- The association between missing teeth and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Periodontol 2018 May 19
- CONCLUSIONS: The number of missing teeth was associated with a higher presence of NAFLD in males but not females. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Pakistan: systematic review and meta-analyses. [Journal Article]
- RSR Soc Open Sci 2018; 5(4):180257
- To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Pakistan and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations, we systematically reviewed all available records o...
To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology in Pakistan and estimate the pooled mean HCV antibody prevalence in different risk populations, we systematically reviewed all available records of HCV incidence and/or prevalence from 1989 to 2016, as informed by the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Populations were classified into six categories based on the risk of exposure to HCV infection. Meta-analyses were performed using DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. The search identified one HCV incidence study and 341 prevalence measures/strata. Meta-analyses estimated the pooled mean HCV prevalence at 6.2% among the general population, 34.5% among high-risk clinical populations, 12.8% among populations at intermediate risk, 16.9% among special clinical populations, 55.9% among populations with liver-related conditions and 53.6% among people who inject drugs. Most reported risk factors in analytical epidemiologic studies related to healthcare procedures. Pakistan is enduring an HCV epidemic of historical proportions-one in every 20 Pakistanis is infected. HCV plays a major role in liver disease burden in this country, and HCV prevalence is high in all-risk populations. Most transmission appears to be driven by healthcare procedures. HCV treatment and prevention must become a national priority.
- Identification and Verification of Candidate Genes Regulating Neural Stem Cells Behavior Under Hypoxia. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 May 10; 47(1):212-222
- CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study can prompt the understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia has an impact on NSC behavior and can help to optimize stem cell therapies for central nervous system injuries and diseases.
- Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases. [Review]
- CRClin Rev Allergy Immunol 2018 May 13
- There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences ...
There are now 354 inborn errors of immunity (primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs)) with 344 distinct molecular etiologies reported according to the International Union of Immunological Sciences (IUIS) (Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11: p. 1050-63, 2013, Semin Gastrointest Dis 8: p. 22-32, 1997, J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018). Using the IUIS document as a reference and cross-checking PubMed ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.pubmed.gov ), we found that approximately one third of the 354 diseases of impaired immunity have a gastrointestinal component [J Clin Immunol 38: p. 96-128, 2018]. Often, the gastrointestinal symptomatology and pathology is the heralding sign of a PIDD; therefore, it is important to recognize patterns of disease which may manifest along the gastrointestinal tract as a more global derangement of immune function. As such, holistic consideration of immunity is warranted in patients with clinically significant gastrointestinal disease. Here, we discuss the manifold presentations and GI-specific complications of PIDDs which could lead patients to seek advice from a variety of clinician specialists. Often, patients with these medical problems will engage general pediatricians, surgeons, gastroenterologists, rheumatologists, and clinical immunologists among others. Following delineation of the presenting concern, accurate and often molecular diagnosis is imperative and a multi-disciplinary approach warranted for optimal management. In this review, we will summarize the current state of understanding of PIDD gastrointestinal disease involvement. We will do so by focusing upon gastrointestinal disease categories (i.e., inflammatory, diarrhea, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, liver/biliary tract, structural disease, and oncologic disease) with an intent to aid the healthcare provider who may encounter a patient with an as-yet undiagnosed PIDD who presents initially with a gastrointestinal symptom, sign, or problem.
- Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) and Italian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Position Statement: Clinical Management of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2018 Apr 27; 10(5)
- Vitamin D deficiency is very common and prescriptions of both assay and supplementation are increasing more and more. Health expenditure is exponentially increasing, thus it is timely and appropriate...
Vitamin D deficiency is very common and prescriptions of both assay and supplementation are increasing more and more. Health expenditure is exponentially increasing, thus it is timely and appropriate to establish rules. The Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists appointed a task force to review literature about vitamin D deficiency in adults. Four topics were identified as worthy for the practicing clinicians. For each topic recommendations based on scientific evidence and clinical practice were issued according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) System. (1) What cut-off defines vitamin D deficiency: even though 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) can be considered appropriate in the general population, we recommend to maintain levels above 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) in categories at risk. (2) Whom, when, and how to perform screening for vitamin D deficiency: categories at risk (patients with bone, liver, kidney diseases, obesity, malabsorption, during pregnancy and lactation, some elderly) but not healthy people should be screened by the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D assay. (3) Whom and how to treat vitamin D deficiency: beyond healthy lifestyle (mostly sun exposure), we recommend oral vitamin D (vitamin D2 or vitamin D3) supplementation in patients treated with bone active drugs and in those with demonstrated deficiency. Dosages, molecules and modalities of administration can be profitably individually tailored. (4) How to monitor the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D: no routine monitoring is suggested during vitamin D treatment due to its large therapeutic index. In particular conditions, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D can be assayed after at least a 6-month treatment. We are confident that this document will help practicing clinicians in their daily clinical practice.
- Trends in use of lymphadenectomy in surgery with curative intent for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Surg 2018; 105(7):857-866
- CONCLUSIONS: The rate of LNM was high across all T categories, with one in five patients with T1 disease having nodal metastasis. The trend in increased use of LND suggests a growing adoption of AJCC recommendations in the treatment of ICC.
- Utilisation of hepatocellular carcinoma screening in Australians at risk of hepatitis B virus-related carcinoma and prescribed anti-viral therapy. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Nurs 2018 Mar 31
- CONCLUSIONS: While utilisation of HCC surveillance programs was higher in this study than in previous reports, strategies to further improve surveillance remain necessary. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Quantitative assessment of liver fibrosis (qFibrosis) reveals precise outcomes in Ishak "stable" patients on anti-HBV therapy. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 14; 8(1):2989
- Current widely used semiquantitative histological assessment methods are insensitive to identify subtle changes of liver fibrosis. Therefore, to precisely assess therapeutic efficacy on chronic hepat...
Current widely used semiquantitative histological assessment methods are insensitive to identify subtle changes of liver fibrosis. Therefore, to precisely assess therapeutic efficacy on chronic hepatitis B (CHB), we explored the utility of qFibrosis (a fully-quantitative morphometric method employing second harmonic generation/two photon excitation fluorescence) in liver fibrosis evaluation. Fibrosis changes were evaluated by Ishak fibrosis scoring and qFibrosis in CHB patients with paired liver biopsies before and after 78 weeks' antiviral therapy. A total of 162 patients with qualified paired biopsies were enrolled. Ishak fibrosis scoring revealed that 42.6% (69/162) of the patients achieved fibrosis regression (≥1-point decrease), 51.9% (84/162) remained stable, and 5.5% (9/162) showed progression (≥1-point increase). qFibrosis showed similar trends in the groups of regression and progression patients as evaluated by Ishak. However, in Ishak stable patients, qFibrosis revealed hitherto undetected changes, allowing for further subcategorization into regression ("Regression by qFibrosis"; 40/84, 47.6%), stable (29/84, 34.5%), and progression ("Progression by qFibrosis"; 15/84, 17.9%) groups. These newly fine-tuned categories were supported by changes of morphological parameters of fibrosis, collagen percentage area, and liver stiffness measurements. In conclusion, qFibrosis can be used to quantitatively identify subtle changes of liver fibrosis in CHB patients after antiviral therapy.
- Patient-reported adherence to statin therapy, barriers to adherence, and perceptions of cardiovascular risk. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0191817
- CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported medication-taking behaviors were correlated with statin PDC and those with lower perceived cardiovascular risk were less likely to be adherent. These findings highlight the importance of eliciting from and educating patients on their adherence behaviors and ASCVD risks.
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- MELD as a metric for survival benefit of liver transplantation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Transplant 2018; 18(5):1231-1237
- Currently, there is debate among the liver transplant community regarding the most appropriate mechanism for organ allocation: urgency-based (MELD) versus utility-based (survival benefit). We hypothe...
Currently, there is debate among the liver transplant community regarding the most appropriate mechanism for organ allocation: urgency-based (MELD) versus utility-based (survival benefit). We hypothesize that MELD and survival benefit are closely associated, and therefore, our current MELD-based allocation already reflects utility-based allocation. We used generalized gamma parametric models to quantify survival benefit of LT across MELD categories among 74 196 adult liver-only active candidates between 2006 and 2016 in the United States. We calculated time ratios (TR) of relative life expectancy with transplantation versus without and calculated expected life years gained after LT. LT extended life expectancy (TR > 1) for patients with MELD > 10. The highest MELD was associated with the longest relative life expectancy (TR = 1.05 1.201.37 for MELD 11-15, 2.29 2.492.70 for MELD 16-20, 5.30 5.726.16 for MELD 21-25, 15.12 16.3517.67 for MELD 26-30; 39.26 43.2147.55 for MELD 31-34; 120.04 128.25137.02 for MELD 35-40). As a result, candidates with the highest MELD gained the most life years after LT: 0.2, 1.5, 3.5, 5.8, 6.9, 7.2 years for MELD 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-34, 35-40, respectively. Therefore, prioritizing candidates by MELD remains a simple, effective strategy for prioritizing candidates with a higher transplant survival benefit over those with lower survival benefit.