- Standardized classification and reporting of glomerulonephritis. [Journal Article]
- NDNephrol Dial Transplant 2018 Aug 13
- A kidney biopsy is done to determine the etiology of the glomerulonephritis (GN) and the severity of the lesion, to identify whether other lesions, related to or not related to the GN, are present on...
A kidney biopsy is done to determine the etiology of the glomerulonephritis (GN) and the severity of the lesion, to identify whether other lesions, related to or not related to the GN, are present on the kidney biopsy and finally to ascertain the extent of chronicity of the GN. The etiology of GN is based on the classification of GN into five groups: immune complex-mediated GN, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated GN, anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) GN, monoclonal immunoglobulin-mediated GN and C3 glomerulopathy. Immune complex GN includes multiple specific diseases such as lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, infection-related GN and fibrillary GN. ANCA GN, anti-GBM GN and C3 glomerulopathy are specific diseases in themselves, while monoclonal Ig GN includes proliferative GN with monoclonal Ig deposits and monoclonal Ig deposition disease. Thus identification of the class of GN and within it the specific disease determines the etiology of GN. Ancillary studies may be required to confirm the etiology of GN. The severity of the GN is revealed by the pattern of injury, such as crescentic, necrotizing, diffuse proliferative, exudative, membranoproliferative, mesangial proliferative or a sclerosing GN. Secondary diagnosis either related or unrelated to the GN, such as diabetic glomerulosclerosis, acute tubular necrosis or thrombotic microangiopathy, may also be present. The secondary diagnosis may sometimes be the reason for the kidney biopsy. The chronicity of GN is determined by evaluating the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis and vascular sclerosis present on the biopsy. This review summarizes the approach to standardizing a kidney biopsy report that includes these components in a logical and sequential manner.
- Causes of death in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a 10-year multicenter nationwide Chinese cohort. [Journal Article]
- CRClin Rheumatol 2018 Aug 20
- To estimate the mortality and describe the causes of death in a large multicenter cohort of hospitalized patients with SLE in China. This was a retrospective study of a nationwide SLE cohort (10 cent...
To estimate the mortality and describe the causes of death in a large multicenter cohort of hospitalized patients with SLE in China. This was a retrospective study of a nationwide SLE cohort (10 centers, 29,510 hospitalized patients) from 2005 to 2014 in China. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all death and were stratified by sex and age. Chi-square test was used to determine whether the major causes of death vary in age, sex, duration of SLE, disease activity, or medications. Comparison between dead patients and survival controls was used to identify the risk factors for mortality. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for mortality. A total of 360 patients died during the study period, accounting for 1.22%. The overall SMR was 2.13 (95% CI 1.96, 2.30), with a particularly high SMR seen in subgroups characterized by younger age. Infection (65.8%) was the most common cause of death, followed by lupus nephritis (48.6%), hematological abnormality (18.1%), neuropsychiatric lupus/NPSLE (15.8%), and interstitial pneumonia (13.1%). Cardiovascular disease and malignancy contributed little to the causes of death. Infection, in particular severe pulmonary infection, emerged as the foremost risk factor for mortality, followed by lupus encephalopathy. However, lupus nephritis and hematological abnormalities occurred more frequently in survival patients. SLE patients at a younger age of diagnosis have a poorer prognosis. Infection dominated the causes of death in recent China. Ethnicity and medications might account for the differences in causes of death compared with western populations.
- Interstitial nephritis: Two pediatric cases with atypical radiological features. [Journal Article]
- RCRadiol Case Rep 2018; 13(5):1003-1006
- Interstitial nephritis (IN) is a relatively rare entity in children and adolescents that can be caused by a range of disorders including infection, medications, inflammatory bowel disease, and sarcoi...
Interstitial nephritis (IN) is a relatively rare entity in children and adolescents that can be caused by a range of disorders including infection, medications, inflammatory bowel disease, and sarcoid. There is no proven therapy for this condition. We present 2 cases of biopsy-proven interstitial nephritis, of which 1 case was with granulomatous features that presented with unusual sonographic findings of discrete mass lesions in the kidney parenchyma bilaterally. Although a precise cause could not be identified in either case, 1 patient progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and the other is in the early stages of treatment. We suggest that recognition of the atypical imaging features of interstitial nephritis may enable early recognition of this condition and avoid confusion with neoplastic or infectious processes.
- Extremely high levels of vancomycin can cause severe renal toxicity. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Drug Resist 2018; 11:1027-1030
- Vancomycin has usually been associated with nephrotoxicity. Generally, this toxicity is presented as proximal tubular cells injury with or without necrosis and as acute interstitial nephritis. Howeve...
Vancomycin has usually been associated with nephrotoxicity. Generally, this toxicity is presented as proximal tubular cells injury with or without necrosis and as acute interstitial nephritis. However, development of both lesions is uncommonly described in literature. We present a case of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity resulting in both acute interstitial nephritis and tubular cells damage confirmed by renal biopsy. Peak and trough levels of 77.11 and 63.60 μg/mL, respectively, were obtained at the first plasma determination. After 8 more plasma determinations and several hemodialysis sessions, vancomycin levels were undetectable 1 month after therapy was stopped. To our knowledge, this is the case report with the highest vancomycin trough levels developing both lesions and describing total vancomycin washout after a biopsy-proven vancomycin toxicity. In conclusion, early vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed in order to avoid toxicities where, as seen in our patient, antibiotic exposure could last around 1 month after last dose administration.
- Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Elderly Japanese Patients with IgA Vasculitis with Nephritis: A Case Series. [Journal Article]
- IMIntern Med 2018 Aug 10
- Objective This case series aimed to identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of elderly patients (≥60 years) with biopsy-proven IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN). Methods The clinic...
Objective This case series aimed to identify the clinical and pathological characteristics of elderly patients (≥60 years) with biopsy-proven IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN). Methods The clinical and pathological presentation and treatment outcomes were compared between two groups. Patients Patients with IgAVN who were ≥19 years old at the time of their renal biopsy were divided into elderly (≥60 years) and adult (19-59 years) groups. Results Of the 23 patients in our study, 13 were elderly. In the elderly group, the median age at the diagnosis was 68 years (range, 60-85 years), with a median follow-up period of 15 months (range, 3-80 months). Twelve elderly patients had comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and malignancies. A decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, as well as massive proteinuria and rapidly progressive nephritic syndrome, were more frequent in the elderly group than in the adult group. Furthermore, renal pathological changes, including cellular or fibrocellular crescents, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and arteriosclerosis, were more severe among elderly patients than adult patients. All elderly patients were treated with glucocorticoids and had no incidence of end-stage renal disease at the final follow-up; in addition, nine elderly patients had reduced proteinuria with a preserved renal function. Adverse events, including infection, diabetes mellitus, and vascular disorders, were identified in nine patients. Three elderly patients died from severe infections. Conclusion IgAVN in elderly patients is characterized by severe renal involvement. Elderly patients are at higher risk than adults for treatment-related adverse events.
- Adenovirus infection-A rare cause of interstitial nephritis in kidney transplant. [Letter]
- NNefrologia 2018 Aug 07
- Hyponatremia in kidney transplant patients: its pathophysiologic mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- CKClin Kidney J 2018; 11(4):581-585
- Kidney transplant patients (KTPs), and particularly those with advanced chronic kidney rejection, may be affected by opportunistic infections, metabolic alterations and vascular and oncologic disease...
Kidney transplant patients (KTPs), and particularly those with advanced chronic kidney rejection, may be affected by opportunistic infections, metabolic alterations and vascular and oncologic diseases that promote clinical conditions that require a variety of treatments, the combinations of which may predispose them to hyponatremia. Salt and water imbalance can induce abnormalities in volemia and/or serum sodium depending on the nature of this alteration (increase or decrease), its absolute magnitude (mild or severe) and its relative magnitude (body sodium:water ratio). Hyponatremia appears when the body sodium:water ratio is reduced due to an increase in body water or a reduction in body sodium. Additionally, hyponatremia is classified as normotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic and while hypotonic hyponatremia is classified in hyponatremia with normal, high or low extracellular fluid. The main causes of hyponatremia in KTPs are hypotonic hyponatremia secondary to water and salt contraction with oral hydration (gastroenteritis, sepsis), free water retention (severe renal failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release, hypothyroidism), chronic hypokalemia (rapamycin, malnutrition), sodium loss (tubular dysfunction secondary to nephrocalcinosis, acute tubular necrosis, tubulitis/rejection, interstitial nephritis, adrenal insufficiency, aldosterone resistance, pancreatic drainage, kidney-pancreas transplant) and hyponatremia induced by medication (opioids, cyclophosphamide, psychoactive, potent diuretics and calcineurinic inhibitors). In conclusion, KTPs are predisposed to develop hyponatremia since they are exposed to immunologic, infectious, pharmacologic and oncologic disorders, the combinations of which alter their salt and water homeostatic capacity.
- Baicalein alleviates tubular-interstitial nephritis in vivo and in vitro by down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK pathways. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Med Biol Res 2018 Aug 06; 51(10):e7476
- Tubular-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is characterized by tubular cell damage and inflammatory lesions of kidneys. Baicalein (BAI) is a flavonoid compound found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis...
Tubular-interstitial nephritis (TIN) is characterized by tubular cell damage and inflammatory lesions of kidneys. Baicalein (BAI) is a flavonoid compound found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of BAI on TIN patients and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TIN cell model. The expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α in serum samples of TIN patients and culture supernatants of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Creatinine clearance was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Activities of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Viability and apoptosis of RPTECs were measured using MTT assay and Guava Nexin assay, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, nuclear factor kappa B (IκBα), and p65. Protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2, IκBα, p65, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular regulated protein kinases, and p38 were analyzed using western blotting. We found that BAI reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, BAI alleviated the LPS-induced RPTECs viability inhibition and apoptosis enhancement, as well as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Phorbol ester, an activator of NF-κB, attenuated the effects of BAI on LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine expressions in RPTECs. In conclusion, BAI had anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on TIN patients and LPS-induced RPTECs by down-regulating NF-κB and MAPK pathways.
- Many pitfalls in diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BRBMC Res Notes 2018 Aug 02; 11(1):552
- CONCLUSIONS: The most common clinical presentation of Acute Intermittent Porphyria is abdominal pain with neurovisceral manifestations which are common to several medical, psychiatric and surgical pathologies. This leads to underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of this disorder, incorrect management, and severe complications. Therefore, a high index of suspicion and awareness of front line laboratory investigations are important for diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis enables implementation of strategies to prevent acute attacks, and also triggers genetic testing and genetic counseling of at-risk family members.
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- Intrarenal activation of adaptive immune effectors is associated with tubular damage and impaired renal function in lupus nephritis. [Journal Article]
- ARAnn Rheum Dis 2018 Jul 31
- CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial infiltration of LN kidney biopsies by adaptive immune effectors is associated with impaired renal tubular cell function and decreased eGFR. These results open new perspectives in evaluating and treating patients with LN, focusing on intrarenal mechanisms of immune cell activation.