- [Pathogenic gene variants and clinical phenotype features of 26 children with progressive myoclonic epilepsy]. [Journal Article]
- ZEZhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jun 02; 57(6):458-464
- CONCLUSIONS: PME include a group of diseases with genetic heterogeneity. Identification of the pathogenic gene variants of PME could help to predict the prognosis and guide the genetic counseling.
- Applying modern Omic technologies to the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses. [Review]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2019 Jun 14
- The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses are a group of severe and progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which generally present during childhood. With new treatments emerging on the horizon, there is a…
The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses are a group of severe and progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which generally present during childhood. With new treatments emerging on the horizon, there is a growing need to understand the specific disease mechanisms as well as identify prospective biomarkers for use to stratify patients and monitor treatment. The use of Omics technologies to NCLs has the potential to address this need. We discuss the recent use and outcomes of Omics to various forms of NCL including identification of interactomes, affected biological pathways and potential biomarker candidates. We also identify common pathways affected in NCL across the reviewed studies.
- The Parkinson-associated human P5B-ATPase ATP13A2 modifies lipid homeostasis. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2019 May 24
- Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, CLN12, OMIM 610513) were initially associated with a form of Parkinson's Disease (PD) known as Kufor Rakeb Syndrome (KRS). However, the genetic spectrum of ATP13…
Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, CLN12, OMIM 610513) were initially associated with a form of Parkinson's Disease (PD) known as Kufor Rakeb Syndrome (KRS). However, the genetic spectrum of ATP13A2-associated disorders was expanded in the last years, because it has been found to underlay variants of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCLs) and hereditary spastic paraplegia. As ATP13A2 seems to be a key component of the endo-lysosome pathway, the fact that these pathologies are commonly characterized by endo-lysosomal dysfunction is not surprising. Here we report that increasing the level of functional ATP13A2 in a stable SH-SY5Y cell line disrupts lipid homeostasis. ATP13A2 overexpression increases the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent analog phosphatidylethanolamine (NBD-PE) and the formation of multilamellar bodies, resembling the so-called "drug-induced phospholipidosis". We also found that expression of ATP13A2 reduces the ceramide-fluorescence intensity and the content of bis(monoacylglyceryl)phosphate (BMP). BMP is required for lipid degradation and exosome biogenesis inside acidic compartments, so this result suggests that ATP13A2 may be modifying the lipid digestion capacity and/or the redistribution of lipids in these subcellular organelles. In addition, ATP13A2-overexpression decreased the total content of triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and lipid droplets. As TGs are necessary for the synthesis of new membranes, this observation suggests that increasing the function of ATP13A2 switches the endo-lysosomal system towards vesicle secretion.
- Perampanel attenuates myoclonus in a patient with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses type 2 disease. [Journal Article]
- BDBrain Dev 2019 May 21
- Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses type 2 disease (CLN2) is a very rare, autosomal recessive neurodegerative disease caused by deficient activity of the enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). The seizure…
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses type 2 disease (CLN2) is a very rare, autosomal recessive neurodegerative disease caused by deficient activity of the enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). The seizures in CLN2 are polymorphic and resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In particular, myoclonus (epileptic and non-epileptic) predominant as the disease progresses. Herein, we present a child of CLN2 disease, who had near-continuous myoclonus, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Perampanel. This girl had initially presented with language delay and generalized tonic clonic seizure at 3 years of age. The diagnosis of CLN2 was made via genetic study, which showed compound heterozygous mutation on TPP1 gene (c.622 C > T and partial gene deletion including at least exons 1-3). Currently, at the age of 8 years, there was near-continuous myoclonus (epileptic and non-epileptic), which worsen during acute illness. Eventually, she was given Perampanel with starting dose of 1 mg/day and slowly titrated upto 6 mg/day in 4 weeks. There was significant attenuation of myoclonus (>50% seizure reduction). To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature describing the efficacy of perampanel in treating myoclonus in CLN2 disease.
- Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis Reveals Novel Pathogenic Variants in Four Chinese Siblings With Late-Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. [Case Reports]
- FGFront Genet 2019; 10:370
- Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are progressive degenerative diseases mainly affect brain and retina. They are characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, mitochondrial A…
Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are progressive degenerative diseases mainly affect brain and retina. They are characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material, mitochondrial ATPase subunit C, or sphingolipid activator proteins A and D in lysosomes of most cells. Heterogenous storage material in NCLs is not completely disease-specific. Most of CLN proteins and their natural substrates are not well-characterized. Studies have suggested variants of Late-Infantile NCLs (LINCLs) include the major type CLN2 and minor types CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8. Therefore, combination of clinical and molecular analysis has become a more effective diagnosis method. We studied 4 late-infantile NCL siblings characterized by seizures, ataxia as early symptoms, followed by progressive regression in intelligence and behavior, but mutations are located in different genes. Symptoms and progression of 4 types of LINCLs are compared. Pathology of LINCLs is also discussed. We performed Nest-Generation Sequencing on these phenotypically similar families. Three novel variants c.1551+1insTGAT in TPP1, c.244G>T in CLN6, c.554-5A>G in MFSD8 were identified. Potential outcome of the mutations in structure and function of proteins are studied. In addition, we observed some common and unique clinical features of Chinese LINCL patient as compared with those of Western patients, which greatly improved our understanding of the LINCLs.
- A mixed breed dog with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is homozygous for a CLN5 nonsense mutation previously identified in Border Collies and Australian Cattle Dogs. [Journal Article]
- MGMol Genet Metab 2019; 127(1):107-115
- The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive declines in neurological functions following normal development. The NCLs a…
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive declines in neurological functions following normal development. The NCLs are distinguished from similar disorders by the accumulation of autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies in neurons and many other cell types, and are classified as lysosomal storage diseases. At least 13 genes contain pathogenic sequence variants that underlie different forms of NCL. Naturally occurring canine NCLs can serve as models to develop better understanding of the disease pathologies and for preclinical evaluation of therapeutic interventions for these disorders. To date 14 sequence variants in 8 canine orthologs of human NCL genes have been found to cause progressive neurological disorders similar to human NCLs in 12 different dog breeds. A mixed breed dog with parents of uncertain breed background developed progressive neurological signs consistent with NCL starting at approximately 11 to 12 months of age, and when evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging at 21 months of age exhibited diffuse brain atrophy. Due to the severity of neurological decline the dog was euthanized at 23 months of age. Cerebellar and cerebral cortical neurons contained massive accumulations of autofluorescent storage bodies the contents of which had the appearance of tightly packed membranes. A whole genome sequence, generated with DNA from the affected dog contained a homozygous C-to-T transition at position 30,574,637 on chromosome 22 which is reflected in the mature CLN5 transcript (CLN5: c.619C > T) and converts a glutamine codon to a termination codon (p.Gln207Ter). The identical nonsense mutation has been previously associated with NCL in Border Collies, Australian Cattle Dogs, and a German Shepherd-Australian Cattle Dog mix. The current whole genome sequence and a previously generated whole genome sequence for an Australian Cattle Dog with NCL share a rare homozygous haplotype that extends for 87 kb surrounding 22: 30, 574, 637 and includes 21 polymorphic sites. When genotyped at 7 of these polymorphic sites, DNA samples from the German Shepherd-Australian Cattle Dog mix and from 5 Border Collies with NCL that were homozygous for the CLN5: c.619 T allele also shared this homozygous haplotype, suggesting that the NCL in all of these dogs stems from the same founding mutation event that may have predated the establishment of the modern dog breeds. If so, the CLN5 nonsence allele is probably segregating in other, as yet unidentified, breeds. Thus, dogs exhibiting similar NCL-like signs should be screened for this CLN5 nonsense allele regardless of breed.
- Modelling of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Type 2 in Dictyostelium discoideum Suggests That Cytopathological Outcomes Result from Altered TOR Signalling. [Journal Article]
- CCells 2019 May 16; 8(5)
- The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses comprise a group of neurodegenerative disorders with similar clinical manifestations whose precise mechanisms of disease are presently unknown. We created multiple …
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses comprise a group of neurodegenerative disorders with similar clinical manifestations whose precise mechanisms of disease are presently unknown. We created multiple cell lines each with different levels of reduction of expression of the gene coding for the type 2 variant of the disease, Tripeptidyl peptidase (Tpp1), in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. Knocking down Tpp1 in Dictyostelium resulted in the accumulation of autofluorescent material, a characteristic trait of Batten disease. Phenotypic characterisation of the mutants revealed phenotypic deficiencies in growth and development, whilst endocytic uptake of nutrients was enhanced. Furthermore, the severity of the phenotypes correlated with the expression levels of Tpp1. We propose that the phenotypic defects are due to altered Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling. We show that treatment of wild type Dictyostelium cells with rapamycin (a specific TOR complex inhibitor) or antisense inhibition of expression of Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in the brain) (an upstream TOR complex activator) phenocopied the Tpp1 mutants. We also show that overexpression of Rheb rescued the defects caused by antisense inhibition of Tpp1. These results suggest that the TOR signalling pathway is responsible for the cytopathological outcomes in the Dictyostelium Tpp1 model of Batten disease.
- Rapid progression of a walking disability in a 5-year-old boy with a CLN6 mutation. [Journal Article]
- BDBrain Dev 2019 Apr 24
- CONCLUSIONS: A total of 130 cases of NCL with CLN6 mutations have been reported globally, of which only four were from Japan including the current patient. The deletion of serine at position 265 has been reported in six cases. Ser265 is located in a region of short repeated sequences that is susceptible to mutation. Clinical trials of gene therapy using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 have started for NCL6, making early diagnosis crucial. OCT examination might be helpful in achieving a diagnosis.
- Cln3-mutations underlying juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis cause significantly reduced levels of Palmitoyl-protein thioesterases-1 (Ppt1)-protein and Ppt1-enzyme activity in the lysosome. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Apr 26
- Mutations in at least 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of the most common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. While …
Mutations in at least 13 different genes (called CLNs) underlie various forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a group of the most common neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases. While inactivating mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterases-1 (PPT1), cause infantile NCL (INCL), those in the CLN3 gene, encoding a protein of unknown function, underlie juvenile NCL (JNCL). PPT1 depalmitoylates S-palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) required for their degradation by lysosomal hydrolases and PPT1-deficiency causes lysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent ceroid leading to INCL. Because intracellular accumulation of ceroid is a characteristic of all NCLs, a common pathogenic link for these diseases has been suggested. It has been reported that CLN3-mutations suppress the exit of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) from the trans Golgi network (TGN). Because CI-M6PR transports soluble proteins such as PPT1 from the TGN to the lysosome, we hypothesized that CLN3-mutations may cause lysosomal PPT1-insufficiency contributing to JNCL pathogenesis. Here, we report that the lysosomes in Cln3-mutant mice, which mimic JNCL, and those in cultured cells from JNCL patients, contain significantly reduced levels of Ppt1-protein and Ppt1-enzyme activity and progressively accumulate autofluorescent ceroid. Furthermore, in JNCL fibroblasts the V0a1 subunit of v-ATPase, which regulates lysosomal acidification, is mislocalized to the plasma membrane instead of its normal location on lysosomal membrane. This defect dysregulates lysosomal acidification, as we previously reported in Cln1 -/- mice, which mimic INCL. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of CLN3 in lysosomal homeostasis and suggest that CLN3-mutations causing lysosomal Ppt1-insuffiiciency may at least in part contribute to JNCL pathogenesis.
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- MFSD8 gene mutations; evidence for phenotypic heterogeneity. [Journal Article]
- OGOphthalmic Genet 2019; 40(2):141-145
- CONCLUSIONS: Here and for the first time, we reported on two previously variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses-associated variants in MFSD8 but in association with a form of cone-rod dystrophy known as non-syndromic macular dystrophy with central cone involvement. Our results support this concept that variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and non-syndromic macular dystrophy with central cone involvement are not different disease entities, but rather allelic diseases and phenotypic variants of the same mutation. Consideration of the milder MFSD8 phenotypes is important against the potentially severe consequences of life-threatening conditions associated with MFSD8 mutations in order to prevent the danger of misdiagnosis as well as the accuracy of genetic counseling.