- Improvement of abnormal vaginal flora in Ugandan women by self-testing and short use of intravaginal antimicrobials. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 08
- The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor f...
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p < 0.0001) and from 2.5 to 1.9 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Similarly, strong improvements in the AV score were seen in both treatment regimens: moderate and severe AV declined from AV scores of 6.3 to 3.6 (p = 0.003) and from 6.6 to 4.1 (p < 0.004), respectively. Also, women with AVF (deceased or absent lactobacilli) showed similar improvements when compared with placebo. Women with normal flora and Candida at the initial visit showed less Candida after 4 weeks in the group treated with DQC (p = 0.014). Even after a short duration of intravaginal treatment with local non-absorbable antiseptics or antibiotics produced significant, lasting improvements in the vaginal microbiome composition of women with disturbed vaginal microflora. As African women have high prevalences of BV, AV, and AVF, this approach could improve their odds to prevent health-compromising complications. Further studies assessing direct health outcomes are needed to substantiate this.
- The role of the bacterial microbiota on reproductive and pregnancy health. [Review]
- AAnaerobe 2016; 42:67-73
- Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microb...
Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microbiome and identifying the vast communities of microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and much work continues to examine the individual contribution of bacteria on health and disease to inform future therapies. This review explores the current literature outlining the contribution of important bacteria on reproductive health among sexually active men and women, outlines gaps in current research to determine causal and interventional relationships, and suggests future research initiatives. Novel treatments options to reduce adverse outcomes must recognize the heterogeneity of the bacteria within the microbiome and adequately assess long-term benefits in reducing disease burden and re-establishing a healthy Lactobacillus-dominant state. Recognizing other reservoirs outside of the lower genital track and within sexual partners as well as genetic and individual moderators may be most important for long-term cure and reduction of disease. It will be important to develop useful screening tools and comprehensively examine novel therapeutic options to promote the long-term reduction of high-risk bacteria and the re-establishment of healthy bacterial levels to considerably improve outcomes among pregnant women and sexually active men and women.
- Vaginal microbial communities from synchronized heifers and cows with reproductive disorders. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Appl Microbiol 2016; 121(5):1232-1241
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to the knowledge of the vaginal microbiome in synchronized heifers showing positive or negative clinical vaginitis.This study contributes to the understanding of a dynamic vaginal colonization by bacterial consortiums during the synchronization with a widely used PRID protocol. Also, the results reveal the presence of well-known metritis-related pathogens as well as emerging uterine opportunistic pathogens. The provided information will allow to carry out further studies to elucidate functional roles of these native micro-organisms in the bovine reproductive tract.
- Evaluation and subsequent optimizations of the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. [Journal Article]
- AAPMIS 2016; 124(12):1099-1108
- Traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurat...
Traditional microscopy-based methods for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) are underutilized in many settings, and molecular techniques may provide opportunities for rapid, objective, and accurate BV diagnosis. This study evaluated the quantitative AmpliSens Florocenosis/Bacterial vaginosis-FRT multiplex real-time PCR (Florocenosis-BV) assay. Vaginal samples from a previous study including unselected female subjects (n = 163) and using Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for BV diagnosis were examined with the Florocenosis-BV test and additionally tested for the presence and quantity of Gardnerella vaginalis clades 3 and 4. The Florocenosis-BV assay demonstrated 100% and 98% sensitivity compared with the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing, respectively, with 91% specificity. The modified Florocenosis-BV assay (detecting also G. vaginalis clades 3 and 4) resulted in 100% sensitivity vs the Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing with specificity of 86% and 88%, respectively. Further optimizations of thresholds for the quantitative parameters used in the kit resulted in 99-100% accuracy vs Amsel criteria and 454 pyrosequencing for selected parameters. The Florocenosis-BV assay is an objective, accurate, sensitive, and specific method for BV diagnosis; however, the performance of the test can be further improved with some minor optimizations.
- The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases. [Journal Article]
- VVirulence 2016 Sep 22; :1-10
- Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the comple...
Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.
- The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2016; 19(5):512-8
- CONCLUSIONS: MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.
- Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiome by Next-Generation Sequencing and Evaluation of its Performance as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool in Vaginitis. [Journal Article]
- ALAnn Lab Med 2016; 36(5):441-9
- CONCLUSIONS: Fungi as well as bacteria should be considered for the investigation of vaginal microbiome. The intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were indistinguishable in NGS. NGS is a promising diagnostic tool of the vaginal microbiome and vaginitis, although some problems need to be resolved.
- Lactobacillus crispatus strain SJ-3C-US induces human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs. [Journal Article]
- AAPMIS 2016; 124(8):697-710
- Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the most predominant species in the healthy vagina microbiota. Nevertheless, the interactions between this commensal bacterium and the immune system are largely unkn...
Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the most predominant species in the healthy vagina microbiota. Nevertheless, the interactions between this commensal bacterium and the immune system are largely unknown. Given the importance of the dendritic cells (DCs) in the regulation of the immunity, this study was performed to elucidate the influence of vaginal isolated L. crispatus SJ-3C-US from healthy Iranian women on DCs, either directly by exposure of DCs to ultraviolet-inactivated (UVI) and heat-killed (HK) L. crispatus SJ-3C-US or indirectly to its cell-free supernatant (CFS), and the outcomes of immune response. In this work we showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US induced strong dose-dependent activation of dendritic cells and production of high levels of IL-10, whereas IL-12p70 production was induced at low level in an inverse dose-dependent manner. This stimulation skewed T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells and production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) test. The mode of bacterial inactivation did not affect the DCs activation pattern, upon encounter with L. crispatus SJ-3C-US. Moreover, while DCs stimulated with CFS showed moderate phenotypic maturation and IL-10 production, it failed to skew T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and production of IL-10. This study showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs through up-regulation of anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine production and induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells at optimal dosage. Our findings suggest that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US could be a potent candidate as protective probiotic against human immune-mediated pathologies, such as chronic inflammation, vaginitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
- Vaginal Microbiota. [Review]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2016; 902:83-93
- The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microb...
The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.
New Search Next
- Selection of Lactobacillus strains as potential probiotics for vaginitis treatment. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiology 2016; 162(7):1195-207
- Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women, and imbalance of the local microbiota can predispose women to acquire infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vu...
Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women, and imbalance of the local microbiota can predispose women to acquire infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Although antimicrobial therapy is generally effective, there is still a high incidence of recurrence and increase of microbial resistance due to the repetitive use of antimicrobials. Thus, it has been suggested that administration of probiotics incorporating selected Lactobacillus strains may be an effective strategy for preventing vaginal infections. Accordingly, the in vitro probiotic potential of 23 lactobacilli isolated from the vaginal ecosystem of healthy women from Cuba was evaluated for use in BV and VVC treatments. Eight strains were selected based on their antagonist potential against Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicansor both. In vitro assays revealed that all these strains reduced the pathogen counts in co-incubation, showed excellent adhesive properties (biofilm formation and auto-aggregation), were able to co-aggregate with G. vaginalis and C. albicans, yielded high amounts of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid and demonstrated high adhesion rates to epithelial HeLa cells. Interference tests within HeLa cells showed that all strains were able to reduce the adherence of pathogens by exclusion or displacement. Lactobacilli were able to inhibit HeLa cell apoptosis caused by pathogens when the cells were incubated with the probiotics prior to challenge. These results suggest that these strains have a promising probiotic potential and can be used for prevention or treatment of BV and VVC.