins is mediated via the ...
Dioxins (eg, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/TCDD), as environmental endocrine disruptors and toxic carcinogens, can affect male reproductive health. The influence of dioxins is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and its repressor (AhRR). In this study, we investigated the association of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion polymorphism with male infertility. In a hospital-based case-control study, 221 semen samples (111 infertile and 110 healthy controls) based on World Health Organization guidelines were collected from in vitro fertilization centers of Babol, Iran. The AhRR-c.565C>G (rs2292596) polymorphism was genotyped using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The difference in the allele frequency of AhRR-c.565C>G transversion polymorphism did not reach a significant level. The genotype frequency was statistically significantly different between fertile and infertile men. We found that polymorphism rs2292596 (Pro185Ala) was statistically significantly associated with the risk of male infertility. In addition, the statistical difference became more significant when the frequency was compared between the Pro/Pro genotype and the Pro/Ala plus Ala/Ala genotype. The 185 Pro wild-type alleles of AhRR may be associated with the risk of male infertility. The proallele also may diminish inhibition of AhR-mediated signaling of exposure to environmental pollutants.
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- Sexual dysfunction and infertility in the male spina bifida patient. [Review]
- TATransl Androl Urol 2018; 7(6):941-949
- Spina bifida is a congenital neural tube defect with many neurological implications, as well as decreased sexual function and infertility. Few studies have directly investigated infertility in men wi...
Spina bifida is a congenital neural tube defect with many neurological implications, as well as decreased sexual function and infertility. Few studies have directly investigated infertility in men with spina bifida. Infertility in this special patient population is primarily the result of spermatogenic defects and/or failure of sperm transport due to erectile or ejaculatory dysfunction. The severity of sexual and reproductive dysfunction seems to correlate with higher level of spina cord lesion and presence of hydrocephalus. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been shown to be effective for erectile dysfunction in some men with spina bifida. Surgical sperm retrieval from the genitourinary tract and rectal probe electroejaculation can serve as methods for collecting sperm from those with ejaculatory dysfunction or retrograde ejaculation. Assisted reproductive technology such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows isolated sperm from men with infertility to achieve fertilization. Since most spina bifida patients are surviving into adolescence and adulthood due to improved medical and surgical advancements, it is paramount for healthcare professionals to address issues related their sexual and reproductive function.