- [Ampulloma treatment with Whipple surgery. First case report in the regional hospital of Tumbes]. [Journal Article]
- RGRev Gastroenterol Peru 2018 Apr-Jun; 38(2):187-191
- To report the first case of Whipple surgery performed at the Regional Hospital of Tumbes for the treatment of ampullary adenocarcinoma with successful results. A case report of a patient with diagnos...
To report the first case of Whipple surgery performed at the Regional Hospital of Tumbes for the treatment of ampullary adenocarcinoma with successful results. A case report of a patient with diagnosis of ampullary adenocarcinoma, in whom was performed the first Whipple surgery at the Regional Hospital of Tumbes, in October, 2014. The patient diagnosed with an obstructive jaundice syndrome due to ampullary adenocarcinoma underwent Whipple surgery. She performed the postoperative period with gradual improvement, she did not present with respiratory pathology, she not have fever, the patient tolerated the oral route, the jaundice decreased and she was discharged after 13 days. She presented low-output pancreatic fistula (30 cc/day), which remitted at 3 weeks. The patient presented evident clinical improvement and satisfactory surgical results to date. Whipple surgery is the surgical technique of choice in the treatment of the ampullary adenocarcinoma and it is feasible to perform, in cases that is indicated, in bounderies hospitals if you have the trained personnel and necessary logistics.
- Management of acute-on-chronic liver failure: an algorithmic approach. [Journal Article]
- HIHepatol Int 2018 Aug 16
- Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct syndrome of liver failure in a patient with chronic liver disease presenting with jaundice, coagulopathy and ascites and/or hepatic encephalopathy,...
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct syndrome of liver failure in a patient with chronic liver disease presenting with jaundice, coagulopathy and ascites and/or hepatic encephalopathy, developing following an acute hepatic insult and associated with high 28-day mortality. The definition though lacks global consensus, excludes patients with known distinct entities such as acute liver failure and those with end-stage liver disease. The initial Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) because of cytokine storm in relation to acute insult and/or subsequent development of sepsis due to immunoparalysis leads to extrahepatic organ failure. These cascades of events progress through a 'Golden Window' period of about 7 days, subsequent to which majority of the patients develop complications, such as sepsis and extrahepatic organ failure. Prevention of sepsis, support of organs and management of organ failure (commonly hepatic, renal, cerebral, coagulation) and early referral for transplant is crucial. The APASL ACLF research consortium (AARC) liver failure score is a dynamic prognostic model for management decisions and is superior to existing models. Aggressive multidisciplinary approach can lead to a transplant-free survival in nearly half of the cases. The present review provides an algorithmic approach to management of organ failure, sepsis prevention, use of dynamic prognostic models for management decision and is aimed to improve the skills for managing and improving the outcomes of such critically ill patients.
- Hemobilia: Perspective and Role of the Advanced Endoscopist. [Review]
- GRGastroenterol Res Pract 2018; 2018:3670739
- Hemobilia refers to bleeding from and/or into the biliary tract and is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemobilia has been documented since the 1600s, but due to its relative rarity,...
Hemobilia refers to bleeding from and/or into the biliary tract and is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hemobilia has been documented since the 1600s, but due to its relative rarity, it has only been more critically examined in recent decades. Most cases of hemobilia are iatrogenic and caused by procedures involving the liver, pancreas, bile ducts, and/or the hepatopancreatobiliary vasculature, with trauma and malignancy representing the two other major causes. A classic triad of right upper quadrant pain, jaundice, and overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding has been described, but this is present in only 25-30% of patients with hemobilia. Historically, the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment has been angiography and interventional radiologic intervention, respectively. However, the paradigm is shifting, at least in select cases, towards first-line reliance on noninvasive imaging (e.g., computed tomography) and therapeutic endoscopy, owing to advances in and the less invasive nature of both, while saving interventional radiological and/or surgical intervention for refractory or imminently life-threatening cases.
- Mediastinal herniation of the biliary tract leading to bile duct: obstruction following oesophagectomy. [Journal Article]
- ARAnn R Coll Surg Engl 2018 Aug 16; :e1-e3
- Surgical management of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction malignancies is one of the most challenging situations confronting the surgeon. Attaining a complete circumferential resection margi...
Surgical management of oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction malignancies is one of the most challenging situations confronting the surgeon. Attaining a complete circumferential resection margin of lower-third oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction locally advanced carcinomas requires en-bloc resection of the hiatus and all the peri-oesophageal tissue and pleura. This results in an increased risk of herniation of the abdominal organs through the enlarged hiatus, which carries significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of this complication is higher than has been reported. Surgical management of symptomatic hernias is the standard treatment while criteria for managing asymptomatic hernias are less clear. We report a rare case of a late mediastinal herniation of the pancreas and bile duct, leading to obstructive jaundice following oesophagectomy which was treated successfully in our unit.
- Determining the Minimally Effective Dose of a Clinical Candidate AAV Vector in a Mouse Model of Crigler-Najjar Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- MTMol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2018 Sep 21; 10:237-244
- Liver metabolism disorders are attractive targets for gene therapy, because low vector doses can reverse the buildup of toxic metabolites in the blood. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an inherited disorde...
Liver metabolism disorders are attractive targets for gene therapy, because low vector doses can reverse the buildup of toxic metabolites in the blood. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an inherited disorder of bilirubin metabolism that is caused by the absence of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) activity. This syndrome is characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. Unfortunately, current phototherapy treatment is not effective long term. We intravenously injected phototherapy-rescued adult UGT1 knockout mice with 2.5 × 1010-2.5 × 1013 genome copies (GC)/kg of a clinical candidate vector, AAV8.TBG.hUGT1A1co, to study the treatment of disease compared to vehicle-only control mice. There were no apparent vector-related laboratory or clinical sequelae; the only abnormalities in clinical pathology were elevations in liver transaminases, primarily in male mice at the highest vector dose. Minimal to mild histopathological findings were present in control and vector-administered male mice. At vector doses greater than 2.5 × 1011 GC/kg, we observed a reversal of total bilirubin levels to wild-type levels. Based on a significant reduction in serum total bilirubin levels, we determined the minimally effective dose in this mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome to be 2.5 × 1011 GC/kg.
- An analysis on treatment effect of blue light phototherapy combined with Bifico in treating neonatal hemolytic jaundice. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(2):1360-1364
- This study aimed to discuss and evaluate the clinical effect of blue light phototherapy combined with bifico in treating neonatal hemolytic jaundice. One hundred and twenty cases with neonatal hemoly...
This study aimed to discuss and evaluate the clinical effect of blue light phototherapy combined with bifico in treating neonatal hemolytic jaundice. One hundred and twenty cases with neonatal hemolytic jaundice were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 60 cases in each group. Neonatal patients in the control group were treated with traditional treatment, including administration of enzyme inducer phenobarbital and blue light phototherapy for 8 consecutive hours every day. Neonatal patients in the treatment group received bifico orally based on traditional treatment. Clinical effects of the two groups were observed after one course of treatment (7 days as one course). During the first course, serum bilirubin level in the treatment group treated with blue light phototherapy combined with bifico declined more rapidly (P<0.01) and more significantly (P<0.01) than that in the control group, and the mean time for eliminating jaundice was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 91.67% in the treatment group, while that was 85.00% in the control group, which suggested that the treatment effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with traditional treatment, the treatment effect of blue light phototherapy combined with bifico in treating neonatal hemolytic jaundice is significantly improved and the speed of eliminating jaundice is also higher. Thus, it is worthy to be applied in clinical practice.
- Outcomes of percutaneous transluminal biopsy of biliary lesions using a dedicated forceps system. [Journal Article]
- ARActa Radiol 2018 Aug 15; :284185118795319
- Background Distinction between benign and malignant biliary obstruction is always challenging. Purpose To evaluate outcomes of percutaneous transluminal biopsy of biliary strictures using a dedicated...
Background Distinction between benign and malignant biliary obstruction is always challenging. Purpose To evaluate outcomes of percutaneous transluminal biopsy of biliary strictures using a dedicated forceps system. Material and Methods This prospective, single-center, single-arm study, included 29 consecutive patients (17 men [56.6%]; mean age = 60 ± 9 years), who underwent 30 transluminal biopsies during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) due to obstructive jaundice, between September 2014 and January 2017, using a transluminal biliary access and biopsy forceps set. The study's primary efficacy endpoint was technical success and the primary safety endpoint was the procedure-related major complications rate. The study's secondary endpoints were procedure-related minor complication rate, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for the characterization of malignancy. Results Tissue samples allowed histological diagnosis in 27/30 procedures (technical success rate 90.0%), as in three cases (10.0%) the sample was characterized as non-diagnostic: one case was suspicious for pancreatic cancer and two cases were cholangiocarcinoma. In one case, biopsy was successfully repeated. The diagnosis was cholangiocarcinoma in 16 cases (53.3%), colorectal metastasis in three cases (10%), pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three cases (10.0%), and inflammation in five cases (16.6%). There were two false-negative cases of inflammation proven to be cholangiocarcinoma, resulting in sensitivity of 91.67%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 92.59%. No major complications were noted. There were four cases of hemobilia (13%) which auto-resolved within 48 h. Conclusion Percutaneous transluminal biopsy of biliary strictures during PTBD using the specific forceps system was proven safe and resulted in high technical success and diagnostic accuracy rates.
- [Anti-inflammatory mechanism of Dahuang Lidan Pian by network pharmacology]. [Journal Article]
- ZZZhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018; 43(13):2770-2776
- Dahuang Lidan Pian contains Rheum palmatum, Gymnadenia conopsea and Phyllanthus emblica, which has a significant effect in the treatment of alcoholic fatty liver, cholestasis and cholecystitis. The e...
Dahuang Lidan Pian contains Rheum palmatum, Gymnadenia conopsea and Phyllanthus emblica, which has a significant effect in the treatment of alcoholic fatty liver, cholestasis and cholecystitis. The efficacy of the formula in traditional Chinese medicine was clearing heat and promoting diuresis, removing dampness, detoxifying and relieving jaundice. These three herbs are widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine, Mongolian medicine and Tibetan medicine. Therefore, the formula was a representative subject in the researches for ethno-drugs. In this research, computer aided drug design methods were used to predict the action targets of the formula. Protein interaction network (PIN) was then constructed, and molecular complex detection (MCODE) clustering algorithm was used to obtain the modules of the formula, so as to analyze the potential action mechanism. The results showed that Rh. palmatum and P. emblica may have a synergistic protective effect on liver function by acting on analogous targets and pathways. G. conopsea regulated metabolic balance of nutrients to strengthen physical fitness. The research explained the liver-protecting mechanism of Dahuang Lidan Pian based on the PIN analysis on molecular network, which provides an reference for the further study of Dahuang Lidan Pian.
- Neuroinflammation and ER-stress are key mechanisms of acute bilirubin toxicity and hearing loss in a mouse model. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0201022
- Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged cau...
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Guided by initial experiments applying bilirubin to cultured cells in vitro, we performed whole genome gene expression measurements on mouse brain tissue (cerebellum and auditory brainstem) following bilirubin exposure to gain mechanistic insights into biochemical processes affected, and investigated further using immunoblotting. We then compared the gene changes induced by bilirubin to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well characterized inducer of neuroinflammation, to assess the degree of similarity between them. Finally, we examined the extent to which genetic perturbation of inflammation and both known and novel anti-inflammatory drugs could protect hearing from bilirubin-induced toxicity. The in vitro results indicated that bilirubin induces changes in gene expression consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). These gene changes were similar to the gene expression signature of thapsigargin-a known ER stress inducer. It also induced gene expression changes associated with inflammation and NF-κB activation. The in vivo model showed behavioural impairment and a raised auditory threshold. Whole genome gene expression analysis confirmed inflammation as a key mechanism of bilirubin neurotoxicity in the auditory pathway and shared gene expression hallmarks induced by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) a well-characterized inducer of neuroinflammation. Interestingly, bilirubin caused more severe damage to the auditory system than LPS in this model, but consistent with our hypothesis of neuroinflammation being a primary part of bilirubin toxicity, the hearing loss was protected by perturbing the inflammatory response. This was carried out genetically using lipocalin-2 (LCN2)-null mice, which is an inflammatory cytokine highly upregulated in response to bilirubin. Finally, we tested known and novel anti-inflammatory compounds (interfering with NF-κB and TNFα signalling), and also demonstrated protection of the auditory system from bilirubin toxicity. We have developed a novel, reversible, model for jaundice that shows movement impairment and auditory loss consistent with human symptoms. We used this model to establish ER-stress and inflammation as major contributors to bilirubin toxicity. Because of the rapid and reversible onset of toxicity in this novel model it represents a system to screen therapeutic compounds. We have demonstrated this by targeting inflammation genetically and with anti-inflammatory small molecules that offered protection against bilirubin toxicity. This also suggests that anti-inflammatory drugs could be of therapeutic use in hyperbilirubinemia.
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- Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Liver: Case Report and Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- CRCase Rep Pathol 2018; 2018:8031253
- Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), is rarely reported in the liver as a primary site. We report a case of a previously healthy 56-ye...
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), is rarely reported in the liver as a primary site. We report a case of a previously healthy 56-year-old male, who presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was originally diagnosed with cholecystitis, treated with cholecystectomy, which was complicated by abdominal abscess. One week following discharge, the patient was readmitted with fever, chills, and leukocytosis. Computed tomography (CT) guided liver biopsies demonstrated an epithelioid to spindle cell neoplasm with markedly atypical nuclei and prominent necrosis infiltrating between hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical studies were negative for epithelial, melanocytic, and hematolymphoid differentiation. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed, which showed a single markedly hypermetabolic central hepatic mass (14 x 8.5 x 8.5 cm) with likely central necrosis, consistent with primary malignancy. The patient was treated with one cycle of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and ifosfamide), refusing additional cycle due to medication side effects. The patient subsequently succumbed to complications associated with the malignancy and died within 19 days of diagnosis.