- Lack of overlap and large discrepancies in the characteristics of the deceased in two sources of drug death. A linkage study of the Cause of Death and the Police Registries in Norway 2007-2009. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Drug Policy 2017 Jan 19; 41:74-79
- CONCLUSIONS: The large discrepancies in size, overlap, and characteristics of the deceased included in two sources of drug death imply that prevention measures based on the two sources will differ.
- Morphine Pharmacodynamics in Mechanically Ventilated Preterm Neonates Undergoing Endotracheal Suctioning. [Journal Article]
- CPCPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2017 Jan 21
- To date, morphine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are well quantified in neonates, but results about its efficacy are ambiguous. This work presents an analysis of a previously published study on pain measurem...
To date, morphine pharmacokinetics (PKs) are well quantified in neonates, but results about its efficacy are ambiguous. This work presents an analysis of a previously published study on pain measurements in mechanically ventilated preterm neonates who received either morphine or placebo to improve comfort during invasive ventilation. The research question was whether morphine reduces the pain associated with endotracheal or nasal suctioning before, during, and after suctioning. Because these neonates cannot verbalize their pain levels, pain was assessed on the basis of several validated pain measurement instruments (i.e., COMFORT-B, preterm infant pain profile [PIPP], Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and visual analogue scale (VAS)). The item response theory (IRT) was used to analyze the data in order for us to handle the data from multiple-item pain scores. The analysis showed an intra-individual relationship between morphine concentrations and pain reduction, as measured by COMFORT-B and VAS. However, the small magnitude of the morphine effect was not considered clinically relevant for this intervention in preterm neonates.
- Effects of microRNA-338 on morphine tolerance by targeting CXCR4 in a rat model of bone cancer pain. [Journal Article]
- BRBiosci Rep 2017 Jan 20
- This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-338 (miR-338) on morphine tolerance through the targeting of CXCR4 in a rat model of bone cancer pain (BCP). Sprague Dawley rats were obtained ...
This study aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-338 (miR-338) on morphine tolerance through the targeting of CXCR4 in a rat model of bone cancer pain (BCP). Sprague Dawley rats were obtained and divided into model saline (n = 10), model morphine (n = 50), normal saline (n = 10) and normal morphine (healthy rats, n = 10) groups. After BCP rat model establishment, the remaining SD rats (n = 40) in the model saline group were assigned into pLV-THM-miR-338, pLV-THM-anti-miR-338, CXCR4 shRNA, blank and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) groups. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used for luciferase activity. qRT-PCR and Western blotting was performed to detect the miR-338 and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression. The model saline group showed increased mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR4 but decreased MiR-338 compared to the model saline group, and the model morphine group had increased mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR4 but decreased MiR-338 compared with the model saline group. The mRNA and protein expressions of miR-338 in the pLV-THM-miR-338 group increased remarkably while those of the pLV-THM-anti-miR-338 group decreased significantly compared with the CXCR4 shRNA, blank and PBS groups. The pLV-THM-miR-338, pLV-THM-anti-miR-338, CXCR4 shRNA and CXCR4 mRNA groups all had lower mRNA and protein expressions of CXCR4 then those in the blank and PBS groups. miR-338 exerts significant influence in the inhibition of morphine tolerance by suppressing CXCR4 in BCP.
- Sex-dependent effects of early life inflammatory pain on sucrose intake and sucrose-associated hippocampal Arc expression in adult rats. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2017 Jan 17
- We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that m...
We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that meal. In support, we showed previously that (1) consuming a sucrose meal induces expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in dHC neurons and (2) reversible inactivation of these neurons immediately following a sucrose meal accelerates the onset of the next meal and increases the size of that meal. These data suggest that hippocampal-dependent memory inhibits intake; therefore, the following experiments were conducted to determine whether hippocampal-dependent memory impairments are associated with increased intake. We reported recently that one episode of early life inflammatory pain impairs dHC-dependent memory in adult rats. The present study determined whether neonatal inflammatory pain also increases sucrose intake and attenuates sucrose-associated Arc expression. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and sucrose intake and sucrose-associated dHC Arc expression were measured in adulthood. Neonatal inflammatory pain increased sucrose intake in adult female and male rats, decreased sucrose-associated dHC Arc expression in female rats, and tended to have a similar effect on Arc expression in male rats. Neonatal inflammatory pain significantly decreased the interval between two sucrose meals in female but not in male rats. Morphine administration at the time of insult attenuated the effects of injury on sucrose intake. Collectively, these findings indicate that one brief episode of inflammatory pain on the day of birth has a long long-lasting, sex-dependent impact on intake of a palatable food in adulthood.
- NON-BUPRENORPHINE OPIOID UTILIZATION AMONG PATIENTS USING BUPRENORPHINE. [Journal Article]
- AAddiction 2017 Jan 20
- CONCLUSIONS: The use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States. However, a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.
- Site-, Technique-, and Time-Related Aspects of the Postmortem Redistribution of Diazepam, Methadone, Morphine, and their Metabolites: Interest of Popliteal Vein Blood Sampling. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Forensic Sci 2017 Jan 20
- Sampling site, technique, and time influence postmortem drug concentrations. In 57 cases, we studied drug concentration differences as follows: subclavian vein-dissection/clamping versus blind stick,...
Sampling site, technique, and time influence postmortem drug concentrations. In 57 cases, we studied drug concentration differences as follows: subclavian vein-dissection/clamping versus blind stick, femoral vein-dissection/clamping versus blind stick, right cardiac chamber, and popliteal vein-dissection and clamping only. Cases were distributed in group #1 (all cases with both techniques), group #2 (dissection/clamping), and group #3 (blind stick). Sampled drugs were diazepam, methadone, morphine, and their metabolites. To assess PMR, mean concentrations and ratios were calculated for each group. Time-dependent variations of blood concentrations and ratios were also assessed. Results indicate that site, method, and time may influence postmortem distribution interpretation in different ways. Popliteal blood seems less subject to PMR. In conclusion, our study is the first to evaluate concurrently three main aspects of PMR and confirms that the popliteal vein may represent a site that is more resistant to the changes seen as a result of PMR.
- Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Stem-Bark Extracts and Fractions of Carpolobia Lutea (Polygalaceae). [Journal Article]
- JBJ Basic Clin Pharm 2016; 8(1):25-32
- CONCLUSIONS: The isolation of quercetin and kaemferol from CL gave credence to its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.
- Corrigendum: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reversed Morphine Tolerance and Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2017 Jan 19; 7:40978
- Defined daily doses (DDD) do not accurately reflect opioid doses used in contemporary chronic pain treatment. [Journal Article]
- PDPharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2017 Jan 19
- CONCLUSIONS: For many opioids, there are key differences between the actual doses used in clinical practice and the WHO's DDDs. The interpretation of opioid utilisation studies using population-level DDDs may be limited, and a recalibration of the DDD for many opioids or the reporting of opioid utilisation in oral morphine equivalent doses is recommended. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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- Higher risk of opioid-induced respiratory depression in children with neurodevelopmental disability: a retrospective cohort study of 12 904 patients. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Anaesth 2017; 118(2):239-246
- CONCLUSIONS: Children with neurodevelopmental disabilities were 1.8 times more likely to suffer respiratory depression, absolute risk difference 0.5%; opioid-induced respiratory depression in this group may relate to increased sensitivity to dose-relate respiratory effects of morphine. Morphine-NCA as described was an acceptable technique for children with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities.