- Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis associated with pleomorphic lung carcinoma: An autopsy case report. [Case Reports]
- NNeuropathology 2018 May 20
- A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for a...
A 64-year-old man was admitted with acute onset disturbed consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and elevated protein, with negative cultures and PCR. Serum antibodies for autoimmune encephalitis were also negative. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable, but whole-body CT scan showed a tumor in the left lower lung lobe. Bronchial brush cytology demonstrated clusters of malignant cells, and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed multiple lesions and increased uptake in the lung tumor. Clinically the patient had a stage IV lung carcinoma, graded as T3N3M1b (OSS). Steroid therapy had limited efficacy, but chemotherapy dramatically improved his neurological symptoms. Therefore, he was diagnosed with paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis based on the diagnostic criteria for paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. He died due to disease progression 14 months later. Subsequent postmortem examination revealed white ill-defined nodules in the left lung, with similar nodules in other organs. The brain weighed 1500 g before fixation, and a nodule was observed in the right precentral gyrus. Microscopically, the lung tumor was a pleomorphic carcinoma with an adenocarcinoma component. Multiple areas of micro-softening (≤500 μm) were identified in the cerebral cortex, gray-white matter junction and basal ganglia, and were distributed diffusely in both the limbic and non-limbic systems. Mild lymphocytic infiltrates were observed involving few intraparenchymal vessels. Few tumor metastases were observed in the right precentral gyrus. The multiple micro-softenings may reflect a chronic neuropathologic change of paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis. They were too small to be detected by brain MRI. However, these lesions may have the potential to cause the neurological symptoms in the acute phase because they were observed in many anatomical regions. We should pay attention to subtle findings such as micro-softenings when estimating the neuropathology of autoimmune encephalitis. Further investigations are needed to understand the characteristic neuropathology of this condition.
- The CF-Sputum Induction Trial (CF-SpIT) to assess lower airway bacterial sampling in young children with cystic fibrosis: a prospective internally controlled interventional trial. [Journal Article]
- LRLancet Respir Med 2018 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Sputum induction is superior to cough swab for pathogen detection, is effective at sampling the lower airway, and is a credible surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage in symptomatic children. A substantial number of bronchoscopies could be avoided if sputum induction is done first and pathogens are appropriately treated. Both sputum induction and six-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage provide independent, sizeable gains in pathogen detection compared with the current gold-standard two-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage. We propose that sputum induction and six-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage combined are used as standard of care for comprehensive lower airway pathogen detection in children with cystic fibrosis.
- An unusual case of pulmonary hamartoma with predominant bronchial mucous glands in the peripheral lung. [Journal Article]
- PIPathol Int 2018 May 16
- Pulmonary hamartoma (PH) is the most common benign lung tumor, comprising various amounts of mescenchymal components with entrapped epithelial components. We describe an unusual case of PH in the lef...
Pulmonary hamartoma (PH) is the most common benign lung tumor, comprising various amounts of mescenchymal components with entrapped epithelial components. We describe an unusual case of PH in the left lower lung lobe of a 60-year-old female. The tumor was 9 × 9 mm in size, light brown, weakly glistening, and microscopically found to be composed of well-developed epithelial and mesenchymal components without atypia. Both components were intermingled but without apparent transition. Epithelial components were occupied by predominant bronchial mucous glands. Serous glands, entrapped bronchioles, and clefts lined by respiratory epithelium were also apparent. Mesenchymal components including cartilage and fat were scattered, and swirling smooth muscle fascicles were interlaced with epithelial components. Collision tumor or other biphasic tumors were unlikely, and hyperplastic change in bronchial glands as in the rare conditions of intraoral minor salivary glands and epithelial entrapments by PH may explain these interesting histological findings. It is important to be aware of the possibility that a large number of bronchial mucous glands may be noted in the peripheral lung, and not to mistake this for other malignancies.
- Placental transmogrification of the lung presenting as a peripheral solitary nodule in a male with the history of trauma: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(18):e0661
- CONCLUSIONS: The patient had a history of traffic accident half a year before the nodule was detected. This prompts placental transmogrification of the lung may at least partially represent a acquired malformation. The present case aims to raise a new suggestion for its possible nature. In our opinion, PT may simply represent a benign morphologic change rather than an independent disease. It may be encountered in both congenital and secondary lesions.
- Various clinical features of patients with anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: An observational study. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(18):e0649
- To describe and analyze the clinical features and prognosis of patients with anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS).The symptoms, MRI findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chang...
To describe and analyze the clinical features and prognosis of patients with anti-Hu associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS).The symptoms, MRI findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes, electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics and prognoses of 9 well-diagnosed anti-Hu associated PNS patients were analyzed.The study enrolled 6 female and 3 male patients. Three patients presented with vertigo and 6 patients exhibited a depressed mood, numbness of the lower limbs, generalized pains, seizures, mental disturbances, and a temporary unilateral hand tremor on initial presentation. Three patients presented with MRI abnormalities localized in the mesial temporal lobe and the thalamus. Abnormal interictal EEG readings were observed in all 5 patients who underwent EEG study. Four patients were found lung cancer (3 during hospitalization, 1 during follow-up). Seven patients were treated with immunotherapy and improved in symptoms. Three patients died during follow-up (2 with lung cancer).The clinical manifestation of anti-Hu associated PNS is diverse and multifocal. EEG may be more sensitive than MRI for early diagnosis of PNS. Long-term follow-up for patients with CT-negative anti-Hu associated PNS is necessary.
- Primary pulmonary meningioma presenting as a micro solid nodule: A rare case report. [Case Reports]
- TCThorac Cancer 2018 May 02
- An ectopic meningioma, such as a primary pulmonary meningioma (PPM), is a rare type of tumor that primarily originates outside of the central nervous system. A 65-year-old female patient underwent a ...
An ectopic meningioma, such as a primary pulmonary meningioma (PPM), is a rare type of tumor that primarily originates outside of the central nervous system. A 65-year-old female patient underwent a thoracoscopic lung wedge resection of the right lower lobe for a micro solid nodule detected via computed tomography. The histologic result revealed a PPM. PPMs manifested with micro solid nodules are a very rare occurrence in clinical practice. Increased awareness of the clinical and pathological characteristics of this rare disease can assist thoracic surgical teams to apply adequate management.
- Unusual Behavior of a Lung Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: Case Report. [Journal Article]
- RPRev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc 2017 Jul-Dec; 24(3-4):140
- CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory myofibrobastic tumors are considered benign or low-grade malignant tumors. The size of the tumour (cut-off of 3 cm) and secure surgical resection with free margins are the major determinants for recurrence and survival. There are some cases reported in the literature of distant metastasis and sarcomatous transformation after multiple recurrences. In our patient, the lesion was bigger than 3 cm and he underwent a complete resection. Nothing could foresee this aggressive metastatic behavior, especially when the recurrence did not show a sarcomatous transformation.
- High-resolution computerized tomography changes in diffuse parenchymal lung disease from chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to bird antigen. [Journal Article]
- LILung India 2018 May-Jun; 35(3):215-219
- CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HP from avian exposure shows predominantly lower lobe involvement with haze, reticulation, features of pulmonary hypertension, and pleural reactions as common HRCT findings. The likelihood of pulmonary hypertension appears high and although honeycombing is often present, the classical UIP pattern has not been found.
- Primary malignant melanoma of the lung: a case report of a rare tumor and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018; 8(1):29-31
- Primary malignant melanoma of the lung (PMML) is a rare malignancy that exhibits aggressive behavior and has a very poor prognosis. We are reporting on a case of PMML in an otherwise healthy 22-year-...
Primary malignant melanoma of the lung (PMML) is a rare malignancy that exhibits aggressive behavior and has a very poor prognosis. We are reporting on a case of PMML in an otherwise healthy 22-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history and an unremarkable family history. The patient initially presented with a 2-month history of a cough and an unexplained 22-lb weight loss. His initial chest X-ray demonstrated opacification of the right lower lobe (RLL) of his lung and a subsequent computerized tomography scan (CT scan) of his lung revealed a large mass occupying most of his RLL (Figure 1). The patient subsequently underwent a bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound. Biopsies revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma. A positron emission tomography with low dose CT scan was performed per protocol and revealed an intensely hypermetabolic tumor with no evidence for lymphatic disease or extra-thoracic spread. The patient underwent a surgical exploration and a right lower lobectomy with a thoracic lymphadenectomy. The pathology including immunohistochemical stains demonstrated a malignant melanoma with no lymph node involvement. A physical examination including ophthalmic, mucosal, and skin examinations revealed no evidence for an extra-thoracic site of the disease. The patient had negative margins for resection and did not receive any adjuvant therapy and is alive and well with no evidence for recurrence 3 years after the resection.
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- Conjunction of a Fungus Ball and a Pulmonary Tumourlet in a Bronchiectatic Cavity. [Journal Article]
- KJKorean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018; 51(2):138-141
- Herein, we describe the case of a 67-year-old female patient who presented with cough and haemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed destruction of the left lower lobe and multiple fungus balls ...
Herein, we describe the case of a 67-year-old female patient who presented with cough and haemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed destruction of the left lower lobe and multiple fungus balls in a bronchiectatic cavity. A left lower lobectomy was performed via thoracotomy. Histopathological examination of the lung showed a concomitant aspergilloma and multiple tumourlets in the large bronchiectatic cavity. Pulmonary intracavitary aspergilloma and concomitant tumourlets are quite rare. Our report presents this interesting case that manifested with haemoptysis.