- Hematogenous Dissemination of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Endometriosis. [Journal Article]
- SCStem Cells 2018 Feb 16
- Endometriosis is ectopic growth of endometrial tissue traditionally thought to arise through retrograde menstruation. We aimed to determine if cells derived from endometriosis could enter vascular ci...
Endometriosis is ectopic growth of endometrial tissue traditionally thought to arise through retrograde menstruation. We aimed to determine if cells derived from endometriosis could enter vascular circulation and lead to hematogenous dissemination. Experimental endometriosis was established by transplanting endometrial tissue from DsRed+ mice into the peritoneal cavity of DsRed- mice. Using flow cytometry, we identified DsRed+ cells in blood of animals with endometriosis. The circulating donor cells expressed CXCR4 and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) biomarkers, but not hematopoietic stem cell markers. Nearly all the circulating endometrial stem cells originated from endometriosis rather than from the uterus. Cells expressing DsRed, CXCR4 and MSCs markers were identified in the peritoneal wall and surrounding vessels of recipient mice, contributing to both endometriosis and angiogenesis. Cells originating in endometriosis lesions migrated and implanted in lung tissue and displayed makers of differentiation, indicating retained multipotency. In vitro these cells demonstrated multipotency and were able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Endometriosis lesions also expressed high levels of CXCL12, the CXCR4 receptor ligand. Serum CXCL12 levels were greater than in sham control mice. In humans with endometriosis, serum CXCL12 levels were significantly higher than controls, suggesting that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is operational in women with spontaneous endometriosis as well. Stem cells, rather than differentiated cells from endometriosis, enter the circulation in response to CXCL12. We identify an endometriosis-derived stem cell population, a potential mechanism of dissemination of this disease and a potential target for treatment of endometriosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Rare case ofMycobacterium nebraskensepresenting as asymptomatic cavitary lung lesion. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018; 8(1):32-34
- Introduction:Mycobacterium Nebraskenseis a rare nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The first isolate of the species was from human sputum at University of Nebraska Medical Ce...
Introduction:Mycobacterium Nebraskenseis a rare nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. The first isolate of the species was from human sputum at University of Nebraska Medical Center. There are only a few cases have been reported and the exact behavior of the disease is not clearly described. Here, we present a case from New York City incidentally found to have a cavitary lung lesion due toM.nebraskense.Case report: An 82-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dementia presented with constipation and urinary retention for 1 day. She had no fever, cough, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, appetite change, or weight loss. Computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen and pelvis revealed retained fecal material in the colon, non-obstructing left renal calculus, and bilateral small pleural effusion with right-sided lung infiltrates. Subsequent CT scan of the chest showed 4.5 cm pleural-based opacity in right lung base with a small cavity. Sputum smear for Acid-fast bacilli was positive. Mycobacterial culture reported positive growth ofM. nebraskense, while polymerase chain reaction returned negative forMycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium aviumcomplex andMycobacterium tuberculosis. With the patient asymptomatic and her constipation improved, she was discharged with plans for close follow-up as outpatient.Conclusion: M. nebraskenseis a very rare nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. From only a few cases reported in the USA, the exact presentation of infection, disease progression, and treatment have not been described well. Asymptomatic cavitary lung disease caused byM. nebraskensehas not been reported before.
- PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Cancer Institute (US): Bethesda (MD)
- This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give fo...
This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood. It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") is the date of the most recent change. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board.
- [A clinican linical analysis of 29 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis]. [Journal Article]
- ZJZhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2018 Feb 12; 41(2):100-104
- Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment ...
Objective: To improve the understanding of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) by analyzing the clinical manifestations, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease.Methods:Cases of CPA, proven by microbiological evidence based on pathological study in Fuzhou General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army and Affiliated Fuzhou City First Hospital of Fijian Medical University from January 2006 to October 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The patients consisted of 17 males and 12 females, aged 24 to 75 years, mean (42±16) years. The underlying disorders included post-tuberculosis infection (n=11), bronchiectasis (n=8), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=3) and diabetes mellitus (n=2). The main clinical symptoms included productive cough (n=25), chronic sputum production (n=18) and hemoptysis (n=15). Serum GM antigen tests were performed in 19 cases, and the result was positive in 12 patients. BALF GM antigen tests were performed in 2 cases, both of which were positive. Chest CT showed that the lesions were located predominantly in the upper lobes (n=24). Single cavity with interior irregular intraluminal material (n=16) and multiple cavities with interior irregular intraluminal material (n=10) were the most frequent CT findings, while the "air crescent sign" was found in 13 cases. In the 22 patients who underwent surgical treatment, Aspergillus filaments were found in the cavity (n=20) or the bronchi (n=2) of lung samples, and histological examination didn't show tissue invasion by fungi. Surgical therapy was performed in 22 patients, with complete remission in 19 cases, and death in 3 cases. Anti-fungal therapy was administered in 6 patients, with partial remission in 4, and stable disease in 2 cases. One patient was not treated.Conclusions:CPA is more frequently seen in patients with underlying chronic pulmonary diseases. The common CT findings are single or multiple cavities with interior irregular intraluminal materials. Aspergillus filament in the cavity or bronchi of lung samples, without parenchymal invasion, is the proof of CPA. The surgical cure rate for simple aspergilloma and aspergillus nodule is high, while the risk of operation for chronic cavitary disease is high. GM antigen test may be an evidence for diagnosing CPA.
- Second Malignancies after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. [Review]
- CTCurr Treat Options Oncol 2018 Feb 08; 19(2):9
- Second malignancies are a rare but well-defined late complication after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Solid malignancies occur in up to 15% of patients 15 y...
Second malignancies are a rare but well-defined late complication after autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Solid malignancies occur in up to 15% of patients 15 years after SCT with myeloablative conditioning, with no plateau in the incidence rates. They are responsible for 5-10% of late deaths after SCT. The incidence is increased with advanced age at SCT. The major risk factors are the use of total body irradiation, which is associated with adenocarcinomas and with chronic graft-versus-host disease which is associated with squamous cell cancers. There is less data on the incidence of second malignancies after reduced-intensity conditioning, but it may not be lower. The types of solid tumors reported in excess include melanoma and other skin cancers; cancers of the oral cavity and head and neck, brain, liver, uterine cervix, thyroid, breast, lung; and possibly gastrointestinal cancers. Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are more common after autologous SCT and may be related mostly to pre-transplant therapies. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is donor-cell-derived lymphoma that is more common after allogeneic SCT with T-cell depletion or intensive immune-suppression state. Second malignancies are most often treated similarly to the standard therapy for similar malignancies. Lifelong cancer screening and prevention interventions are required for all transplantation survivors.
- Optimal control of asthma improved eosinophilic otitis media. [Journal Article]
- APAsia Pac Allergy 2018; 8(1):e5
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study we demonstrated that EOM improved along with improved lung function when appropriately optimal inhalation therapy was implemented in patients with EOM and asthma. Administration of optimizing therapy for asthma might be effective for concomitant EOM.
- Depiction of pneumothoraces in a large animal model using x-ray dark-field radiography. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Feb 08; 8(1):2602
- The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field radiography to detect pneumothoraces in a pig model. Eight pigs were imaged with an experimental grating-based large-anima...
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field radiography to detect pneumothoraces in a pig model. Eight pigs were imaged with an experimental grating-based large-animal dark-field scanner before and after induction of a unilateral pneumothorax. Image contrast-to-noise ratios between lung tissue and the air-filled pleural cavity were quantified for transmission and dark-field radiograms. The projected area in the object plane of the inflated lung was measured in dark-field images to quantify the collapse of lung parenchyma due to a pneumothorax. Means and standard deviations for lung sizes and signal intensities from dark-field and transmission images were tested for statistical significance using Student's two-tailed t-test for paired samples. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the air-filled pleural space of lateral pneumothoraces and lung tissue was significantly higher in the dark-field (3.65 ± 0.9) than in the transmission images (1.13 ± 1.1; p = 0.002). In case of dorsally located pneumothoraces, a significant decrease (-20.5%; p > 0.0001) in the projected area of inflated lung parenchyma was found after a pneumothorax was induced. Therefore, the detection of pneumothoraces in x-ray dark-field radiography was facilitated compared to transmission imaging in a large animal model.
- Inflammatory Alteration of Human T Cells Exposed Continuously to Asbestos. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Feb 08; 19(2)
- Asbestos is a known carcinogen and exposure can lead to lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To examine the effects of asbestos fibers on human immune cells, the human T cell leukemia/lymphoma vir...
Asbestos is a known carcinogen and exposure can lead to lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To examine the effects of asbestos fibers on human immune cells, the human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV)-1 immortalized human T cell line MT-2 was employed. Following continuous exposure to asbestos fibers for more than eight months, MT-2 sublines showed acquisition of resistance to asbestos-induced apoptosis with decreased death signals and increased surviving signals. These sublines showed various characteristics that suggested a reduction in anti-tumor immunity. On the other hand, inflammatory changes such as expression of MMP7, CXCR5, CXCL13 and CD44 was found to be markedly higher in sublines continuously exposed to asbestos compared with original MT-2 cells. All of these molecules contribute to lung inflammation, T and B cell interactions and connections between mesothelial cells and T cells. Thus, further investigation focusing on these molecules may shed light on the role of chronic inflammation caused by asbestos exposure and the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma. Finally, regarding peripheral T cells from healthy donors (HD) and asbestos-exposed patients with pleural plaque (PP) or malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), following stimulation of CD4+ T cells, T cells from MPM patients showed reduced potential of interferon (IFN)-γ expression. Moreover, levels of interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important cytokines in chronic inflammation, in cultured supernatants were higher in PP and MPM patients compared with HD. Overall, asbestos-induced chronic inflammation in the lung as well as the pleural cavity may facilitate the onset of asbestos-induced cancers due to alterations in the interactions among fibers, immune cells such as T and B cells and macrophages, and mesothelial and lung epithelial cells. Further investigations regarding chronic inflammation caused by asbestos fibers may assist in identifying molecular targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies related to the effects of asbestos exposure.
- PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [BOOK]
- BOOKNational Cancer Institute (US): Bethesda (MD)
- This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood. It is intended as a...
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
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- Supercharged free omental flap plombage for empyema in a patient with an artificial pericardium. [Journal Article]
- ICInteract Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2018 Feb 02
- Cavernostomy and fenestration were performed in a patient who developed a lung abscess and empyema in the left lung, which was damaged after multimodality therapy for advanced thymoma. The hospitaliz...
Cavernostomy and fenestration were performed in a patient who developed a lung abscess and empyema in the left lung, which was damaged after multimodality therapy for advanced thymoma. The hospitalized patient suddenly experienced cardiopulmonary arrest due to major bleeding from the left main pulmonary artery. We immediately performed the main pulmonary arterial embolization, and the patient was resuscitated. Subsequently, the patient underwent supercharged free omental flap plombage performed in the following manner: first, laparoscopic harvesting of the omentum was performed in the supine position. Then, the right gastroepiploic artery and vein were anastomosed with the left axillary artery and vein, respectively. The lung cavity, bleeding point of the pulmonary artery and the surface of the artificial pericardium were filled and covered by the supercharged omentum, and the skin was closed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient has had no bleeding, recurrence of empyema and thymoma or skin abnormalities at 36 months postoperatively. Supercharged free omental flap plombage was a useful option for treatment of an intractable chest infection involving an artificial pericardium.