- Testing Claims of Crime-Related Amnesia. [Review]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2018; 9:617
- Many violent offenders report amnesia for their crime. Although this type of memory loss is possible, there are reasons to assume that many claims of crime-related amnesia are feigned. This article d...
Many violent offenders report amnesia for their crime. Although this type of memory loss is possible, there are reasons to assume that many claims of crime-related amnesia are feigned. This article describes ways to evaluate the genuineness of crime-related amnesia. A recent case is described in which several of these strategies yielded evidence for feigned crime-related amnesia.
- Novel ImPACT validity indices in collegiate student-athletes with and without histories of ADHD or academic difficulties. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 05; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: Student-athletes with self-reported histories of ADHD and academic difficulties are more likely to produce invalid protocols, even with dormant indices. These findings emphasize the difficulty in assessing validity in special populations of athletes and encourage further work in this area.
- Analysis of response patterns on the MMPI-2 in psychiatric prison inmates. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Clin Health Psychol 2015 Jan-Apr; 15(1):29-36
- In order to assess mental health status, and the classification of both the overreporting and underreporting scales and indexes, 102 psychiatric prison inmates deemed mentally incompetent to stand tr...
In order to assess mental health status, and the classification of both the overreporting and underreporting scales and indexes, 102 psychiatric prison inmates deemed mentally incompetent to stand trial completed the Spanish adaptation of the MMPI-2 under standard instructions (honest responding). The results showed patterns of consistent, non-random, nor extremely acquiescent responses. Moreover, no-outlier responses were detected. In line with the psychiatric diagnosis, all the psychiatric prison inmates were classified by the basic clinical scales as clinical cases of the psychotic dyad i.e., schizophrenia and paranoid ideation. The overreporting scales and indexes (i.e., F, K, Fb, F-K, Fp, Ds and FBS) classified the participants as malingerers, whereas the L, Wsd, and Od underreporting scales as good feigners. These scales assessing impression management i.e., consciously faking good biased responses, did not classify overreporters. Thus, they are robust indicators of honest responding among psychiatric prison inmates. The implications of these results for the practice of forensic psychology are discussed.
- Electrophysiology in diagnosis and management of neuropathic pain. [Review]
- RNRev Neurol (Paris) 2018 Oct 25
- Electrophysiological techniques demonstrate abnormalities in somatosensory transmission, hence providing objective evidence of 'somatosensory lesion or disease' which is crucial to the diagnosis of n...
Electrophysiological techniques demonstrate abnormalities in somatosensory transmission, hence providing objective evidence of 'somatosensory lesion or disease' which is crucial to the diagnosis of neuropathic pain (NP). Since most instances of NP result from damage to thermo-nociceptive pathways (thin fibres and spino-thalamo-cortical systems), specific activation of these is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy. This is currently achieved using laser pulses or contact heat stimuli, and in a near future probably also with contact cold and intra-epidermal low-intensity currents. Standard electrical stimuli, although of lesser diagnostic yield, are useful when large and small fibres are affected together. Nociceptive evoked potentials to laser (LEPs) and contact heat (CHEPs) have shown adequate sensitivity and specificity to be of clinical use in the differential diagnosis of NP, in conditions involving Aδ of C-fibres and spino-thalamo-cortical pathways. LEPs have also a role in the detection of patients at risk of developing central post-stroke pain after brainstem, thalamic or cortical injury. Cognitive cortical responses and autonomic reactions (sympathetic skin responses) reflect pain-related arousal and can document objectively positive symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. They are of help in the differential diagnosis of somatisation disorders, by discriminating conscious simulation (malingering) from conversive sensory loss. The electrophysiological approach to patients suspected, or at risk, of NP is a cost-effective procedure that should never be absent in the diagnostic armamentarium of pain clinics.
- Exaggerated Functional Impairment due to Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. [Journal Article]
- ACArch Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Nov 14
- CONCLUSIONS: The combined evaluation of performance validity, function, and coherence analysis would appear to enhance the difficult clinical evaluation of postconcussion symptoms in the medical-legal setting.
- Malingering and factitious disorder. [Journal Article]
- PNPract Neurol 2018 Nov 13
- Although exaggeration or amplification of symptoms is common in all illness, deliberate deception is rare. In settings associated with litigation/disability evaluation, the rate of malingering may be...
Although exaggeration or amplification of symptoms is common in all illness, deliberate deception is rare. In settings associated with litigation/disability evaluation, the rate of malingering may be as high as 30%, but its frequency in clinical practice is not known. We describe the main characteristics of deliberate deception (factitious disorders and malingering) and ways that neurologists might detect symptom exaggeration. The key to establishing that the extent or severity of reported symptoms does not truly represent their severity is to elicit inconsistencies in different domains, but it is not possible to determine whether the reports are intentionally inaccurate. Neurological disorders where difficulty in determining the degree of willed exaggeration is most likely include functional weakness and movement disorders, post-concussional syndrome (or mild traumatic brain injury), psychogenic non-epileptic attacks and complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (especially when there is an associated functional movement disorder). Symptom amplification or even fabrication are more likely if the patient might gain benefit of some sort, not necessarily financial. Techniques to detect deception in medicolegal settings include covert surveillance and review of social media accounts. We also briefly describe specialised psychological tests designed to elicit effort from the patient.
- Neuropsychology and clinical health psychology in the UK Ministry of Defence. [Journal Article]
- JRJ R Army Med Corps 2018 Nov 09
- Neuropsychological testing has been used in a wide range of applications across military settings, including the selection of personnel to engage in covert operations, battlefield assessment and reha...
Neuropsychological testing has been used in a wide range of applications across military settings, including the selection of personnel to engage in covert operations, battlefield assessment and rehabilitation following blast exposure, traumatic brain injury, other neurological conditions and assessments of malingering. Over recent decades, military psychologists have helped to shape the advances in assessing and remediating the psychological sequela that is associated with operationally related neurological and other physical injuries. This paper will present an overview of some of the neuropsychological and related services within the UK Armed Forces, which are provided to service personnel with traumatic brain and other physical injuries.
- [Classification accuracy of the symptom validity tests Word Memory Test and the German version of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology]. [Journal Article]
- NNervenarzt 2018 Oct 29
- CONCLUSIONS: Only the combined deployment of the WMT and the SFSS yielded satisfactory results. Given the high probability of false positive classifications of malingering, the use of one of the tests alone cannot be recommended.
- Hearing loss in the trenches - a hidden morbidity of World War I. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Laryngol Otol 2018; 132(11):952-955
- CONCLUSIONS: Today, one can recognise that a scant evidence base and misconceptions influenced the mismanagement of hearing loss by otolaryngologists in World War I. However, noise-induced hearing loss is still very much a feature of armed conflict.
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- A meta-analysis of malingering detection measures for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [Journal Article]
- PAPsychol Assess 2018 Oct 25
- This meta-analysis compares stand-alone and embedded performance and symptom validity tests (PVTs and SVTs) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) malingering detection in college studen...
This meta-analysis compares stand-alone and embedded performance and symptom validity tests (PVTs and SVTs) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) malingering detection in college students. Simulation design studies utilizing college student samples were included (k = 11). Analyses consisted of measures designed or previously used for malingering detection. Random-effects models were constructed to provide aggregated weighted effect sizes (Hedges' g), indicating the difference between genuine ADHD and simulation groups. Overall PVTs (stand-alone and embedded) produced a large effect size (g = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.72, 1.13], p < .001), whereas overall SVTs (stand-alone and embedded) produced a medium-effect size (g = 0.54, 95% CI [0.44, 0.65], p < .001). Stand-alone PVTs (g = 0.98, 95% CI [0.84, 1.12], p < .001) outperformed embedded PVTs (g = 0.66, 95% CI [0.51, 0.80], p < .001). The stand-alone SVT (g = 0.66) and embedded SVTs (g = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43, 0.65], p < .001) produced medium-effect sizes. These findings support stand-alone PVTs and suggest that performance-based measures should be included in ADHD evaluation batteries, which may consist solely of symptom self-report measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).