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- Isolating Rat Intestinal Explants for In Vitro Cultures. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Protoc Toxicol 2019 May 23; :e79
- The small intestine is an important organ primarily involved in digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. In vitro intestinal models are being developed to study this organ in health and disease…
The small intestine is an important organ primarily involved in digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. In vitro intestinal models are being developed to study this organ in health and disease. Intestinal explants can be used in such investigations since they contain all the major intestinal cell types. A detailed procedure to isolate intestinal explants from the rat jejunum is described. A protocol for culturing them in vitro for up to 24 hr is also provided. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Fruits and Vegetables Versus Vegetables and Fruits: Rhyme and Reason for Word Order in Health Messages. [Review]
- AJAm J Lifestyle Med 2019 May-Jun; 13(3):224-234
- Both vegetable and fruit consumption contribute to wellness and disease prevention. Most dietary health messages promote both together and position the word "fruits" before "vegetables." We examined …
Both vegetable and fruit consumption contribute to wellness and disease prevention. Most dietary health messages promote both together and position the word "fruits" before "vegetables." We examined the word order of the commonly used phrase "fruits and vegetables" through linguistics, psychology, botany, nutrition, health outcomes, and current US intake to determine if the common word order best presents these two foods in health messaging. By comparing the 10 most commonly consumed vegetables versus fruits, we found that vegetables scored higher on the Aggregate Nutrient Density Index and contained fewer calories and more fiber than fruits. Among the "nutrients of public concern" listed in the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, we determined that vegetables are better sources of these nutrients than fruits, although fruits scored higher in antioxidant content. In observational cohort studies, vegetable and fruit consumption was found to be associated with decreased mortality. Finally, daily intakes of both vegetables and fruits are lower than recommended, but the discrepancy is larger for vegetables-especially among children-suggesting a greater imperative to promote vegetables. For these reasons, future health messages promoting both together should intentionally put "vegetables" first to promote intake and emphasize their importance regarding contribution to health.
- Federal Monitoring of Dietary Supplement Use in the Resident, Civilian, Noninstitutionalized US Population, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr 2018; 148(Suppl 2):1436S-1444S
- CONCLUSIONS: NHANES provides a rich source of nationally representative data on the usage of dietary supplements in the US.
- Biomarkers of Nutrition and Health: New Tools for New Approaches. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 May 16; 11(5)
- A main challenge in nutritional studies is the valid and reliable assessment of food intake, as well as its effects on the body. Generally, food intake measurement is based on self-reported dietary i…
A main challenge in nutritional studies is the valid and reliable assessment of food intake, as well as its effects on the body. Generally, food intake measurement is based on self-reported dietary intake questionnaires, which have inherent limitations. They can be overcome by the use of biomarkers, capable of objectively assessing food consumption without the bias of self-reported dietary assessment. Another major goal is to determine the biological effects of foods and their impact on health. Systems analysis of dynamic responses may help to identify biomarkers indicative of intake and effects on the body at the same time, possibly in relation to individuals' health/disease states. Such biomarkers could be used to quantify intake and validate intake questionnaires, analyse physiological or pathological responses to certain food components or diets, identify persons with specific dietary deficiency, provide information on inter-individual variations or help to formulate personalized dietary recommendations to achieve optimal health for particular phenotypes, currently referred as "precision nutrition." In this regard, holistic approaches using global analysis methods (omics approaches), capable of gathering high amounts of data, appear to be very useful to identify new biomarkers and to enhance our understanding of the role of food in health and disease.
- Ocular Carotenoid Status in Health and Disease. [Journal Article]
- ARAnnu Rev Nutr 2019 May 15
- Retinal carotenoids are dietary nutrients that uniquely protect the eye from light damage and various retinal pathologies. Their antioxidative properties protect the eye from many retinal diseases, s…
Retinal carotenoids are dietary nutrients that uniquely protect the eye from light damage and various retinal pathologies. Their antioxidative properties protect the eye from many retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. As many retinal diseases are accompanied by low carotenoid levels, accurate noninvasive assessment of carotenoid status can help ophthalmologists identify the patients most likely to benefit from carotenoid supplementation. This review focuses on the different methods available to assess carotenoid status and highlights disease-related changes and potential nutritional interventions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 39 is August 21, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
- Introduction and Executive Summary of the Supplement, Role of Milk and Dairy Products in Health and Prevention of Noncommunicable Chronic Diseases: A Series of Systematic Reviews. [Journal Article]
- ANAdv Nutr 2019 05 01; 10(suppl_2):S67-S73
- Milk and dairy products contain multiple nutrients and contribute significantly to meet the nutritional requirements for protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, selenium, vitamin A,…
Milk and dairy products contain multiple nutrients and contribute significantly to meet the nutritional requirements for protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, and pantothenic acid. However, consumption of dairy is decreasing and moving away from the advised level in many countries and the potential benefits of milk and dairy products for health have come under question. This, in spite that numerous studies report health benefits associated with dairy consumption. The present supplement aims to assess and summarize scientific evidence regarding the impact of dairy intake on health and all-cause mortality, and on the prevention of diverse chronic diseases, mainly from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). There seem to positive associations between moderate maternal milk intake during pregnancy and infant birth weight, length and bone mineral content during childhood. Moreover, consumption of dairy products in older subjects may reduce the risk of frailty and decrease the risk for sarcopenia. The highest consumption of dairy products did not show a clear association with total osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture risk; however, a diminished risk of vertebral fracture was found. Analysis of the differences between high and low dairy consumption and for dose-response found no association between dairy product consumption and risk of all-cause mortality. Total and low-fat dairy consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing metabolic syndrome and current evidence supports that consumption of dairy does not adversely affect the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and may even have a subtle protective effect. Moreover, evidence has been provided of an inverse association between the consumption of dairy products and ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. Also, the evidence suggests that dairy consumption, particularly low-fat dairy and yogurt is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Likewise, moderate compared with medium consumption of dairy is associated lower risk for colorectal and bladder cancer and has no association with prostate cancer. Finally, consumption of milk or dairy products did not show a proinflammatory effect on healthy subjects, overweight/obese individuals, or individuals with other metabolic abnormalities, and fortification of dairy products with phytosterols and ω-3 fatty acids seems to be a good approach to improve cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. In conclusion, the systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the present supplement support adequate milk consumption at various stages of life and in the prevention/control of various noncommunicable chronic diseases.
- Tea in Health and Disease. [Editorial]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 25; 11(4)
- Tea, including green tea made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and is consumed by more than two-thirds of the world populat…
Tea, including green tea made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and is consumed by more than two-thirds of the world population [...].
- Precision Nutrition and the Microbiome, Part I: Current State of the Science. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 24; 11(4)
- The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including…
The gut microbiota is a highly complex community which evolves and adapts to its host over a lifetime. It has been described as a virtual organ owing to the myriad of functions it performs, including the production of bioactive metabolites, regulation of immunity, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. These activities are dependent on the quantity and quality of the microbiota alongside its metabolic potential, which are dictated by a number of factors, including diet and host genetics. In this regard, the gut microbiome is malleable and varies significantly from host to host. These two features render the gut microbiome a candidate 'organ' for the possibility of precision microbiomics - the use of the gut microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to specific dietary constituents to generate precision diets and interventions for optimal health. With this in mind, this two-part review investigates the current state of the science in terms of the influence of diet and specific dietary components on the gut microbiota and subsequent consequences for health status, along with opportunities to modulate the microbiota for improved health and the potential of the microbiome as a biomarker to predict responsiveness to dietary components. In particular, in Part I, we examine the development of the microbiota from birth and its role in health. We investigate the consequences of poor-quality diet in relation to infection and inflammation and discuss diet-derived microbial metabolites which negatively impact health. We look at the role of diet in shaping the microbiome and the influence of specific dietary components, namely protein, fat and carbohydrates, on gut microbiota composition.
- Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Operate by Different Mechanisms to Modulate Hepatic Steatosis and Hyperinsulemia in fa/fa Zucker Rats. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 24; 11(4)
- Hepatic steatosis, an early stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is commonly present in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is associated with reduced hepatic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (…
Hepatic steatosis, an early stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is commonly present in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is associated with reduced hepatic omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) status that impacts on the anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing functions of n3-PUFA. Our objective was to directly compare plant- and marine-based n3-PUFA (α-linoleic acid (ALA)), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) for their effects on hepatic steatosis, markers of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, and insulinemia in obese rats. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided diets containing ALA, EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (LA, n6-PUFA) for eight weeks and compared to baseline fa/fa rats and lean Zucker rats fed LA-rich diet for eight weeks. Both DHA and EPA groups had liver lipid similar to baseline, however, DHA was more effective than EPA for reducing hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS), increasing the proportion of smaller lipid droplets, reversing early fibrotic damage, and reducing fasting hyperinsulinemia. EPA was more effective for reducing FoxO1. Dietary ALA did not attenuate hepatic steatosis, most inflammatory markers or FAS. In summary, amongst the n3-PUFA, DHA was the most effective for elevating hepatic DHA levels, and preventing progression of hepatic steatosis via reductions in FAS and a marker of fibrosis.
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- Plasma Transthyretin as A Biomarker of Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 Apr 21; 11(4)
- Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, the chief component of the structural compartment belonging to lean body mass (LBM), undergoes sarcopenia with increasing age. Decreased SM in elderly persons is a naturall…
Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, the chief component of the structural compartment belonging to lean body mass (LBM), undergoes sarcopenia with increasing age. Decreased SM in elderly persons is a naturally occurring process that may be accelerated by acute or chronic nutritional deficiencies and/or inflammatory disorders, declining processes associated with harmful complications. A recently published position paper by European experts has provided an overall survey on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly persons. The present review describes the additional contributory role played by the noninvasive transthyretin (TTR) micromethod. The body mass index (BMI) formula is currently used in clinical studies as a criterion of good health to detect, prevent, and follow up on the downward trend of muscle mass. The recent upsurge of sarcopenic obesity with its multiple subclasses has led to a confused stratification of SM and fat stores, prompting workers to eliminate BMI from screening programs. As a result, investigators are now focusing on indices of protein status that participate in SM growth, maturation, and catabolism that might serve to identify sarcopenia trajectories. Plasma TTR is clearly superior to all other hepatic biomarkers, showing the same evolutionary patterns as those displayed in health and disease by both visceral and structural LBM compartments. As a result, this TTR parameter maintains positive correlations with muscle mass downsizing in elderly persons. The liver synthesis of TTR is downregulated in protein-depleted states and suppressed in cytokine-induced inflammatory disorders. TTR integrates the centrally-mediated regulatory mechanisms governing the balance between protein accretion and protein breakdown, emerging as the ultimate indicator of LBM resources. This review proposes the adoption of a gray zone defined by cut-off values ranging from 200 mg/L to 100 mg/L between which TTR plasma values may fluctuate and predict either the best or the worst outcome. The best outcome occurs when appropriate dietary, medicinal and surgical decisions are undertaken, resuming TTR synthesis which manifests rising trends towards pre-stress levels. The worst occurs when all therapeutic means fail to succeed, leading inevitably to complete exhaustion of LBM and SM metabolic resources with an ensuing fatal outcome. Some patients may remain unresponsive in the middle of the gray area, combining steady clinical states with persistent stagnant TTR values. Using the serial measurement of plasma TTR values, these last patients should be treated with the most aggressive and appropriate therapeutic strategies to ensure the best outcome.