- Is Right Sleeve Lower Lobectomy Necessary? Is It Safe? [Journal Article]
- TCThorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 May 23
- CONCLUSIONS: This technique allows for reduced filling of the thoracic cavity by a prolonged air leak and a reduced prevalence of complications. Additionally, the hospitalization time is shortened. It does not produce any additional mortality burden, and total survival and oncological outcomes are reliable. This technique can be used in selected patients at experienced centers.
- Flow Recirculation in Cartilaginous Ring Cavities of Human Trachea Model. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2018 May 23
- CONCLUSIONS: The detection of recirculation zones in the cartilage ring cavities sheds light on the particle deposition mechanism and helps explain results from previous studies that have observed an enhancement of particle deposition in models with cartilage rings. These results bring to light the importance of including cartilage rings in experimental, numerical, and theoretical models to better understand particle deposition in the trachea and bronchi. In addition, the results provide scientists and medical staff with new insights for improving drug delivery.
- Empyema necessitans in a six-month-old girl. [Journal Article]
- PIPaediatr Int Child Health 2018 May 23; :1-3
- Empyema necessitans is a rare complication of acute bacterial pneumonia, especially in children. It is a complication of empyema characterised by the extension of pus from the pleural cavity into the...
Empyema necessitans is a rare complication of acute bacterial pneumonia, especially in children. It is a complication of empyema characterised by the extension of pus from the pleural cavity into the thoracic wall to form a mass of purulent fluid in the adjacent soft tissue. An inflammatory chest wall mass following pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia in a six-month-old infant is reported. The case emphasises that children presenting with persistent fever and a painful chest wall mass following pneumonia should be investigated immediately as there might be an urgent need for surgery.
- Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, part I: National cancer statistics. [Journal Article]
- CCancer 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: For all cancer sites combined, cancer incidence rates decreased among men but were stable among women. Overall, there continue to be significant declines in cancer death rates among both men and women. Differences in rates and trends by race and ethnic group remain. Progress in reducing cancer mortality has not occurred for all sites. Examining stage distribution and 5-year survival by stage highlights the potential benefits associated with early detection and treatment. Cancer 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
- Light Fluence Dosimetry in Lung-simulating Cavities. [Journal Article]
- PSProc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2018 Jan-Feb; 10476
- Accurate light dosimery is critical to ensure consistent outcome for pleural photodynamic therapy (pPDT). Ellipsoid shaped cavities with different sizes surrounded by turbid medium are used to simula...
Accurate light dosimery is critical to ensure consistent outcome for pleural photodynamic therapy (pPDT). Ellipsoid shaped cavities with different sizes surrounded by turbid medium are used to simulate the intracavity lung geometry. An isotropic light source is introduced and surrounded by turbid media. Direct measurements of light fluence rate were compared to Monte Carlo simulated values on the surface of the cavities for various optical properties. The primary component of the light was determined by measurements performed in air in the same geometry. The scattered component was found by submerging the air-filled cavity in scattering media (Intralipid) and absorbent media (ink). The light source was located centrally with the azimuthal angle, but placed in two locations (vertically centered and 2 cm below the center) for measurements. Light fluence rate was measured using isotropic detectors placed at various angles on the ellipsoid surface. The measurements and simulations show that the scattered dose is uniform along the surface of the intracavity ellipsoid geometries in turbid media. One can express the light fluence rate empirically as ϕ =4S/As *Rd/(1 - Rd), where Rd is the diffuse reflectance, As is the surface area, and S is the source power. The measurements agree with this empirical formula to within an uncertainty of 10% for the range of optical properties studied. GPU voxel-based Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to compare with measured results. This empirical formula can be applied to arbitrary geometries, such as the pleural or intraperitoneal cavity.
- Pretreatment chest x-ray severity and its relation to bacterial burden in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Med 2018 May 21; 16(1):73
- CONCLUSIONS: The radiological severity of disease on chest x-ray prior to treatment in smear positive pulmonary TB patients is weakly associated with the bacterial burden. When compared against other variables at diagnosis, this effect is lost in those without cavitation. Radiological severity does reflect the overall disease severity in smear positive pulmonary TB, but we suggest that clinicians should be cautious in over-interpreting the significance of radiological disease extent at diagnosis.
- Potassium octatitanate fibers induce persistent lung and pleural injury and are possibly carcinogenic in male Fischer 344 rats. [Journal Article]
- CSCancer Sci 2018 May 17
- Potassium octatitanate fibers (K2 O•8TiO2 , POT fibers) are widely used as an alternative to asbestos. We investigated the pulmonary and pleural toxicity of POT fibers with reference to 2 non-fibrous...
Potassium octatitanate fibers (K2 O•8TiO2 , POT fibers) are widely used as an alternative to asbestos. We investigated the pulmonary and pleural toxicity of POT fibers with reference to 2 non-fibrous titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 ), photo-reactive anatase (a-nTiO2 ) and inert rutile (r-nTiO2 ). Ten-week old male F344 rats were administered 0.5 ml of 250-μg/ml suspensions of POT fibers, a-nTiO2 , or r-nTiO2 , eight times (1 mg/rat) over a 15 day period by trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS). Rats were killed 6 hours and 4 weeks after the last TIPS administration. Alveolar macrophages were significantly increased in all treatment groups at 6 hr and 4 wk. At week 4: a-nTiO2 and r-nTiO2 were largely cleared from the lung while a major fraction of POT fibers were not cleared. In the bronchio-alveolar lavage, alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in all treatment groups, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was elevated in the a-nTiO2 and POT groups. In the lung tissue, the oxidative stress index and the PCNA index were elevated in the a-nTiO2 and POT groups, and there was a significant elevation in CCL2 mRNA and protein in the POT group. In the pleural cavity lavage, total protein was elevated in all three treatment groups, and LDH activity was elevated in the a-nTiO2 and POT groups. Importantly, the PCNA index of the visceral mesothelium was increased in the POT group. Overall, POT fibers had greater biopersistence, induced higher expression of CCL2, and provoked a stronger tissue response than a-nTiO2 or r-nTiO2 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Herniation of Packing Material into a Bronchopleural Fistula after Right Pneumonectomy and Clagett Window. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Imaging Sci 2018; 8:17
- Diagnosis of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) can be challenging in patients after pneumonectomy and Clagett window. Herein, we present a case of pneumonectomy for advanced lung cancer complicated by a...
Diagnosis of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) can be challenging in patients after pneumonectomy and Clagett window. Herein, we present a case of pneumonectomy for advanced lung cancer complicated by a BPF. Herniation of packing material from the open-chest cavity into the fistula and airways on computed tomography was an important clue to making the diagnosis.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is an abnormal enlargement or pathologic increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle in response to pressure overload, most commonly due to severe lung disease....
Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is an abnormal enlargement or pathologic increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle in response to pressure overload, most commonly due to severe lung disease. The right ventricle is considerably smaller than the left ventricle and produces electrical forces that are largely obscured by those generated by the larger left ventricle. Size and function of the right ventricle are adversely affected by the following: Pulmonary hypertension with or without left ventricular dysfunction. Conditions that affect the tricuspid valve leading to significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Anatomy and Physiology The right ventricle is composed of inflow (sinus) and outflow (conus) regions, separated by a muscular ridge, the crista supraventricularis. The inflow region includes the tricuspid valve (TV), the chordae/papillary muscles as well as the body of the RV. The RV body boundaries are formed by the RV free wall, extending from the interventricular septum's anterior and posterior aspects. The standard septal curvature convexes toward the RV cavity and imparts a crescent shape to the right ventricle when cross-sectioned. The RV's interior surface is heavily trabeculated; this feature along with the moderator band and more apical insertion of the TV-annulus impart key morphologic differences that distinguish the RV from the LV by echocardiography. In contrast, the infundibulum is a smooth, funnel-shaped outflow portion of the RV that ends at the pulmonic valve. Thus, the RV has a complex geometry, with traditional RV free-wall thickness of 0.3-0.5 cm, imparting greater distensibility and larger cavity volumes in the RV versus the LV, despite lower end-diastolic filling pressures. This translates to an RVEF that is typically 35% to 45% (versus 55% to 65% in the LV) yet generates the identical SV as the LV. Changes in preload, afterload, and intrinsic contractility of the ventricle influence the systolic function of the RV, like the LV. Differences in RV muscle fiber orientation dictate that the body of the RV shortens symmetrically in the longitudinal and radial planes; thus, longitudinal shortening accounts for a much larger proportion of RV ejection than in the LV. The relatively conspicuous RV shortening along the longitudinal axis can measure RV systolic function using uncomplicated techniques that do not require geometric assumptions or meticulous endocardial definition, both being known limitations to the noninvasive assessment of RV systolic function.
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- [Growth Process of Cystic Lung Cancer Followed with Computed Tomography Findings Over 5 Years]. [Journal Article]
- KGKyobu Geka 2018; 71(5):336-338
- An estimated 2~16% of primary lung cancers form cavities with cases that form thin-walled cavities being comparatively rare. We treated a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a small...
An estimated 2~16% of primary lung cancers form cavities with cases that form thin-walled cavities being comparatively rare. We treated a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a small cystic shadow that showed no changes for 3 years. The cyst then suddenly grew larger, after which the cyst wall thickened over time and a thin-walled cavity was seen. Here we report this important case showing the development process of lung cancer that formed a thin-walled cavity, together with a discussion of the literature.