- Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease: Why it doesn't work every time. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2019 Jun 24
- The clinical experience with cell replacement therapy for advanced PD has yielded notable successes and failures. A recent autopsy case report of an individual that received implants of fetal dopamin…
The clinical experience with cell replacement therapy for advanced PD has yielded notable successes and failures. A recent autopsy case report of an individual that received implants of fetal dopamine neurons 16 years previously, but at no time experienced clinical benefit despite the best documented survival of grafted neurons and most extensive reinnervation of the striatum, raises sobering issues. With good reason, a great deal of effort in cell replacement science continues to focus on optimizing the cell source and implantation procedure. Here, we describe our preclinical studies in aged rats indicating that despite survival of large numbers of transplanted dopamine neurons and dense reinnervation of the striatum, synaptic connections between graft and host are markedly decreased and behavioral recovery is impaired. This leads us to the hypothesis that the variability in therapeutic response to dopamine neuron grafts may be less about the viability of transplanted neurons and more about the integrity of the aged, dopamine-depleted striatum and its capacity for repair. Replacement of dopamine innervation only can be fully effective if the correct target is present. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Prevalence of hypoglycaemia in a random population after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass after a meal test. [Journal Article]
- ECEndocr Connect 2019 Jun 01
- CONCLUSIONS: In a randomly selected population four years after primary RYGB surgery 48% of patients developed a hypoglycemic event during a mixed meal tolerance test without symptoms, suggesting the presence of hypoglycaemia unawareness in these patients. The findings in this study suggest that the pathophysiology of PHH is multifactorial.
- Modeling of osmotic treatment of ostrich meat coated by tragacanth and salep. [Journal Article]
- MSMeat Sci 2019 Jun 10; 156:231-239
- This study involved coating of ostrich meat pieces (30 × 30 × 20 mm) with tragacanth gum (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) and salep gum (1%, 2%, and 3%) before osmotic treatment with salt solution (5, 15, and 2…
This study involved coating of ostrich meat pieces (30 × 30 × 20 mm) with tragacanth gum (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) and salep gum (1%, 2%, and 3%) before osmotic treatment with salt solution (5, 15, and 27%) with the immersing duration of 1, 2, 4, 12, and 24 h to accelerate the transfer of moisture and minimize solid gain. This study also involved the investigation of the efficiency of the Peleg's model, Azuara's model, and diffusion equation in modeling water gain/loss and solid gain in meat pieces. Water gain/loss and solid gain were significantly affected by osmotic and coating concentrations during osmotic treatment. The Peleg's model had the best efficiency in the prediction of water loss at 5% and 27% concentrations and solid gain at 27% concentration. Diffusion model showed a favorable performance in the prediction of water loss and solid gain at 27% and 15% concentrations, respectively. It can be concluded that coating pre-treatment could control solid gain and facilitate water loss/gain.
- Vanadium-basidiomycete fungi interaction and its impact on vanadium biogeochemistry. [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jun 21; 130:104891
- Fungi are well known to strongly interact with metals, thereby influencing metal biogeochemistry in the terrestrial environment. To assess and quantify potential fungi-vanadium (V) interactions, Aman…
Fungi are well known to strongly interact with metals, thereby influencing metal biogeochemistry in the terrestrial environment. To assess and quantify potential fungi-vanadium (V) interactions, Amanita muscaria, Armillaria cepistipes, Xerocomus badius and Bjerkandera adusta were cultured in media containing soluble V (VOSO4 or NaVO3) or solid-phase V of different chemical forms and oxidation state (V2O3, VO2, V2O5, or V-Ti magnetite slag). All fungi underwent physiological and structural changes, as revealed by alterations in FT-IR peak positions and intensities relative to the control, and morphological changes of mycelia, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The diametric growth size generally decreased with decreasing oxidation state of V and with increasing concentrations of VOSO4 and NaVO3, implying that V toxicity is dependent on V speciation. The tolerance index, the ratio of treated and control mycelium (dry weight), shows different tendencies, suggesting additional factors influencing fungi weight, such as the formation of extrahyphal crystals. Vanadium accumulation from VOSO4 and NaVO3 medium in all fungi (up to 51.3 mg g-1) shows the potential of fungi to immobilise soluble V, thereby reducing its impacts on environmental and human health. Uptake and accumulation of V in slag was insignificant, reflecting the association of slag V with insoluble crystalline materials. The fungal accumulation of V in medium amended with V-oxides demonstrates the ability of fungi to solubilise solid-phase V compounds, thereby introducing previously immobile V into the V biogeochemical cycle and into the food chain where it may impact ecological and human health. A.muscaria lowered the pH of the medium substantially during cultivation, indicating acidolysis and complexolysis via excretion of organic acids (e.g. oxalic acid). Oxidation of VOSO4 was observed by a colour change of the medium to yellow during B. adusta cultivation, revealing the role of fungally-mediated redox transformation in V (im)mobilisation. The calculated removal efficiencies of soluble V were 40-90% for A. cepistipes and X. badius, but a much lower recovery (0-20%) was observed from V oxides and slag (0-20%) by all fungi. This suggests the probable application of fungi for bio-remediation of mobile/soluble V in contaminated soils but not of V incorporated in the lattice of soil minerals.
- Guanidine-modified cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes for mitochondria-targeted imaging and photodynamic therapy. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jun 18; 179:26-37
- PDT is a well-established therapeutic modality for many types of cancer. Photoluminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are one of the most commonly used classes of organometallic compounds w…
PDT is a well-established therapeutic modality for many types of cancer. Photoluminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes are one of the most commonly used classes of organometallic compounds with potential beneficial applications in bioimaging and as promising anticancer agents. In the present study, three new cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) containing guanidinium ligands were found to exert excellent cytotoxic effects on different types of cancer cells upon light irradiation at 425 nm. Notably, Ir1 conferred almost no dark toxicity (IC50 > 100 μM) to HepG2 cells, but the value decreased by 387-fold to 0.36 μM following 10 min of light irradiation (425 nm). Further mechanistic investigation revealed that complex Ir1 could induce apoptosis via the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways in the presence or absence of light irradiation. In vivo studies demonstrated that Ir1 significantly inhibited tumor growth in HepG2 xenograft-bearing mice under light irradiation at 425 nm. Taken together, these findings indicate that designing PDT-based Ir(III) complexes may hold a great deal of promise for anticancer drug development.
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in infant formulae, follow-on formulae, and baby foods in Iran: An assessment of risk. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 Jun 21; :110640
- Twenty-seven samples of infant formulae and follow-on formulae and fifteen samples of baby food from Iranian markets were analyzed for concentrations of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) d…
Twenty-seven samples of infant formulae and follow-on formulae and fifteen samples of baby food from Iranian markets were analyzed for concentrations of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) determined by use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry. An assessment of risks posed to infants and toddlers was conducted by calculating the margin of exposure and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) by use of the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Benzo (a) anthracene, was not detected in any of the samples, while approximately 64.3% samples contained detectable amounts of benzo (a) pyrene, while chrysene was observed in three samples and benzo (b) fluoranthene was detected in one sample. One of the samples contained 1.43 μg PAH4/kg, which was greater than the maximum tolerable limit (MTL; 1 μg/kg) stated in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125. Accordingly, the 95% ILCRs in the infants/toddlers due to ingestion of milk powder and baby foods were determined to be 1.3 × 10-6 and 7.3 × 10-7, respectively. Also, the 95th centiles of the MOEs, due to ingesting milk powder or baby foods by infants/toddlers were estimated to be 3.6 × 104 and 7.2 × 104, respectively. In Iran, infants and toddlers are not at serious health risk (MOE ≥ 1 × 104 and ILCR < 1 × 10-4).
- The oncological survival and prognosis of individuals receiving PD-1 inhibitor with and without immunologic cutaneous adverse events. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an association between developing at least one of three CAE and improved progression-free survival in this cohort of patients.
- 3D-printed electrospinning setup for the preparation of loratadine nanofibers with enhanced physicochemical properties. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2019 Jun 21; :118455
- This study investigates the effects of drug-loaded nanofibers on the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug, loratadine. Amorphous morphologies of electrospun loratadine nanofibers were prepared…
This study investigates the effects of drug-loaded nanofibers on the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug, loratadine. Amorphous morphologies of electrospun loratadine nanofibers were prepared using a low-cost 3D-printed electrospinning setup with counter-flow air for the rapid production of nanofibers . Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used as a carrier polymer and ethanol as a solvent in the solution preparation. The prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solubility and in vitro dissolution studies with kinetic behavior evaluation. The scanning electron microscope images showed smooth nanofiber surfaces with a mean diameter of 372 nm. Moreover, both differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the amorphous state of the prepared nanofibers. FT-IR results suggested that loratadine lost its original crystal structure by hydrogen bonding interactions. The fabricated nanofibrous drug samples demonstrated a remarkable 26-fold increase in solubility when compared to the pure drug in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Furthermore, dissolution studies showed that 66% of the drug from the nanofibrous mat was released in the first 10 min, which is significantly higher than the maximum of 4% drug release of the reference samples within the same time. Thus, Loratadine nanofibers can be considered as an alternative dosage form with improved physicochemical properties.
- Cellulose/chitosan pH-responsive indicator incorporated with carrot anthocyanins for intelligent food packaging. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 21
- In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to th…
In this study, the possible use of anthocyanins of black carrot (ABC) as a chemo-responsive dye to fabricate a colorimetric pH indicator in a cellulose-chitosan matrix was investigated in order to the monitoring of spoilage in pasteurized milk. Cellulose paper was impregnated with a chitosan solution prepared by a sol-gel method containing ABC (total anthocyanins content of 10 mg/100 mL) and characterized. The swelling and water solubility increased by incorporation of ABC into the chitosan-cellulose film. The colorimetric pH indicator showed an obvious color variation from pink to khaki at different pH values (pH 2-11). Stability tests revealed that the indicator had acceptable color stability during one-month storage at 20 °C. The results also confirmed the immobilization of ABC into the matrix of the polymeric indicator with no significant effect on the chemical and super-molecular structure of the samples. In food trial, fresh pasteurized milk was entirely discerned through a perceptible color change from blue to violet rose color after 48 h storage at 20 °C, which was comfortably observable by the naked eye. The results proved that the fabricated indicator could be used as food grade biomaterials to monitor freshness/spoilage of milk.
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- Computational design of a chimeric epitope-based vaccine to protect against Staphylococcus aureus infections. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Probes 2019 Jun 21