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(Irritant Gas Inhalation Injury)
44 results
  • StatPearls: Ammonia Toxicity [BOOK]
    StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Padappayil Rana Prathap RP All India Institute of Medical Sciences Borger Judith J Campbell Un. School of Osteopathic Medicine BOOK
  • Ammonia (NH) is a colorless irritant gas with a pungent order that is readily soluble in water to generate ammonium (NH) ions[1] Ammonia is a natural by-product in the human body as an intermediate in several metabolic reactions primarily involving amino acid synthesis[2] It also gets produced in the human gut as a result of various enzymatic actions of bacteria.[3] However, as a result of the hi…
  • StatPearls: EMS, Asphyxiation And Other Gas And Fire Hazards [BOOK]
    StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Gold Allen A Northwell Health Perera Thomas B. TB Hofstra Northwell BOOK
  • Daily, emergency medical service (EMS) providers initiate care for critical patients in precarious environments. Gas and fire-related accidents are especially complex and require careful considerations in management to optimize patient care. In particular, asphyxiation from gas and smoke exposure poses a significant threat to both patient and provider safety. Inhalation injuries are easy to overl…
  • Points & Pearls: Emergency department management of smoke inhalation injury in adults [Comment]
    Emerg Med Pract 2018; 20(3):e1-e2Nusbaum J, Gupta N
  • Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Clinicians should maintain a high index of susp…
  • Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI): differences from chlorine-induced ALI and attempts to translate toxicology to clinical medicine. [Review]
    Clin Transl Med 2017; 6(1):19Li W, Pauluhn J
  • CONCLUSIONS: The application of each gas produced typical ALI/ARDS (acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome) characteristics. Phosgene-induced ALI showed evidence of persistent apnea periods, bradycardia, and shifts of vascular fluid from the peripheral to the pulmonary circulation. Carbon dioxide in expired gas was suggestive of increased ventilation dead space and appeared to be a harbinger of progressively developing lung edema. Treatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine aerosol by inhalation reduced the severity of phosgene-induced ALI when applied at low dose-rates. Symptomatic treatment regimens were considered inferior to causal modes of treatment.
  • Persistent effects of chlorine inhalation on respiratory health. [Review]
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2016; 1378(1):33-40Hoyle GW, Svendsen ER
  • Chlorine gas is a toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent because of the potential for release in industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. Chlorine inhalation damages the respiratory tract, including the airways and distal lung, and can result in acute lung injury. Some individuals exposed to chlorine experience a full recovery from acute injury, whereas others dev…
  • Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings. [Review]
    Eur J Radiol 2014; 83(8):1461-9Akira M, Suganuma N
  • Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features a…
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