- The Impact of a 4-Week Low-FODMAP and mNICE Diet on Nutrient Intake in a Sample of US Adults with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Acad Nutr Diet 2019 May 15
- CONCLUSIONS: During a 4-week dietary intervention, the mean daily intake of most micronutrients remained stable and within the Recommended Dietary Allowances for both diets. Although decrease in several micronutrients was observed with implementation of the low-FODMAP diet relative to the mNICE diet, most of these disappeared after adjusting for energy intake.
- Rifamycin SV exhibits strong anti-inflammatory in vitro activity through pregnane X receptor stimulation and NFκB inhibition. [Journal Article]
- DMDrug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 Jan 17
- Rifamycin SV (rifamycin), is a member of the ansamycin family of antimicrobial compounds which kills bacteria commonly associated with infectious diarrhea and other enteric infections. Rifamycin has …
Rifamycin SV (rifamycin), is a member of the ansamycin family of antimicrobial compounds which kills bacteria commonly associated with infectious diarrhea and other enteric infections. Rifamycin has been found to be effective in experimental animal models of gut inflammation and its efficacy in these settings has been attributed partially to immunomodulatory non-bactericidal activities. This study aimed to further evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of rifamycin by analyzing its effect on two key regulators of inflammation: PXR and NFκB. Rifamycin stimulated PXR transcriptional activity in two PXR reporter cell lines and induced expression of two genes known to be regulated by PXR and are directly involved in cellular detoxification: CYP3A4 and PgP. Moreover, CYP3A4 metabolic activity was induced by rifamycin in HepG2 cells. Rifamycin also antagonized TNFα and LPS-induced NFκB activities and inhibited IL1β-induced synthesis of inflammatory chemokine, IL8. Although reciprocal regulation of PXR and NFkB by rifamycin was not directly addressed, the data suggest that in the absence of PXR, inhibition of NFκB by rifamycin is not dependent on PXR stimulation. Thus, rifamycin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities, characterized by in vitro PXR activation and concomitant CYP3A4 and PgP induction, in parallel with potent NFκB inhibition and concomitant IL8 inhibition.
- Increased Gut Permeability in First-degree Relatives of Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain. [Journal Article]
- CGClin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: Siblings and parents of children with IBS or FAP have increased baseline small intestinal permeability compared with control children and their parents. These results indicate that there are familial influences on gastrointestinal permeability in patients with IBS or FAP.
- Many Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome Have Atypical Food Allergies Not Associated With Immunoglobulin E. [Journal Article]
- GGastroenterology 2019 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: In a CLE analysis of patients with IBS, we found that more than 50% of patients could have nonclassical food allergy, with immediate disruption of the intestinal barrier upon exposure to food antigens. Duodenal tissues from patients with responses to food components during CLE had immediate increases in expression of claudin-2 and decreases in occludin. CLE+ patients also had increased eosinophil degranulation, indicating an atypical food allergy characterized by eosinophil activation.
- Rebamipide increases the disaccharidases activity in patients with enteropathy with impaired membrane digestion. Pilot study. [Journal Article]
- TATer Arkh 2019 Mar 18; 91(2):25-31
- CONCLUSIONS: We discovered a previously unknown phenomenon of the disaccharidases activity increase in duodenal mucosa and improved carbohydrates tolerance in the patients with EIMD taking Rebamipide in the dose 300 mg/day for 12 weeks.
- Cannabinoid-induced relief of hypermotility in a rat model of the irritable bowel syndrome. [Editorial]
- NMNeurogastroenterol Motil 2019; 31(6):e13613
- Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists may be useful in treating intestinal motility disorders.
Cannabinoid-2 receptor agonists may be useful in treating intestinal motility disorders.
- Corrigendum to "A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation". [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:9042956
- [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/4740907.].
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/4740907.].
- The disease burden associated with Campylobacter spp. in Germany, 2014. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216867
- Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter are an important cause of human illness worldwide. Campylobacter infections are expressed as gastroenteritis and can lead to severe sequelae like reactive arthriti…
Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter are an important cause of human illness worldwide. Campylobacter infections are expressed as gastroenteritis and can lead to severe sequelae like reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In Germany, Campylobacter-associated gastroenteritis cases are notifiable but there is no reporting obligation for the sequelaes and the disease burden is clearly underestimated. The aim of our study was to quantify reliably the current disease burden of all Campylobacter spp.-associated diseases for Germany with the method of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs combine mortality and morbidity in a single summary measure, whereby one DALY represents the loss of one year in full health. For acute gastroenteritis, we estimated 967 DALYs of which only 484 DALYs were detected within the reporting system. Overall, we estimated that 8811 DALYs were caused by the campylobacter-related diseases known so far. 98% of the DALYs were associated with morbidity and 2% with mortality. Mortality was caused by the health outcomes Gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome exclusively.
- Parasympathetic activity correlates with subjective and brain responses to rectal distension in healthy subjects but not in non-constipated patients with irritable bowel syndrome. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 May 14; 9(1):7358
- The nociceptive and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) are significantly intertwined. Decoupling of these systems may occur in pathological pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We …
The nociceptive and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) are significantly intertwined. Decoupling of these systems may occur in pathological pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated ANS activity and its association with visceral perception and brain activity during rectal distention in 27 patients with non-constipated IBS and 33 controls by assessing heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography at rest, before, and during colorectal distention. Brain responses to colorectal distention were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and correlated with individual ANS function parameters. The IBS group displayed blunted sympathovagal balance [low/high-frequency ratio (LF:HF) of HRV] in response to colorectal distention compared with controls (P = 0.003). In controls, basal parasympathetic tone (HF component of HRV) was significantly negatively correlated with toleration threshold to the rectal distention, but not in patients with IBS (group comparison P = 0.04). Further, a positive correlation between baseline HF values and neural responses to rectal distension was found in the right caudate, bilateral dorsolateral anterior cingulate cortex, and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in the control group but not in the IBS group. The results indicate abnormal interactions between ANS activity and the brain mechanisms underlying visceral perception in patients with IBS.
New Search Next
- Clinical Value of Fecal Calprotectin. [Journal Article]
- CRCrit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2019 May 15; :1-37
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a group of chronic incurable disorders characterized by relapsing-remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD represents a growing global burden…
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) denotes a group of chronic incurable disorders characterized by relapsing-remitting inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD represents a growing global burden with a prevalence exceeding 0.3% in the Western world and an accelerating incidence in newly industrialized countries. The target for treating IBD has shifted in recent years from symptom control to mucosal healing (MH), which has been shown to be associated with favourable long-term outcomes. The gold standard for ascertaining MH is endoscopic assessment, but endoscopy is limited by its invasive nature, high cost and finite availability. Surrogate biomarkers are therefore of great utility. Calprotectin, a cytosolic protein derived predominantly from neutrophils, is now widely used in this capacity. Calprotectin is found in various bodily fluids at concentrations proportional to the degree of inflammation, including in feces at levels roughly six times higher than in the blood. Fecal calprotectin (FCP) therefore reflects intestinal inflammation. Various assays, including point-of-care and home-based tests, are now available for measuring FCP. FCP is used for screening purposes, to aid in distinguishing inflammatory from non-inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as well as in the monitoring of known IBD. The aims of this review are to provide an overview of the methods used to measure FCP and to review the evidence supporting the use of FCP in IBD, particularly as it pertains to screening, monitoring and predicting disease relapse.