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Unbound Medicine.
(Irritant Gas Inhalation Injury)
45 results
  • StatPearls: Ammonia Toxicity [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Padappayil Rana Prathap RP All India Institute of Medical Sciences Borger Judith J Campbell Un. School of Osteopathic Medicine BOOK
  • Ammonia (NH) is a colorless irritant gas with a pungent order that is readily soluble in water to generate ammonium (NH) ions[1] Ammonia is a natural by-product in the human body as an intermediate in several metabolic reactions primarily involving amino acid synthesis[2] It also gets produced in the human gut as a result of various enzymatic actions of bacteria.[3] However, as a result of the hi…
  • [Swallowing and suffocating: respiratory consequences of chlorine and hydrocarbons]. [Case Reports]
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2019 08 22; 163van de Ven NLM, van Mierlo TD
  • Several toxic substances, inhaled or swallowed, can cause similar respiratory symptoms. We present two young patients with respiratory symptoms, one after inhaling chlorine gas and the other after ingesting lamp oil. Pathophysiology and clinical effects of these two substances differ. No specific antidotes exist for most toxic substances. Inhalation of respiratory irritants, such as chlorine gas,…
  • StatPearls: EMS, Asphyxiation And Other Gas And Fire Hazards [BOOK]
    . StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL) Gold Allen A Northwell Health Perera Thomas B. TB Hofstra Northwell BOOK
  • Daily, emergency medical service (EMS) providers initiate care for critical patients in precarious environments. Gas and fire-related accidents are especially complex and require careful considerations in management to optimize patient care. In particular, asphyxiation from gas and smoke exposure poses a significant threat to both patient and provider safety. Inhalation injuries are easy to overl…
  • Points & Pearls: Emergency department management of smoke inhalation injury in adults [Comment]
    Emerg Med Pract. 2018 03 01; 20(3):e1-e2.Nusbaum J, Gupta N
  • Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Clinicians should maintain a high index of susp…
  • Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI): differences from chlorine-induced ALI and attempts to translate toxicology to clinical medicine. [Review]
    Clin Transl Med. 2017 Dec; 6(1):19.Li W, Pauluhn J
  • CONCLUSIONS: The application of each gas produced typical ALI/ARDS (acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome) characteristics. Phosgene-induced ALI showed evidence of persistent apnea periods, bradycardia, and shifts of vascular fluid from the peripheral to the pulmonary circulation. Carbon dioxide in expired gas was suggestive of increased ventilation dead space and appeared to be a harbinger of progressively developing lung edema. Treatment with the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine aerosol by inhalation reduced the severity of phosgene-induced ALI when applied at low dose-rates. Symptomatic treatment regimens were considered inferior to causal modes of treatment.
  • Persistent effects of chlorine inhalation on respiratory health. [Review]
    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 08; 1378(1):33-40.Hoyle GW, Svendsen ER
  • Chlorine gas is a toxic respiratory irritant that is considered a chemical threat agent because of the potential for release in industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. Chlorine inhalation damages the respiratory tract, including the airways and distal lung, and can result in acute lung injury. Some individuals exposed to chlorine experience a full recovery from acute injury, whereas others dev…
  • Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings. [Review]
    Eur J Radiol. 2014 Aug; 83(8):1461-9.Akira M, Suganuma N
  • Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features a…
  • Accidental inhalation injury of phosgene gas leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. [Case Reports]
    Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2012 May; 16(2):88-9.Kumar A, Chaudhari S, … Shukla A
  • Irritant gas exposure may lead to significant respiratory distress as is seen in the present case of 25 year old male worker who suffered accidental phosgene inhalation. He remained asymptomatic for six hours but later landed up in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the hospital and required ventilatory support. No investigative feature is diagnostic of the nature of irritant gas. Similarly t…
  • Complications of chlorine inhalation in a pediatric chemical burn patient: a case report. [Case Reports]
    J Burn Care Res. 2012 Jul-Aug; 33(4):e216-21.Mangat HS, Stewart TL, … Tredget EE
  • The majority of burn injuries in the pediatric population occur at home, and a significant proportion are the result of exposure to household cleaning products. A common injury-causing agent is bleach, which has the potential to release chlorine gas, a potent respiratory irritant that leads to the added risk of inhalation injury. The survival of pediatric patients with chemical burns is extremely…
  • A rat model of smoke inhalation injury. [Journal Article]
    Inhal Toxicol. 2012 May; 24(6):356-64.Zhu F, Qiu X, … Xia Z
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this rat smoke inhalation injury model induced by our novel self-made smoke generator could be used for acute and chronic lung injury experiments.
  • Toxic inhalational exposures. [Review]
    J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Nov-Dec; 28(6):323-33.Chen TM, Malli H, … Kuschner WG
  • Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on t…
  • Inhaled nitric oxide aggravates phosgene model of acute lung injury. [Journal Article]
    Inhal Toxicol. 2011 Nov; 23(13):842-52.Li WL, Hai CX, Pauluhn J
  • The principal acute mode of action of inhaled phosgene gas is related to an increase alveolar fluid exudation under pathologic conditions. This paper considers some aspects in modeling phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in an acute rat bioassay and whether edema formation can be modulated by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Protein analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is amongst the mo…
  • Glycopyrrolate in toxic exposure to ammonia gas. [Case Reports]
    J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2011 Jan; 4(1):140-1.Bhalla A, Mahi S, … Singh S
  • Ammonia (NH(3)) is a highly water-soluble, colorless, irritant gas with a unique pungent odor. Liquid ammonia stored under high pressure is still widely used for refrigeration in cold stores used for storing grains. Severe toxicity may occur following accidental exposure. We report an interesting case of accidental exposure to ammonia treated with glycopyrrolate along with other supportive measur…
  • Potential for chlorine gas-induced injury in the extrapulmonary vasculature. [Review]
    Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 Jul; 7(4):290-3.Samal A, Honovar J, … Patel RP
  • Exposure to chlorine gas (Cl(2)) primarily causes injury to the lung and is characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress mediated by reactive chlorine species. Reducing lung injury and improving respiratory function are the principal therapeutic goals in treating individuals exposed to Cl(2) gas. Less is known on the potential for Cl(2) gas exposure to cause injury to extrapulmonary tissues…
  • Sensory detection and responses to toxic gases: mechanisms, health effects, and countermeasures. [Review]
    Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 Jul; 7(4):269-77.Bessac BF, Jordt SE
  • The inhalation of reactive gases and vapors can lead to severe damage of the airways and lung, compromising the function of the respiratory system. Exposures to oxidizing, electrophilic, acidic, or basic gases frequently occur in occupational and ambient environments. Corrosive gases and vapors such as chlorine, phosgene, and chloropicrin were used as warfare agents and in terrorist acts. Chemica…
  • Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models. [Review]
    Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 Jul; 7(4):257-63.White CW, Martin JG
  • Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction in…
  • [Cutaneous and systemic toxicology of vesicants used in warfare]. [Review]
    Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2010 Jan-Feb; 101(1):7-18.Pita R, Vidal-Asensi S
  • Vesicants are a group of chemicals used in warfare. The most representative agent is yperite, also known as mustard gas. The blisters that appeared on those exposed to yperite during combat in the First World War are responsible for the current name--vesicants--for this group of chemicals. Their affects are produced mainly through localized action of liquid or vapor forms on the skin, eyes, and r…
  • [Gas poisoning: respiratory irritants and axphyxiants]. [Journal Article]
    Lijec Vjesn. 2007; 129 Suppl 5:119-23.Turk R, Varnai VM, Bosan-Kilibarda I
  • Inhalation exposure to harmful substances in the working as well as in general environment may induce serious health effects. The severity of gas poisoning is determined primarily by its physical and chemical characteristics, and the level and duration of exposure. Toxic effects from gas inhalation involve simple asphyxia, respiratory irritation, systemic toxicity, and a combination of these mech…
  • Method development study for APR cartridge evaluation in fire overhaul exposures. [Journal Article]
    Ann Occup Hyg. 2007 Nov; 51(8):703-16.Anthony TR, Joggerst P, … Shogren ES
  • In the US, firefighters do not typically wear respiratory protection during overhaul activities, although fitting multi-gas or chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear cartridges to supplied air respirator facepieces has been proposed to reduce exposures. This work developed a method to evaluate the effectiveness of respirator cartridges in smoke that represents overhaul exposures to reside…
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