- Study of the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activity of Brachychiton rupestris and Brachychiton discolor leaves (Malvaceae) using in vitro models. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Nov 09; 18(1):299
- CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the nonpolar fractions of both Brachychiton species exhibited anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities.
- Alveolar Hemorrhage in Vasculitis (Primary and Secondary). [Journal Article]
- SRSemin Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 39(4):482-493
- Defined by the accumulation of red blood cells into the alveolar space, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially fatal medical condition requiring careful attention. In contrast ...
Defined by the accumulation of red blood cells into the alveolar space, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe and potentially fatal medical condition requiring careful attention. In contrast to simple extravasation of erythrocytes facilitated by impaired hemostasis or hemodynamic causes, DAH in vasculitis is due to capillaritis, that is, inflammation of capillaries. Dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest infiltrates, and abrupt fall of blood hemoglobin level represent the cardinal features of DAH; yet, hemoptysis is lacking in one-third of cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage, retrieving bright red fluid, is the best diagnostic clue, also excluding infection and other causes of hemoptysis. Although not recommended, lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of DAH and pulmonary capillaritis. Pulmonary capillaritis may be primary as in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis or secondary to drugs (especially antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil), infections, connective tissue diseases especially systemic lupus erythematosus, or other small vessel vasculitides. Newer toxic causes of drugs of abuse may be difficult to diagnose. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis are the most common causes of capillaritis and DAH, whereas DAH is extremely rare in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. When pulmonary capillaritis is not secondary to underlying systemic vasculitis, idiopathic pauci-immune pulmonary capillaritis may be considered, with or without ANCA. Supportive treatment strategy is mandatory in all cases of DAH. Mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used in severe cases. Early identification and removal of the putative drug is crucial in drug-induced vasculitis/DAH and may obviate the need for immunosuppressive therapy. High-dose corticosteroids, intravenous cyclophosphamide, and recently rituximab are the mainstay of treatment in vasculitis. Plasma exchange is recommended in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and in severe DAH associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and is used in selected cases in ANCA-associated vasculitis.
- Phoyunnanin E Induces Apoptosis of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells via p53 Activation and Down-regulation of Survivin. [Journal Article]
- ARAnticancer Res 2018; 38(11):6281-6290
- CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the promising effect of phoyunnanin E in induction of apoptosis, that may be useful for the development of novel anticancer agents.
- Development of Pin1 inhibitors and their potential as therapeutic agents. [Journal Article]
- CMCurr Med Chem 2018 Nov 05
- The prolyl isomerase Pin1 is a unique enzyme, which isomerizes the cis-trans conformation between pSer/pThr and proline, and thereby regulates the function, stability and/or subcellular distribution ...
The prolyl isomerase Pin1 is a unique enzyme, which isomerizes the cis-trans conformation between pSer/pThr and proline, and thereby regulates the function, stability and/or subcellular distribution of its target proteins. Such regulations by Pin1 are involved in numerous physiological functions as well as the pathogenic mechanisms underlying various diseases. Notably, Pin1 deficiency or inactivation is a potential cause of Alzheimer disease, since Pin1 induces the degradation of Tau. In contrast, Pin1 overexpression is highly correlated with the degree of malignancy of cancers, as Pin1 controls a number of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Accordingly, Pin1 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs have been developed. Interestingly, recent intensive studies have demonstrated Pin1 to be responsible for the onset or development of nonalcoholic steatosis, obesity, atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis, heart failure and so on, all of which have been experimentally induced in Pin1 deficient mice. In this review, we discuss the possible applications of Pin1 inhibitors to a variety of diseases including malignant tumors, and also introduce the recent advances in Pin1 inhibitor research, which have been reported.
- Inhibitory effects of Kyung-Ok-Ko, traditional herbal prescription, on particulate matter-induced vascular barrier disruptive responses. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Health Res 2018 Nov 05; :1-11
- Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with elevated pulmonary injury caused by the loss of vascular barrier integrity. A traditional herbal prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), has ...
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with elevated pulmonary injury caused by the loss of vascular barrier integrity. A traditional herbal prescription, Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), has long been used in Oriental medicine as a tonic for age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of KOK on PM-induced lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption and pulmonary inflammation. Permeability, leukocyte migration, activation of proinflammatory proteins, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and histology were examined in PM2.5-treated EC and mice. KOK significantly scavenged PM2.5-induced ROS and inhibited the ROS-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Concurrently, KOK activated Akt, which helped maintain endothelial integrity. Furthermore, KOK reduced vascular protein leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine release in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in PM-induced lung tissues. These data suggested that KOK might exhibit protective effects in PM-induced inflammatory lung injury and vascular hyperpermeability.
- Acquired Platythorax, or Anteroposterior Flattening of the Chest Wall, as a Late Complication of Cyclophosphamide Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Presenting in a Young Man with Respiratory Failure. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Case Rep 2018 Nov 05; 19:1317-1323
- CONCLUSIONS: This report described a rare case of acquired platythorax, or flattening of the chest, in a young adult. The use of the ratio of the chest wall AP diameter to lateral diameter may be used in the early detection of this rare chemotherapy-induced complication in children and adults.
- HYCO-3, a dual CO-releaser/Nrf2 activator, reduces tissue inflammation in mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide. [Journal Article]
- RBRedox Biol 2018 Oct 26; 20:334-348
- Oxidative stress and inflammation are predominant features of several chronic diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a major arbiter in counteracting these insults via up...
Oxidative stress and inflammation are predominant features of several chronic diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a major arbiter in counteracting these insults via up-regulation of several defensive proteins, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1-derived carbon monoxide (CO) exhibits anti-inflammatory actions and can be delivered to tissues by CO-releasing agents. In this study we assessed the pharmacological and anti-inflammatory properties of HYCO-3, a dual activity compound obtained by conjugating analogues of the CO-releasing molecule CORM-401 and dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an immunomodulatory drug known to activate Nrf2. HYCO-3 induced Nrf2-dependent genes and delivered CO to cells in vitro and tissues in vivo, confirming that the two expected pharmacological properties of this agent are achieved. In mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide, orally administered HYCO-3 reduced the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) while increasing the expression of the anti-inflammatory genes ARG1 and IL-10 in brain, liver, lung and heart. In contrast, DMF or CORM-401 alone or their combination decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory genes but had limited influence on anti-inflammatory markers. Furthermore, HYCO-3 diminished TNF-α and IL-1β in brain and liver but not in lung and heart of Nrf2-/- mice, indicating that the CO-releasing part of this hybrid contributes to reduction of pro-inflammation and that this effect is organ-specific. These data demonstrate that the dual activity of HYCO-3 results in enhanced efficacy compared to the parent compounds indicating the potential exploitation of hybrid compounds in the development of effective anti-inflammatory therapies.
- Integrated generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in a low-cost device. [Journal Article]
- BBiomaterials 2019; 189:23-36
- Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have unlimited proliferation capability and potential to differentiate into all somatic cells. Their derivatives contain patients' genetic information and...
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have unlimited proliferation capability and potential to differentiate into all somatic cells. Their derivatives contain patients' genetic information and can model many diseases. Additionally, derivatives of patient-specific iPSCs induce minimal immune rejection in vivo. With this unique combination of properties, iPSCs open the avenue to personalized medicine including personalized drug screening, toxicity test, cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, the further advance of iPSC-based personalized medicine is currently limited by the difficulty to generate iPSCs for large populations and at affordable cost. We here report a low-cost device to address this challenge. The device allows the entire bioprocess for generating high quality and quantity of iPSCs for one patient to be done automatically within a closed conical tube without cell passaging. Additionally, iPSCs can be further differentiated into somatic cells in the device. Thus, the device also allows integrated iPSCs generation, expansion and differentiation to produce any somatic cell types. This device can be made in large quantities at low cost for manufacturing iPSCs (and their derivatives in necessary) for large populations at affordable cost. It will significantly advance the iPSCs-based personalized medicine.
- [Analysis of Risk Factors for Side Effects and the Establishment of Supportive Therapy during Cancer Chemotherapy]. [Journal Article]
- YZYakugaku Zasshi 2018; 138(11):1363-1370
- Cancer chemotherapy has a high frequency of side effects, and patients often experience adverse health effects. This review focuses on risk factors and supportive care for the prevention of chemother...
Cancer chemotherapy has a high frequency of side effects, and patients often experience adverse health effects. This review focuses on risk factors and supportive care for the prevention of chemotherapy side effects. 1) Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) is one of the serious adverse events associated with chemotherapy, and this retrospective study investigated the risk of DILD in Japanese patients with lung cancer. Among the 459 patients who received lung cancer chemotherapy from April 2007 to March 2013, 33 (7.2%) developed chemotherapy-associated DILD. Preexisting interstitial lung disease was a risk factor for DILD [odds ratio (OR)=5.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.47-11.73]. Early death was observed in 10 of the 33 patients who developed DILD. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor use (OR=9.26; 95%CI=1.05-81.96) and two or more prior chemotherapy regimens (OR=6.95; 95%CI=1.14-42.35) were identified as poor prognostic factors. 2) The incidence of pemetrexed-induced rash is high. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids for pemetrexed-induced rash. Rash developed in 26.9% of patients who received pemetrexed between April 2009 and March 2014. Supplementation with dexamethasone (≥1.5 mg) on days 2 and 3 significantly reduced the incidence of rash compared with no supplementary corticosteroids (39.4% vs. 17.8%, p<0.05). Increasing the corticosteroid dose had no additional effect on pemetrexed-induced rash development. These results suggest that supplementary corticosteroids may prevent pemetrexed-induced rash, and low-dose corticosteroids are sufficient for such prevention.
New Search Next
- Artesunate attenuates airway resistance in vivo and relaxes airway smooth muscle cells in vitro via bitter taste receptor dependent calcium signaling. [Journal Article]
- EPExp Physiol 2018 Oct 31
- What is the central question of this study? This study aims to evaluate artesunate for its usage as a bronchodilator drug agent in asthma treatment. What is the main finding and its importance? We fi...
What is the central question of this study? This study aims to evaluate artesunate for its usage as a bronchodilator drug agent in asthma treatment. What is the main finding and its importance? We find that artesunate reduces airway resistance in both normal and ovalbumin-treated Balb/c mice in vivo, and reduces traction force while inducing Ca2+ influx of the cultured airway smooth muscle cells in vitro most likely via bitter taste receptor. This finding provides important evidence at both animal and cellular level that artesunate may be a potential alternative bronchodilator for treating obstructive airway diseases such as asthma.