- Recent advances of medical foods in China: The opportunities and challenges under standardization. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2018 Feb 13
- Malnutrition with high incidence in hospitalized patients in China has brought a significant burden of disease. Although many clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of nutritional for pati...
Malnutrition with high incidence in hospitalized patients in China has brought a significant burden of disease. Although many clinical studies have demonstrated the importance of nutritional for patients with malnutrition, the application of medical foods in China is still restricted. For the classification, limits, production and registration of medical foods, the Chinese government newly enacted a series of regulations. In this review, comparing the policy, researches, and product variety of medical foods in China with other countries, although the current status of the development of medical foods in China is still far behind that of developed countries, some of regulations are stricter than those of many other countries or organizations. The medical foods in China are divided into four categories, the nutrients and environmental contaminants are limited to ensure the safety. As a prospect, the development of medical foods in China is expected to get out of the predicament of lack of emphasis, shortage of supply, backward of local processing technology and the imperfect management system. After all, in view of the huge population and the increasing demand of nutrition in China, there must be a very good prospect for the future development of the medical foods industry in China.
- Active Brazilian crack cocaine users: nutritional, anthropometric, and drug use profiles. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Psiquiatr 2018 Feb 15; :0
- CONCLUSIONS: This is a pioneering study that examines the nutritional status of crack users. Our results showed that most crack users present normal anthropometric findings and the prevalence of underweight is low. However, blood analysis showed changes and a specific type of malnutrition.
- A human rights approach to the health implications of food and nutrition insecurity. [Editorial]
- PHPublic Health Rev 2017; 38:10
- Food and nutrition insecurity continues to pose a serious global challenge, reflecting government shortcomings in meeting international obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, and qual...
Food and nutrition insecurity continues to pose a serious global challenge, reflecting government shortcomings in meeting international obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, and quality of food and to ensure the highest attainable standard of health of their peoples. With global drivers like climate change, urbanization, greater armed conflict, and the globalization of unhealthy diet, particularly in under-resourced countries, food insecurity is rapidly becoming an even greater challenge for those living in poverty. International human rights law can serve a critical role in guiding governments that are struggling to protect the health of their populations, particularly among the most susceptible groups, in responding to food and nutrition insecurity. This article explores and advocates for a human rights approach to food and nutrition security, specifically identifying legal mechanisms to "domesticate" relevant international human rights standards through national policy. Recognizing nutrition security as a determinant of public health, this article recognizes the important links between the four main elements of food security (i.e., availability, stability, utilization, and access) and the normative attributes of the right to health and the right to food (i.e., availability, accessibility, affordability, and quality). In drawing from the evolution of international human rights instruments, official documents issued by international human rights treaty bodies, as well as past scholarship at the intersection of the right to health and right to food, this article interprets and articulates the intersectional rights-based obligations of national governments in the face of food and nutrition insecurity.
- Impact of malnutrition on survival and healthcare utilization in Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes: a retrospective cohort analysis. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2018; 6(1):e000471
- CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition is a significant comorbidity affecting survival and healthcare costs in CMS beneficiaries with diabetes. Evidence-based clinical decision pathways need to be developed and implemented for appropriate screening, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of malnourished patients, and to prevent malnutrition in normo-nourished patients with diabetes.
- Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency on Incidence Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018; 9:7
- CONCLUSIONS: Some evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
- Chitinase-3-like 1 is a biomarker of acute kidney injury and mortality in paediatric severe malaria. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2018 Feb 15; 17(1):82
- CONCLUSIONS: CHI3L1 is a novel biomarker of malaria-associated AKI and an independent risk factor for mortality that is associated with well-established pathways of severe malaria pathogenesis including inflammation, endothelial activation, and haemolysis. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01255215. Registered December 7th 2010.
- Efficacy of commercial formulas in comparison with home-made formulas for enteral feeding: A critical review. [Review]
- MJMed J Islam Repub Iran 2017; 31:55
- Background: In several disease conditions, patients must inevitably be nourished by enteral feeding (EF). Though in many countries, commercial formulas are routinely used for EF, ...
Background: In several disease conditions, patients must inevitably be nourished by enteral feeding (EF). Though in many countries, commercial formulas are routinely used for EF, in Iran still home-made formulas are commonly employed as commercial formulas are not covered by insurance. This may pose patients to malnutrition and bring about further costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EF commercial formulas in comparison with home-made formulas and thus to make further evidence for insurance policy-makingMethods:Medline, Cochrane, Embass and Center for Review & Dissemination (CRD) as well as IranDoc and SID databases were searched. Keywords included formula, ICU, and enteral nutrition or tube feeding. No clinical trial study on the efficacy of EF formulas was found. Therefore, the compositions of available formulas and their cost-effectiveness were evaluated based on the clinical guidelines of scientific bodies such as American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) and relative articles available in PubMed. In addition, the expert opinions were also taken into consideration.Results:Domestic commercial formulas seemed to less merit dietary recommended intakes, i.e. the amount of some nutrients were much higher, and some others were much lower than the recommended values. The amount of several micronutrients including vitamins B1, B6, C, D and K, as well as iron, calcium and magnesium were not sufficient to meet the body needs in most commercial formulas upon receiving 2000 kilocalories and less.Conclusion:Clinical studies on the efficacy of commercial formulas in comparison with home-made formulas are needed. Meanwhile, making suitable conditions for increasing the diversity of artificial nutrition products in the market would help clinical nutritionists to make better choices according to their patients conditions and to reduce the costs, as well.
- Fetal growth restriction in rural Bangladesh: a prospective study. [Journal Article]
- TMTrop Med Health 2018; 46:3
- CONCLUSIONS: The present population-based study showed that fetuses were smaller in the third trimester when compared with the reference charts. Growth faltering started in the second trimester for all the biometric parameters for the head, abdomen, and femur. This finding provides more challenges concerning nutritional interventions.
- Committed to be fit. The value of preoperative care in the perioperative medicine era. [Journal Article]
- MAMinerva Anestesiol 2018 Feb 14
- In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These ha...
In the era of perioperative medicine, important advances have been made in the perioperative care of patients, usually within those known as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols. These have led to a decrease in postoperative complications and the duration of hospital stays; however, there is still a lack of preoperative care, which could make perioperative medicine more prominent. Elderly patients, malnourished, anaemic and ones with a low physical function before surgery are likely to have sub-optimal recovery from surgery. More importantly, a low functional reserve, together with the inherent physiological stress of surgery, reduces the functional capacity of patients in the postoperative period, meaning that they will not reach their preoperative functional capacity. It is well established that both preoperative malnutrition and anaemia worsen surgical results, however, for various reasons, their preoperative optimisation is complex. Additionally, both are related to the functional capacity of patients. During the last years, prehabilitation has been incorporated into ERAS protocols. Prehabilitation consists of exercise training and nutritional and psychological support, which increases the physiological reserve before surgical stress. The integration of exercise, adequate nutrition, anaemia correction and psycho-social components, with multi-modal optimisation in the preoperative period leads to an improvement in the functional capacity of the patients undergoing surgery, with the consequent improvement in terms of outcomes. The present article discusses specific aspects of preoperative care which are not well defined in the ERAS protocols and which represent fundamental shifts in surgical practice, including preoperative nutrition, management of preoperative anaemia and prehabilitation.
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- Subcutaneous Infusion of Fluids for Hydration or Nutrition: A Review. [Review]
- JJJPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2018; 42(2):296-307
- Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or...
Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or arms. In this review, we provide an overview of the technique, summarize findings from studies that have examined the use of subcutaneous infusion of fluids for hydration or nutrition, and describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of subcutaneous infusion. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that, when indicated, subcutaneous infusion can be effective for administering fluids for hydration or nutrition, with minimal complications, and has similar effectiveness and safety to the intravenous route. Of note, subcutaneous infusion offers several advantages over intravenous infusion, including ease of application, low cost, and the lack of potential serious complications, particularly infections. Subcutaneous infusion may be particularly suited for patients with mild to moderate dehydration or malnutrition when oral/enteral intake is insufficient; when placement of an intravenous catheter is not possible, tolerated, or desirable; at risk of dehydration when oral intake is not tolerated; as a bridging technique in case of difficult intravenous access or catheter-related bloodstream infection while infection control treatment is being attempted; and in multiple settings (eg, emergency department, hospital, outpatient clinic, nursing home, long-term care, hospice, and home).