- Legacy PCB Contamination Impairs Male Embryonic Development in an Elasmobranch with Matrotrophic Histotrophy, the Round Stingray (Urobatis halleri). [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol Chem 2018 Aug 20
- Anthropogenic chemical exposure can result in overall reductions in reproductive success. Using the Round Stingray (Urobatis halleri) as an elasmobranch model with internal gestation, we measured fem...
Anthropogenic chemical exposure can result in overall reductions in reproductive success. Using the Round Stingray (Urobatis halleri) as an elasmobranch model with internal gestation, we measured female fecundity and embryo growth from post-ovulation to near parturition to test the hypothesis that environmental PCB contamination would impair reproductive success. Two sites were sampled from southern California: the mainland site was exposed to legacy PCB contamination (with low exposure to other anthropogenic contaminants), and the offshore reference site at Catalina Island was a separate population with low anthropogenic influence. Contaminant-exposed embryos weighed less at each stage of development than reference embryos, while accumulating proportionately more liver mass over development. Furthermore, environmental contamination negatively affected male embryos more than female embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate a negative effect of contaminant exposure on elasmobranch embryo growth, with probable fitness costs later in life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- In vivo-induced size transformation of cerium oxide nanoparticles in both lung and liver does not affect long-term hepatic accumulation following pulmonary exposure. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(8):e0202477
- Recent findings show that cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles may undergo in vivo-induced size transformation with the formation of smaller particles that could result in a higher translocation followi...
Recent findings show that cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles may undergo in vivo-induced size transformation with the formation of smaller particles that could result in a higher translocation following pulmonary exposure compared to virtually insoluble particles, like titanium dioxide (TiO2). Therefore, we compared liver deposition of CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles of similar primary sizes 1, 28 or 180 days after intratracheal instillation of 162 μg of NPs in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice exposed to 162 μg CeO2 or TiO2 nanoparticles by intravenous injection or oral gavage were included as reference groups to assess the amount of NPs that reach the liver bypassing the lungs and the translocation of NPs from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, respectively. Pulmonary deposited CeO2 nanoparticles were detected in the liver 28 and 180 days post-exposure and TiO2 nanoparticles 180 days post-exposure as determined by darkfield imaging and by the quantification of Ce and Ti mass concentration by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Ce and Ti concentrations increased over time and 180 days post-exposure the translocation to the liver was 2.87 ± 3.37% and 1.24 ± 1.98% of the initial pulmonary dose, respectively. Single particle ICP-MS showed that the size of CeO2 nanoparticles in both lung and liver tissue decreased over time. No nanoparticles were detected in the liver following oral gavage. Our results suggest that pulmonary deposited CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles translocate to the liver with similar calculated translocation rates despite their different chemical composition and shape. The observed particle size distributions of CeO2 nanoparticles indicate in vivo processing over time both in lung and liver. The fact that no particles were detected in the liver following oral exposure showed that direct translocation of nanoparticles from lung to the systemic circulation was the most important route of translocation for pulmonary deposited particles.
- In vivo multiple metabolic pathways for a novel G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist DS-8500a in rats: involvement of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring-opening reductive reaction in livers under anaerobic conditions. [Journal Article]
- XXenobiotica 2018 Aug 20; :1-33
- 1. A 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring-containing compound DS-8500a was developed as a novel G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist. In vivo metabolic fates of [14C]DS-8500a differently radiolabeled in the benze...
1. A 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring-containing compound DS-8500a was developed as a novel G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist. In vivo metabolic fates of [14C]DS-8500a differently radiolabeled in the benzene ring or benzamide side carbon in rats were investigated. 2. Differences in mass balances were observed, primarily because after the oxadiazole ring-opening and subsequent ring-cleavage small-molecule metabolites containing the benzene side were excreted in the urine, while those containing the benzamide side were excreted in the bile. 3. DS-8500a was detected at trace levels in urine and bile, demonstrating extensive metabolism prior to urinary/biliary excretion. At least 16 metabolite structures were proposed in plasma, urine, and bile samples from rats treated with [14C]DS-8500a. 4. Formation of a ring-opened metabolite (reduced DS-8500a) in hepatocytes of humans, monkeys, and rats was confirmed; however, it was not affected by typical inhibitors of cytochrome P450s, aldehyde oxidases, or carboxylesterases confirmed in human hepatocytes. Extensive formation of the ring-opened metabolite was observed in human liver microsomes fortified with an NADPH-generating system under anaerobic conditions. 5. These results suggest an in vivo unique reductive metabolism of DS-8500a mediated by human non- cytochrome P450 enzymes.
- Cordycepin modulates body weight by reducing prolactin via an adenosine A1 receptor. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Pharm Des 2018 Aug 20
- Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the me...
Cordycepin is an extract from the insect fungus Cordyceps. militaris with various biological function. In previous studies, cordycepin had been reported with excellent anti-obesity effect, but the mechanism is unclear. Evidences also showed that prolactin played an important role in body weight regulation, hyperprolactinemia can promote appetite and accelerate fat deposition. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of the anti-obesity effect of cordycepin. In vivo, obese rats model was induced by high fat diet for 5 weeks, the serum and liver lipids coupled with serum prolactin were reduced by treatment of cordycepin (P＜0.01) , the results suggested that cordycepin is a potential drug for lowering blood and liver lipids and reducing body weight which related with prolactin. Cordycepin also protects adipocytes from enlargement and hepatocytes from lipotoxicity caused inflammation. In vitro, cordycepin could inhibit prolactin secretion in GH3 cells via upregulating the expression of adenosine A1 receptor, the inhibition effect could be blocked by an antagonist of adenosine receptor A1 DPDPX, which demonstrated that cordycepin may work as an adenosine agonist. In addition, cordycepin could inhibit ERK/AKT/PI3K pathway in GH3 cells. Meanwhile, cordycepin could block prolactin induced the upregulation of lipogenesis genes PRLR, and phosphorylation of JAK2 in 3T3-L1 cells. In vivo study, cordycepin would down-regulate the expression of prolactin receptor (PRLR) but not phosphorylation of JAK2. Thus, we concluded that cordycepin modulate body weight by reducing prolactin release via an adenosine A1 receptor.
- [Genital metastases from breast cancer: study of 3 cases and literature review]. [Journal Article]
- PAPan Afr Med J 2018; 30:7
- Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Prognosis depends, in large part, on the presence of metastases. Liver, skeleton and lungs are the most frequent metastatic sites, whereas genital...
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Prognosis depends, in large part, on the presence of metastases. Liver, skeleton and lungs are the most frequent metastatic sites, whereas genital metastases are more rare and less known. The detection of an ovarian mass in a woman with a history of breast cancer raises the question of its primary or secondary origin. The frequency of ovarian metastases reported in the literature is approximately 20-30%. However, when an ovarian mass is detected in a woman with breast cancer, primary ovarian tumor is diagnosed three times more often than a metastasis. Cervical, uterine or corporeal metastases are even more rare. They are often diagnosed late, due to their clinical latency; transvaginal ultrasound coupled with Color Doppler and Pap smear must be performed as first-line examinations knowing that their screening performance in patients with ovarian masses is deemed low. An increase in CA 15-3 and CEA tumor markers must lead clinicians to investigate for metastases, but it doesn't provide diagnostic orientation toward a specific metastatic site. Finally, only anatomo-athological examination allows certain diagnosis. We here report 3 cases of genital metastases from primary breast cancer (two patients with ovarian metastases and one patient with cervico-uterine metastasis) in order to highlight the role of accurate and regular genital examination in the monitoring of patients with breast cancer and to discuss the predictive factors for their occurrence.
- Dipeptidyl-Peptidase 4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Ameliorates Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Modulating Inflammation and Autophagy in ob/ob Mice. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Endocrinol 2018; 2018:8309723
- Obesity and type 2 diabetes are the most common metabolic diseases globally. They are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, and insulin resistance. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl-pept...
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are the most common metabolic diseases globally. They are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, and insulin resistance. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor, has been reported to show multiple biological activities beyond the antidiabetic property. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of sitagliptin on hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, and autophagy and exploring the underlying molecular mechanism. In the current study, ob/ob mice, a mouse model of genetic obesity and diabetes, were administered via gavage with sitagliptin 50 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. Changes in glycolipid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and autophagy in the liver were evaluated. Body weight gain, lipid metabolic disorder, and hepatic steatosis as well as systemic and hepatic insulin sensitivity in ob/ob mice were significantly attenuated after sitagliptin treatment. Furthermore, sitagliptin decreased inflammatory responses by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization and inhibiting the activities of NF-κB and JNK. Moreover, sitagliptin increased the levels of phosphorylation of AMPK and decreased those of mTOR. This study indicates that sitagliptin significantly ameliorates the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in ob/ob mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses and activating autophagy via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.
- Low-Dose Spironolactone-Pioglitazone-Metformin Normalizes Circulating Fetuin-A Concentrations in Adolescent Girls with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Endocrinol 2018; 2018:4192940
- CONCLUSIONS: A low-dose combination of insulin sensitizers and an antiandrogen-but not oral contraception-normalizes fetuin-A levels in adolescent girls with PCOS. This trial is registered with ISRCTN29234515.
- Praziquantel-lipid nanocapsules: an oral nanotherapeutic with potential Schistosoma mansoni tegumental targeting. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Nanomedicine 2018; 13:4493-4505
- CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained provide evidence for the ability of oral LNCs to target distal post-absorption sites, leading to enhanced drug efficacy. From a practical standpoint, PZQ-LNCs could be suggested as a potential tolerable single lower dose oral nanomedicine for more effective PZQ mass chemotherapy.
- Altered oral microbiota in chronic hepatitis B patients with different tongue coatings. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Aug 14; 24(30):3448-3461
- CONCLUSIONS: This research illustrates specific clinical features and bacterial structures in CHB patients with different tongue coatings, which facilitates understanding of the traditional tongue diagnosis.
New Search Next
- Nutritional issues in patients with obesity and cirrhosis. [Review]
- WJWorld J Gastroenterol 2018 Aug 14; 24(30):3330-3346
- Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered as responsible for a condition known as the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that goes from simple accumulation of triglycerides to hepatic inflammation...
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are considered as responsible for a condition known as the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that goes from simple accumulation of triglycerides to hepatic inflammation and may progress to cirrhosis. Patients with obesity also have an increased risk of primary liver malignancies and increased body mass index is a predictor of decompensation of liver cirrhosis. Sarcopenic obesity confers a risk of physical impairment and disability that is significantly higher than the risk induced by each of the two conditions alone as it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for chronic liver disease in patients with obesity and a prognostic negative marker for the evolution of liver cirrhosis and the results of liver transplantation. Cirrhotic patients with obesity are at high risk for depletion of various fat-soluble, water-soluble vitamins and trace elements and should be supplemented appropriately. Diet, physical activity and protein intake should be carefully monitored in these fragile patients according to recent recommendations. Bariatric surgery is sporadically used in patients with morbid obesity and cirrhosis also in the setting of liver transplantation. The risk of sarcopenia, micronutrient status, and the recommended supplementation in patients with obesity and cirrhosis are discussed in this review. Furthermore, the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in the cirrhotic patient with obesity are discussed.