- Highly efficient treatment of aerobic vaginitis with simple acidic buffered gels: The importance of pH and buffers on the microenvironment of vaginas. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm 2017 Apr 13
- Aerobic vaginitis (AV) leads to uterus deep infection or preterm birth. Antibacterial agents are not optimal therapeutics of AV. Here, we report a series of temperature-sensitive in situ forming acid...
Aerobic vaginitis (AV) leads to uterus deep infection or preterm birth. Antibacterial agents are not optimal therapeutics of AV. Here, we report a series of temperature-sensitive in situ forming acidic buffered gels for topical treatment of AV, involving lactate, acetate, and citrate gels at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. AV rat models were prepared following vaginal infection of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro/in vivo studies of the buffered gels were performed compared to ofloxacin gels and blank gels. The buffered gels showed lower in vitro antibacterial activities than ofloxacin gels but better in vivo anti-S. aureus effects and similar anti-E. coli effects. The buffered gels improved Lactobacillus growth in the vaginas. The healthy rat vaginal pH and the pH of vaginas treated with the buffered gels were about 6.5 though AV models or ones treated with ofloxacin gels kept more than pH 7.0. After treatments of the buffered gels, the vaginal smears changed to clean nearly without aerobic bacteria, the vaginal tissues were refreshed, and the immunoreactions were downregulated. The acidic buffered gels took rapid decrease of local vaginal pH, high antibacterial activities, improvement of probiotics, and alleviation of inflammation. They are simple, highly efficient, and safe anti-AV formulations.
- [Progress in research of relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery]. [Journal Article]
- ZLZhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Mar 10; 38(3):406-410
- The vaginal flora in most healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species. The absence of Lactobacillus species in vaginal flora might lead to a series of symptoms, especially in pregnant women c...
The vaginal flora in most healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species. The absence of Lactobacillus species in vaginal flora might lead to a series of symptoms, especially in pregnant women causing adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery. This review focuses on the progress in the research of the relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery, providing reference for the reduction of the incidence of preterm delivery.
- In vitro activity of farnesol against vaginal Lactobacillus spp. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017; 212:25-29
- CONCLUSIONS: Farnesol acted as a potential antimicrobial agent, had little impact on the growth, metabolism, and cytomorphology of the vaginal Lactobacillus spp.; however, it affected their adhering capacity to VECs. The safety of farnesol as an adjuvant for antimicrobial agents during the treatment of vaginitis needs to be studied further.
- Comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods for characterization of vaginal microflora. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Microbiol 2017; 66(2):149-153
- CONCLUSIONS: We found little overlap between the species found using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. Rather, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were found to be complementary in describing the vaginal microflora among South Indian women. Culture-independent methods were found to be superior in detecting clinically relevant vaginal flora.
- Effects of lactoferrin in 6 patients with refractory bacterial vaginosis. [Journal Article]
- BCBiochem Cell Biol 2017; 95(1):31-33
- We previously reported that lactoferrin (LF) could be effective for preventing preterm delivery and intrauterine infections, based on data derived from mice and rabbits. Here we describe 6 women with...
We previously reported that lactoferrin (LF) could be effective for preventing preterm delivery and intrauterine infections, based on data derived from mice and rabbits. Here we describe 6 women with a history of multiple pregnancy losses or preterm delivery and refractory bacterial vaginosis, who received prebiotic LF therapy and delivered an infant normally. Five of the women were pregnant and one was not at the time of this study. The Ethics Committee at Showa University Hospital and Showa University Koto Toyosu Hospital approved the therapeutic protocol. Vaginal suppositories and oral prebiotic LF were administered to patients who were refractory to conventional treatment for vaginosis and had a history of late miscarriages and very early preterm delivery due to refractory vaginitis and chorioamnionitis. LF significantly improved the vaginal bacterial flora. Lactobacillus, which was detectable in the vaginas of all patients after one month of LF therapy, gradually became dominant. The findings from these 6 patients suggest that administering LF to humans could help prevent refractory vaginitis, cervical inflammation, and preterm delivery.
- Is it possible to prevent recurrent vulvovaginitis? The role of Lactobacillus plantarum I1001 (CECT7504). [Letter]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 36(3):593-594
- Author's reply to comment on: is it possible to prevent recurrent vulvovaginitis? The role of Lactobacillus plantarum I1001 (CECT7504). [Letter]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 36(3):595-596
- Improvement of abnormal vaginal flora in Ugandan women by self-testing and short use of intravaginal antimicrobials. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 36(4):731-738
- The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor f...
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 300 women presenting for outpatient routine, follow-up, or medical care at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled to receive 6 days of treatment with vaginal rifaximin (RFX), dequalinium chloride (DQC), or placebo if they had an increased vaginal pH of >4.5 as determined by self-testing. At initial visit and at control visit after 4 weeks, a smear was taken for blinded wet mount microscopy to determine AVF, BV, AV, and Candida severity scores. As compared to placebo, both RFX or DQC treatments dramatically diminished BV prevalence and severity from the initial to follow-up visit: the BV score declined from 2.5 to 1.6 (p < 0.0001) and from 2.5 to 1.9 (p < 0.0001), respectively. Similarly, strong improvements in the AV score were seen in both treatment regimens: moderate and severe AV declined from AV scores of 6.3 to 3.6 (p = 0.003) and from 6.6 to 4.1 (p < 0.004), respectively. Also, women with AVF (deceased or absent lactobacilli) showed similar improvements when compared with placebo. Women with normal flora and Candida at the initial visit showed less Candida after 4 weeks in the group treated with DQC (p = 0.014). Even after a short duration of intravaginal treatment with local non-absorbable antiseptics or antibiotics produced significant, lasting improvements in the vaginal microbiome composition of women with disturbed vaginal microflora. As African women have high prevalences of BV, AV, and AVF, this approach could improve their odds to prevent health-compromising complications. Further studies assessing direct health outcomes are needed to substantiate this.
- Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota. [Journal Article]
- BEBull Exp Biol Med 2016; 162(1):75-78
- It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and...
It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.
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- The role of the bacterial microbiota on reproductive and pregnancy health. [Review]
- AAnaerobe 2016; 42:67-73
- Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microb...
Recent assessments have examined the composition of bacterial communities influencing reproductive, pregnancy and infant health. The Microbiome Project has made great strides in sequencing the microbiome and identifying the vast communities of microorganisms that inhabit our bodies and much work continues to examine the individual contribution of bacteria on health and disease to inform future therapies. This review explores the current literature outlining the contribution of important bacteria on reproductive health among sexually active men and women, outlines gaps in current research to determine causal and interventional relationships, and suggests future research initiatives. Novel treatments options to reduce adverse outcomes must recognize the heterogeneity of the bacteria within the microbiome and adequately assess long-term benefits in reducing disease burden and re-establishing a healthy Lactobacillus-dominant state. Recognizing other reservoirs outside of the lower genital track and within sexual partners as well as genetic and individual moderators may be most important for long-term cure and reduction of disease. It will be important to develop useful screening tools and comprehensively examine novel therapeutic options to promote the long-term reduction of high-risk bacteria and the re-establishment of healthy bacterial levels to considerably improve outcomes among pregnant women and sexually active men and women.