- How to make a tongue: Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle and connective tissue formation during mammalian tongue development. [Review]
- SCSemin Cell Dev Biol 2018 May 18
- The vertebrate tongue is a complex muscular organ situated in the oral cavity and involved in multiple functions including mastication, taste sensation, articulation and the maintenance of oral healt...
The vertebrate tongue is a complex muscular organ situated in the oral cavity and involved in multiple functions including mastication, taste sensation, articulation and the maintenance of oral health. Although the gross embryological contributions to tongue formation have been known for many years, it is only relatively recently that the molecular pathways regulating these processes have begun to be discovered. In particular, there is now evidence that the Hedgehog, TGF-Beta, Wnt and Notch signaling pathways all play an important role in mediating appropriate signaling interactions between the epithelial, cranial neural crest and mesodermal cell populations that are required to form the tongue. In humans, a number of congenital abnormalities that affect gross morphology of the tongue have also been described, occurring in isolation or as part of a developmental syndrome, which can greatly impact on the health and well-being of affected individuals. These anomalies can range from an absence of tongue formation (aglossia) through to diminutive (microglossia), enlarged (macroglossia) or bifid tongue. Here, we present an overview of the gross anatomy and embryology of mammalian tongue development, focusing on the molecular processes underlying formation of the musculature and connective tissues within this organ. We also survey the clinical presentation of tongue anomalies seen in human populations, whilst considering their developmental and genetic etiology.
- Three-dimensional dental and craniofacial manifestations in patients with late diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II: report of 2 cases. [Journal Article]
- OSOral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2018 Apr 16
- The objective of this study was to report the clinical evaluation results and 3-dimensional (3-D) dental and craniofacial characteristics observed in 2 male patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I...
The objective of this study was to report the clinical evaluation results and 3-dimensional (3-D) dental and craniofacial characteristics observed in 2 male patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. The patients were evaluated clinically (soft tissue evaluation, evaluation of occlusion, periodontal and dental examinations) and by using craniofacial computed tomography, with evaluation of 3-D images in ITK-Snap v. 2.2 (Penn Image Computing and Science Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA; http://www.itksnap.org/) and 3-D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org/) software. Mandibular 3-D volumetric label maps were built from computed tomography scans of both patients and compared through superimposition on a healthy patient's mandibular images. Clinically, the patients presented the following oral manifestations: macroglossia, total open bite and generalized diastemas, and absence of caries. Patient 1 showed dental calculus and bleeding at the gingival margin. Patient 2 showed bleeding at the gingival margin, a permanent maxillary left central incisor missing as a result of trauma, and impacted permanent mandibular left and right second molars. 3-D images showed wide arches, prominent antegonial notches, a narrow mandibular body in the region of the antegonial notches, bilateral severe condylar hypoplasia, and enlarged coronoid processes. 3-D imaging and superimpositions revealed oral and skeletal displacements, contributing to the identification of changes in the course of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in patients with a late diagnosis.
- Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome: A population-based study on prevalence, prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies and survival in Europe. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Genet 2018 May 16
- Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome is a complex developmental disorder characterized by somatic overgrowth, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycemia, and predisposition to embryonal tumor...
Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome is a complex developmental disorder characterized by somatic overgrowth, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, neonatal hypoglycemia, and predisposition to embryonal tumors. We present epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome diagnosed prenatally or in the early years of life, using data from EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) registries. The study population consisted of 371 cases identified between January 1990 and December 2015 in 34 registries from 16 European countries. There were 15 (4.0%) terminations of pregnancy after prenatal detection of severe anomaly/anomalies, 10 fetal deaths (2.7%), and 346 (93.3%) live-births. Twelve (3.6%) of the 330 live-births with available information on survival died in the first week of life, of those eleven (91.6%) were preterm. First-year survival rate was 90.9%. Prematurity was present in 40.6% of males and 33.9% of females. Macrosomia was found in 49.2% and 43.3% of preterm males and females, respectively. Of term newborns, 41.1% of males and 24% of females were macrosomic. Out of 353 cases with known time of diagnosis, 39.9% were suspected prenatally, 36.3% at birth, 7.6% were diagnosed in the first week of life, and 16.2% in the first year of life. The mean gestational age at prenatal diagnosis by obstetric ultrasound was 19.8 ± 6.2 (11-39) gestational weeks. The mean prenatal diagnosis of cases where parents opted for termination of pregnancy was 15.3 ± 2.4 (11-22) gestational weeks, and the mean gestational age at termination was 19.3 ± 4.1 (13-26) gestational weeks. The prenatal detection rate was 64.1% (141/220) with no significant change over time. There were 12.7% of familial cases. The study confirmed the association of assisted reproductive technologies with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome, as 7.2% (13/181) of patients were conceived by one of the methods of assisted reproductive technologies, which was three times higher compared to the general population of the countries included in the study. Twin pregnancies of undetermined zygosity were recorded in 5.7% (21/365) cases, and were on average three to four times more common than in European countries that participated in the study. The estimated mean prevalence of classical Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome in Europe was 3.8 per 100,000 births or 1:26,000 births.
- Dexamethasone treatment for bilateral lingual nerve injury following orotracheal intubation. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Dent Anesth Pain Med 2018; 18(2):115-117
- Lingual nerve injury is a rare complication of general anesthesia. The causes of lingual nerve injury following general anesthesia are multifactorial; possible mechanisms may include difficult laryng...
Lingual nerve injury is a rare complication of general anesthesia. The causes of lingual nerve injury following general anesthesia are multifactorial; possible mechanisms may include difficult laryngoscopy, prolonged anterior mandibular displacement, improper placement of the oropharyngeal airway, macroglossia and tongue compression. In this report, we have described a case of bilateral lingual nerve injury that was associated with orotracheal intubation for open reduction and internal fixation of the left distal radius fracture in a 61-year-old woman. In this case, early treatment with dexamethasone effectively aided the recovery of the injured lingual nerve.
- Mucopolysaccharidosis VI and effects on growth of the apical bases: a case report. [Journal Article]
- SCSpec Care Dentist 2018; 38(3):176-184
- CONCLUSIONS: By understanding the craniofacial growth changes in MPS VI patients, new treatment options may be developed for affected patients.
- Anaesthetic Management in a Duchennne Muscle Dystrophy Patient for Treatment of Recurrent Pneumothorax. [Journal Article]
- RPRev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc 2017 Jul-Dec; 24(3-4):200
- CONCLUSIONS: Total intravenous anaesthesia, without neuromuscular blockers, is a safe and effective option for DMD patients. Anaesthesiologists must consider the possibility of cardio-pulmonary disabilities, difficult airway management, as well as the high risk of malignant hyperthermia in these patients.
- Clinical spectrum of KIAA2022 pathogenic variants in males: Case report of two boys with kiaa2022 pathogenic variants and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Med Genet A 2018 Apr 25
- KIAA2022 is an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome affecting males more severely than females. Few males with KIAA2022 variants and XLID have been reported. We present a clinical report ...
KIAA2022 is an X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome affecting males more severely than females. Few males with KIAA2022 variants and XLID have been reported. We present a clinical report of two unrelated males, with two nonsense KIAA2022 pathogenic variants, with profound intellectual disabilities, limited language development, strikingly similar autistic behavior, delay in motor milestones, and postnatal growth restriction. Patient 1, 19-years-old, has long ears, deeply set eyes with keratoconus, strabismus, a narrow forehead, anteverted nares, café-au-lait spots, macroglossia, thick vermilion of the upper and lower lips, and prognathism. He has gastroesophageal reflux, constipation with delayed rectosigmoid colonic transit time, difficulty regulating temperature, several musculoskeletal issues, and a history of one grand mal seizure. Patient 2, 10-years-old, has mild dysmorphic features, therapy resistant vomiting with diminished motility of the stomach, mild constipation, cortical visual impairment with intermittent strabismus, axial hypotonia, difficulty regulating temperature, and cutaneous mastocytosis. Genetic testing identified KIAA2022 variant c.652C > T(p.Arg218*) in Patient 1, and a novel nonsense de novo variant c.2707G > T(p.Glu903*) in Patient 2. We also summarized features of all reported males with KIAA2022 variants to date. This report not only adds knowledge of a novel pathogenic variant to the KIAA2022 variant database, but also likely extends the spectrum by describing novel dysmorphic features and medical conditions including macroglossia, café-au-lait spots, keratoconus, severe cutaneous mastocytosis, and motility problems of the GI tract, which may help physicians involved in the care of patients with this syndrome. Lastly, we describe the power of social media in bringing families with rare medical conditions together.
- [Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) Current Status of Diagnosis and Clinical Management: Summary of the First International Consensus Statement]. [Journal Article]
- KPKlin Padiatr 2018; 230(3):151-159
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) belongs to the group of imprinting disorders and is characterized by variable clinical features, including overgrowth, macroglossia, abdominal wall defect, neonatal ...
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) belongs to the group of imprinting disorders and is characterized by variable clinical features, including overgrowth, macroglossia, abdominal wall defect, neonatal hypoglycemia, body asymmetry and an increased risk for embryonal tumors. In the majority of cases, molecular alterations of the Imprinting Center (IC) regions in the chromosomal region 11p15.5 can be detected, and a correlation of single clinical features with specific genomic and epigenetic changes is obvious. Therefore, the detailed molecular diagnosis is a prerequisite for a precise prediction of the tumor risk and the tumor spectrum. Furthermore, it is the basis for a well-directed genetic counselling of the families. Despite a huge number of comprehensive studies based on a large number of cases, standardized diagnostic criteria and advices for therapeutic management were missing. In the following, the recently published first international consensus guidelines drafted by 41 experts in the field of BWS from 11 European countries and the USA are summarized. Patients support groups had been included as well. In total, 72 consented recommendations for clinical and molecular diagnosis as well as for the clinical management of BWS have been published. They refer both to patients with the classical BWS phenotype and to those with "atypical" phenotypes which are summarized as BWS spectrum (BWSp). A modified clinical scoring system is now suggested, which represents the basis to initiate molecular diagnostics. Therapeutic recommendations comprise the major clinical questions in BWS/BWSp, i. e. early monitoring of an increased tumor risk, treatment of the macroglossia and the abdominal wall defects, and therapeutic interventions for hypoglycemia. However, though there was a broad consensus on the majority of therapeutic interventions, discussions on tumor monitoring are foreseeable. Thus, prospective studies to evaluate the consensus guidelines and their use are planned.
- Massive Macroglossia After Posterior Cranial Fossa Surgery: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- PA A Pract 2018 Apr 15; 10(8):204-208
- A 16-year-old boy with Chiari 1 malformation presented for an elective suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. His intraoperative course was uneventful. At the conclusion of the procedure, he me...
A 16-year-old boy with Chiari 1 malformation presented for an elective suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy. His intraoperative course was uneventful. At the conclusion of the procedure, he met extubation criteria and followed commands. After extubation, he developed progressive upper airway obstruction and became obtunded. He was reintubated via videolaryngoscopy, which showed edema not only to the tongue, but also to the posterior pharynx and blisters over the vocal folds and epiglottis. The patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit intubated and sedated. This report describes the clinical course of his massive macroglossia and discusses short- and long-term management.
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- The Role of Functional Respiratory Imaging in Treatment Selection of Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Down Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Sleep Med 2018 Apr 15; 14(4):651-659
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to characterize treatment outcome in children with DS and OSA using computed tomography upper airway imaging. At baseline, children with more severe OSA had a smaller upper airway. Children with a less favorable response to adenotonsillectomy had a smaller volume of regions below the tonsils, which could be due to enlargement of the lingual tonsils, glossoptosis, or macroglossia.A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 501.