- Recurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis after adjunctive surgery for aspergilloma: a case report with long-term follow-up. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Pulm Med 2018 Dec 04; 18(1):185
- CONCLUSIONS: We describe the long-term follow-up outcomes of a patient with concomitant ABPA and aspergilloma, who underwent surgical resection for aspergilloma. Physicians should carefully monitor patients with coexisting ABPA and aspergilloma, as the condition may relapse after remission, even despite surgical resection for aspergilloma. Additionally, surgical resection for aspergilloma could result in resolution of ABPA.
- [Pulmonary cavities with Takayasu arteritis: report of 3 cases and literature review]. [Journal Article]
- ZJZhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Oct 12; 41(10):787-792
- Objective: To analyze the clinical features of 3 cases of Takayasu arteritis(TA) with pulmonary cavities on chest computed tomography(CT). Methods: The clinical data of 3 TA patients with cavities ...
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of 3 cases of Takayasu arteritis(TA) with pulmonary cavities on chest computed tomography(CT). Methods: The clinical data of 3 TA patients with cavities on the chest CT who were admitted into Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. A literature search was performed with "Takayasu arteritis" and "pulmonary" as the key words in China Knowledge Resource Intergrated Database (CNKI) and Pubmed Database for publications from Jan 1, 2000 to Dec. 31,2017. The relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: Among the 3 patients, 2 were males and 1 was female, aging 49, 28 and 28 years, respectively. They presented with cough, fever and chest pain, and chest CT showed cavities, single or multiple, either with thick or thin wall, or wedge-shaped consolidation, residual stripes after being absorbed, and one case had pulmonary biopsy results which showed hemorrhagic infarction. They were all misdiagnosed before as pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, pulmonary thromboembolism. After being treated by combination therapy of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents, the disease improved significantly. A total of 777 cases with TA involving pulmonary arteries were reported, from which 13 cases with involvement of pulmonary parenchyma were described. Therefore total 16 cases including the 3 cases in this article were included for analysis. Twelve cases showed patchy or wedge-shaped ground-glass opacity and consolidation, and peripheral lung stripes remained after being absorbed. Two cases showed pleural effusion, and 4 cases showed cavities, 3 cases were misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis, 7 as pulmonary infection, and 5 as pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusions: TA with pulmonary arteries involved is susceptible to be misdiagnosed and missed, and therefore, in patients with cough, hemoptysis, chest pain and cavities in pulmonary parenchyma, TA should be suspected. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a better prognosis.
- Multiple pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus cysts and cavities that disappeared with anti-fungal agents. [Journal Article]
- RCRespirol Case Rep 2018; 6(6):e00327
- A 26-year-old man with a 10-year history of asthma was admitted to our hospital with a six-week history of dry cough and slight fever. We observed the left pneumothorax with multiple cysts and caviti...
A 26-year-old man with a 10-year history of asthma was admitted to our hospital with a six-week history of dry cough and slight fever. We observed the left pneumothorax with multiple cysts and cavities and performed partial cystectomy of the left upper lung. Y-shaped mycelia were detected in the resected tissue, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured. Pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed from the histopathological and bacteriological findings, and the patient demonstrated positive immunological reactions to A. fumigatus. After administration of an intravenous antifungal agent for one month and an oral antifungal agent for another three months, all cysts and cavities disappeared. Aspergillus infection usually results from saprophytic growth within pre-existing cavities. In this case, multiple cysts and cavities may have been caused by Aspergillus, possibly through a check-valve mechanism.
- Treatment of cardiac synovial sarcoma: experience of two cases. [Case Reports]
- JCJ Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Jul 03; 13(1):84
- CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical resection of cardiac synovial sarcoma is the gold standard of therapy, though rarely possible. Although guidelines for the treatment are not well established, due to limited number of cases reported, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are frequently administered and seem to prolong mean patient's survival. Cardiac transplantation could be considered in selected cases.
- Right-sided infective mural endocarditis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism and cardiac tamponade caused by MSSA. [Journal Article]
- HLHeart Lung 2018 Jul - Aug; 47(4):366-370
- The appearance of right-sided mural infective endocarditis has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old male with a history of alcoholic liver disease who presented with a part...
The appearance of right-sided mural infective endocarditis has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old male with a history of alcoholic liver disease who presented with a partial loss of consciousness and fever. Chest computed tomography scans showed multiple pulmonary infiltration sites and cavities. A repeat transthoracic echocardiogram detected a vegetation on the right ventricular surface of the interventricular septum middle segment, as well as pericardial effusion. Blood, pericardial fluid, sputum, and scalp effusion cultures were positive for methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. We diagnosed the patient with infective mural endocarditis complicated by septic pulmonary embolism, pericardial effusion, and cardiac tamponade. The patient was successfully treated with pericardiocentesis and appropriate antibiotics. Right-sided mural endocarditis complicated by pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade is an uncommon condition in clinical practice. This case confirms the usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography in the early recognition of primary mural endocarditis and its associated complications.
- Methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis are effective for life-threatening diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in granulomatosis with polyangiitis: A case report and literature review. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(17):e0592
- CONCLUSIONS: Effective remission-induction therapy is a key to survival, while maintaining a balance between immunosuppression and avoiding infection is another challenge.
- Radiological signs associated with pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: an analysis of published evidences. [Journal Article]
- QIQuant Imaging Med Surg 2018; 8(2):161-173
- CONCLUSIONS: Thick-walled multiple cavity lesions present the most promising radiological sign for MDR-TB diagnosis. For future studies cavity lesion characteristics should be quantified in details.
- Pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and rifampin in a rabbit model of tuberculosis and correlation with clinical trial data. [Journal Article]
- STSci Transl Med 2018 Apr 04; 10(435)
- In clinical trials of two rifamycin antibiotics (rifampin and rifapentine) for treating tuberculosis (TB), patients with cavitary lung lesions did not appear to derive benefit from rifapentine. Rifap...
In clinical trials of two rifamycin antibiotics (rifampin and rifapentine) for treating tuberculosis (TB), patients with cavitary lung lesions did not appear to derive benefit from rifapentine. Rifapentine was found not to outperform rifampin, despite a lower minimum inhibitory concentration against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mouse models of TB. To understand these findings, we have developed a rabbit model of TB that reliably develops lung cavities with features similar to those of patients with pulmonary cavitary TB. After single or multiple doses of rifampin or rifapentine that produced human-equivalent plasma exposures, rabbits were sacrificed at different time points after dosing. We measured site-of-disease drug pharmacokinetics and tissue drug distribution. We used pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling to estimate drug penetration into different types of tubercular lesions. Both drugs penetrated rabbit lung cellular lesions, as well as the fibrotic cavity wall of cavitary lesions (penetration coefficients ≥1 compared to plasma). For the necrotic liquefied material inside cavitary lesions known as caseum (which contains high numbers of bacteria), the penetration coefficient was 1.0 for rifampin but only 0.25 for rifapentine. When estimates of site-of-disease drug PK were substituted into clinical PK/PD models, the relationship between site-of-action exposure and sputum culture conversion was significant (P < 10-7). We propose that poor penetration of rifapentine into lung cavitary lesions explains, in part, why rifapentine doses required to improve treatment outcomes in two phase 2 clinical trials were four times higher in TB patients with large cavities compared to TB patients without cavitary lung disease.
- Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia with bacteremia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with emphysema: An autopsy case report. [Case Reports]
- RIRespir Investig 2018; 56(2):189-194
- We report the case of a 47-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was referred to our hospital for acute dyspnea. The radiologic findings revealed consolidation with a cavity in ...
We report the case of a 47-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was referred to our hospital for acute dyspnea. The radiologic findings revealed consolidation with a cavity in the left upper lobe of the lung. Blood/sputum cultures detected Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite intensive care, the patient died from respiratory failure. Autopsy revealed multiple small necrotizing cavities that had coalesced. Although P. aeruginosa is a known causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with structural lung disease, the radiologic findings were non-specific. Irrespective of imaging findings, P. aeruginosa should be considered a cause of community-acquired pneumonia.
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- [A clinican linical analysis of 29 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis]. [Journal Article]
- ZJZhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Feb 12; 41(2):100-104
- Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of th...
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease. Methods: Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years. The underlying disorders included post-tuberculosis infection (n=11), bronchiectasis (n=8), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=3) and diabetes mellitus (n=2). The main clinical symptoms included productive cough (n=25), chronic sputum production (n=18) and hemoptysis (n=15). Serum GM antigen tests were performed in 19 cases, and the result was positive in 12 patients. BALF GM antigen tests were performed in 2 cases, both of which were positive. Chest CT showed that the lesions were located predominantly in the upper lobes (n=24). Single cavity with interior irregular intraluminal material (n=16) and multiple cavities with interior irregular intraluminal material (n=10) were the most frequent CT findings, while the "air crescent sign" was found in 13 cases. In the 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment, Aspergillus filaments were found in the cavity (n=20) or the bronchi (n=2) of lung samples, and histological examination didn't show tissue invasion by fungi. Surgical therapy was performed in 22 patients, with complete remission in 19 cases, and death in 3 cases. Anti-fungal therapy was administered in 6 patients, with partial remission in 4, and stable disease in 2 cases. One patient was not treated. Conclusions: CPA is more frequently seen in patients with underlying chronic pulmonary diseases. The common CT findings are single or multiple cavities with interior irregular intraluminal materials. Aspergillus filament in the cavity or bronchi of lung samples, without parenchymal invasion, is the proof of CPA. The surgical cure rate for simple aspergilloma and aspergillus nodule is high, while the risk of operation for chronic cavitary disease is high. GM antigen test may be an evidence for diagnosing CPA.