- The prevalence of diagnosed obsessive compulsive disorder and associated comorbidities: A population-based Canadian study. [Journal Article]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2018 Jul 11; 268:137-142
- The objective of this study was to provide epidemiological data regarding obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Canada, and examine related conditions, childhood experiences and healthcare utilizati...
The objective of this study was to provide epidemiological data regarding obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in Canada, and examine related conditions, childhood experiences and healthcare utilization. A Statistics Canada population-based health survey was utilized (N = 25,097). The prevalence of diagnosed OCD in Canada was 0.93% (95% CI 0.75-1.11). People with OCD were younger and more likely to have lower incomes. They were more likely to have mood disorders including depression and bipolar disorder (both diagnosed conditions and by screening), and generalized anxiety disorder. The diagnosis of OCD was also associated with alcohol dependence and substance abuse and dependence. Negative childhood experiences were more common in people with OCD, with 72.33%(95% CI 62.25%-82.41%) of people with OCD having experienced some form of childhood maltreatment. Healthcare utilization was more frequent in people with OCD, but they were also more likely to desire help but feel as if they did not receive it. The higher proportion of people with OCD reporting not receiving the care they needed may reveal a crucial gap in treatment and available resources.
- Mode-Selective Raman Imaging of Dopamine-Human Dopamine Transporter Interaction in Live Cells. [Journal Article]
- ACACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Jul 19
- Dopamine (DA) is the catecholamine neurotransmitter which interacts with dopamine receptors (DARs) to generate dopaminergic signals in nervous system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) interacts with DA to ...
Dopamine (DA) is the catecholamine neurotransmitter which interacts with dopamine receptors (DARs) to generate dopaminergic signals in nervous system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) interacts with DA to maintain DA's homeostasis in synaptic and perisynaptic space. DAT and DARs have great importance in central nervous system (CNS) since they are associated to the targeted binding of drugs. Interactions of DA, or its analogue with DARs, or DAT have been studied extensively to understand the mechanism of the dopaminergic signaling process and several neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson's diseases, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder. However, there is still a lack of a risk free, label free, and minimally invasive imaging approach to probe the interaction between DA and DAT or DARs. Here, we have probed the dopamine (DA), human dopamine transporter (hDAT), and DA-hDAT interactions in live cells using combined approach of two-photon excited (2PE) fluorescence imaging and mode-selective Raman measurement. We utilized the signature Raman peak at 1287 cm-1 to probe the location of DA and 807 and 1076 cm-1 to probe the DA-hDAT interaction in live cells. We found that the combined approach of mode-selective Raman imaging, 2PE fluorescence imaging, and computational methods is successful to probe and confirm the DA-hDAT interactions in living cells. The probing of the interactions of DARs or DAT with DA or other targeting drugs is crucial for the diagnosis and cure of several neurodegenerative diseases. Also, this analytical approach could be extended to probe other types of protein-ligand interactions.
- The feasibility and acceptability of a novel anxiety in bipolar disorder intervention compared to treatment as usual: A randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- DADepress Anxiety 2018 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: AIBD is feasible and acceptable but lack of impact on clinical outcomes indicates that adaptations are required. These are discussed in relation to qualitative feedback and recent literature published since the trial completed.
- Integrated psychological therapy for people with bipolar disorder and co-morbid alcohol use: A feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- CCContemp Clin Trials Commun 2018; 10:193-198
- Co-morbid substance misuse, particularly alcohol, is common in bipolar disorder (BD) and associated with worse treatment outcomes. Research into psychological interventions for substance misuse in BD...
Co-morbid substance misuse, particularly alcohol, is common in bipolar disorder (BD) and associated with worse treatment outcomes. Research into psychological interventions for substance misuse in BD is at an early stage and no studies have specifically targeted problematic alcohol use. This paper describes the context and protocol for a feasibility and acceptability randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a novel intervention combining motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy (MI-CBT) for participants with BD and problematic alcohol use, developed in collaboration with people with lived experience of both issues.
- Statins and cognition in late-life bipolar disorder. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with BD, statin use is not independently associated with cognitive impairment. This suggests that in older BD patients, the cognitive dysfunction associated with BD trumps the potential cognitive benefit that is associated with statins in older adults without a psychiatric disorder. Further, statins do not seem to exacerbate this cognitive dysfunction. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.
- Prevalence of seasonal depression in a prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul 18
- The prevalence of autumn/winter seasonality in depression has been documented in the longitudinal Zurich cohort study by five comprehensive diagnostic interviews at intervals over more than 20 years ...
The prevalence of autumn/winter seasonality in depression has been documented in the longitudinal Zurich cohort study by five comprehensive diagnostic interviews at intervals over more than 20 years (N = 499). Repeated winter major depressive episodes (MDE-unipolar + bipolar) showed a prevalence of 3.44% (5× more women than men), whereas MDE with a single winter episode was much higher (9.96%). A total of 7.52% suffered from autumn/winter seasonality in major and minor depressive mood states. The clinical interviews revealed novel findings: high comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia within the repeated seasonal MDE group, high incidence of classic diurnal variation of mood (with evening improvement), as well as a high rate of oversensitivity to light, noise, or smell. Nearly twice as many of these individuals as in the other MDE groups manifested the syndrome of atypical depression (DSM-V), which supports the prior description of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) as presenting primarily atypical symptoms (which include hypersomnia and increase in appetite and weight). This long-term database of regular structured interviews provides important confirmation of SAD as a valid diagnosis, predominantly found in women, and with atypical vegetative symptoms.
- Nitrated meat products are associated with mania in humans and altered behavior and brain gene expression in rats. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Psychiatry 2018 Jul 18
- Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. W...
Mania is a serious neuropsychiatric condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that environmental exposures can contribute to mania pathogenesis. We measured dietary exposures in a cohort of individuals with mania and other psychiatric disorders as well as in control individuals without a psychiatric disorder. We found that a history of eating nitrated dry cured meat but not other meat or fish products was strongly and independently associated with current mania (adjusted odds ratio 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24-5.45, p < 8.97 × 10-8). Lower odds of association were found between eating nitrated dry cured meat and other psychiatric disorders. We further found that the feeding of meat preparations with added nitrate to rats resulted in hyperactivity reminiscent of human mania, alterations in brain pathways that have been implicated in human bipolar disorder, and changes in intestinal microbiota. These findings may lead to new methods for preventing mania and for developing novel therapeutic interventions.
- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Drug and alcohol abuse is a common societal problem worldwide. Drug/Substance Abuse Drugs abuse refers to the excessive use of drugs that tends to activate brain reward system that reinforces behavio...
Drug and alcohol abuse is a common societal problem worldwide. Drug/Substance Abuse Drugs abuse refers to the excessive use of drugs that tends to activate brain reward system that reinforces behaviors and the production of memories. Substance abuse has been adopted by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to include 10 separate classes of drugs, including alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics, stimulants, tobacco and other substances. These drugs produce such an intense activation of the reward system that normal activities may be neglected. Instead of achieving reward through adaptive behaviors, drugs of abuse directly activate the reward pathways. Each class of drug produces different pharmacological mechanisms, but the drugs typically activate the system and produce a feeling of pleasure, often referred to as a high.Substance-induced disorders include intoxication, withdrawal and substance-induced mental disorders such as psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction, delirium, and neurocognitive disorders. Alcohol Abuse Alcohol abuse refers to drinking too much alcohol on occasion, as well as habits of drinking alcohol that result in harm to health, ability to work behavior, and judgment. Alcohol abusers generally are not dependent on alcohol. Alcohol dependence, on the other hand, means a person needs alcohol to get through his or her day. Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency were previous terms used in DSM-IV. DSM-5 has combined alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence to create a unified disorder, alcohol use disorder (AUD).
- [Treatment-resistant constipation and the need for chronic use of laxatives following lithium administration]. [Journal Article]
- TPTijdschr Psychiatr 2018; 60(7):481-484
- Just a few days after the introduction of lithium therapy to treat a 35-year old man suffering from a bipolar disorder, complaints of constipation arose. The issue persisted despite numerous trials w...
Just a few days after the introduction of lithium therapy to treat a 35-year old man suffering from a bipolar disorder, complaints of constipation arose. The issue persisted despite numerous trials with first and second line laxatives at adequate dose and duration over a period of several weeks. After the singular administration of highly dosed macrogol laxatives with electrolytes, a lower dosage was established as maintenance treatment, yielding promising results. However, the potential interactions as well as the possible fluctuations in serum lithium levels when combining a maintenance treatment of both lithium and laxatives remains to be evaluated.
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- [The diagnosis of unipolar versus bipolar disorders using neuroimaging]. [Journal Article]
- TPTijdschr Psychiatr 2018; 60(7):471-480
- Clinical differentiation between unipolar and bipolar depression can be a challenge. Additional diagnostic tools based on biomarkers could help resolve ambiguous cases. In this article we discuss stu...
Clinical differentiation between unipolar and bipolar depression can be a challenge. Additional diagnostic tools based on biomarkers could help resolve ambiguous cases. In this article we discuss studies from the dissertation 'Bipolar or unipolar? A brain teasing question', investigating to which extent neuroimaging could contribute to such detection.<br /> AIM: To investigate whether neuroimaging can aid in differentiating between uni- and bipolar disorder.<br /> METHOD: An analysis of the brain anatomy and functioning in medication-free uni- and bipolar participants and healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).<br /> RESULTS: The results indicate that there are differences regarding both brain structure and functioning when comparing unipolar and bipolar patients. The nature of these differences corresponded with the present mood state. Diagnosis could also be predicted on an individual level. However, direct implementation during clinical practice is currently not possible, in part due to the heterogeneity of the findings and the limitations inherent to MRI-research.<br /> CONCLUSION: Neuroimaging may be a promising technique for development of additional diagnostic tools to differentiate between unipolar and bipolar disorder.