- Is air pollution a potential cause of neuronal injury? [Journal Article]
- NRNeurol Res 2019 May 17; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Gluconeogenesis was induced in human neural cells exposed to fine particles (DEP), in association with cell damage and oxidative stress. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury due to fine particle pollutant exposure may proceed through derangements in gluconeogenic metabolism.
- Valsartan chronotherapy reverts the non-dipper pattern and improves blood pressure control through mediation of circadian rhythms of the renin-angiotensin system in spontaneous hypertension rats. [Journal Article]
- CIChronobiol Int 2019 May 17; :1-14
- CONCLUSIONS: VSA may be more efficacious than VWA in controlling BP, circadian BP rhythm and blood RAS rhythm. Recent cardiovascular outcome investigations substantiate that chronotherapy treatment might be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypertension therapy.
- Gene selection for microarray data classification via adaptive hypergraph embedded dictionary learning. [Journal Article]
- GENEGene 2019 May 11
- Due to the rapid development of DNA microarray technology, a large number of microarray data come into being and classifying these data has been verified useful for cancer diagnosis, treatment and pr…
Due to the rapid development of DNA microarray technology, a large number of microarray data come into being and classifying these data has been verified useful for cancer diagnosis, treatment and prevention. However, microarray data classification is still a challenging task since there are often a huge number of genes but a small number of samples in gene expression data. As a result, a computational method for reducing the dimension of microarray data is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a computational gene selection model for microarray data classification via adaptive hypergraph embedded dictionary learning (AHEDL). Specifically, a dictionary is learned from the feature space of original high dimensional microarray data, and this learned dictionary is used to represent original genes with a reconstruction coefficient matrix. Then we use a l2, 1-norm regularization to impose the row sparsity on the coefficient matrix for selecting discriminate genes. Meanwhile, in order to capture the localmanifold geometrical structure of original microarray data in a high-order manner, a hypergraph is adaptively learned and embedded into the model. An iterative updating algorithm is designed for solving the optimization problem. In order to validate the efficacy of the proposed model, we have conducted experiments on six publicly available microarray data sets and the results demonstrate that AHEDL outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of microarray data classification. ABBREVIATIONS.
- Establishing a neonatal database in a tertiary hospital in Rwanda - an observational study. [Journal Article]
- PIPaediatr Int Child Health 2019 May 13; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: An academic setting in a low- or middle-income country can create and maintain a neonatal database without funding and produce a wealth of actionable results. Throughout the process, there were considerable challenges which must be addressed if such a database is to be optimised, maintained and created in other clinical sites.
- New molecular therapies for the treatment of hearing loss. [Review]
- P&TPharmacol Ther 2019 May 08
- An estimated 466 million people suffer from hearing loss worldwide. Sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by degeneration of key structures of the sensory pathway in the cochlea such as the sen…
An estimated 466 million people suffer from hearing loss worldwide. Sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by degeneration of key structures of the sensory pathway in the cochlea such as the sensory hair cells, the primary auditory neurons and their synaptic connection to the hair cells - the ribbon synapse. Various strategies to protect or regenerate these sensory cells and structures are the subject of intensive research. Yet despite recent advances in our understandings of the capacity of the cochlea for repair and regeneration there are currently no pharmacological or biological interventions for hearing loss. Current research focusses on localized cochlear drug, gene and cell-based therapies. One of the more promising drug-based therapies is based on neurotrophic factors for the repair of the ribbon synapse after noise exposure, as well as preventing loss of primary auditory neurons and regrowth of the auditory neuron fibers after severe hearing loss. Drug therapy delivery technologies are being employed to address the specific needs of neurotrophin and other therapies for hearing loss that include the need for high doses, long-term delivery, localised or cell-specific targeting and techniques for their safe and efficacious delivery to the cochlea. Novel biomaterials are enabling high payloads of drugs to be administered to the cochlea with subsequent slow-release properties that are proving to be beneficial for treating hearing loss. In parallel, new gene therapy technologies are addressing the need for cell specificity and high efficacy for the treatment of both genetic and acquired hearing loss with promising reports of hearing recovery. Some biomaterials and cell therapies are being used in conjunction with the cochlear implant ensuring therapeutic benefit to the primary neurons during electrical stimulation. This review will introduce the auditory system, hearing loss and the potential for repair and regeneration in the cochlea. Drug delivery to the cochlea will then be reviewed, with a focus on new biomaterials, gene therapy technologies, cell therapy and the use of the cochlear implant as a vehicle for drug delivery. With the current pre-clinical research effort into therapies for hearing loss, including clinical trials for gene therapy, the future for the treatment for hearing loss is looking bright.
- Opposite Effects of Garcinol on Tumor Energy Metabolism in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells. [Journal Article]
- NCNutr Cancer 2019 May 10; :1-9
- Garcinol is a natural polyisoprenylated benzophenone extracted from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of garcinol in oral squamous cell carci…
Garcinol is a natural polyisoprenylated benzophenone extracted from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of garcinol in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and its action on cancer cell energy metabolisms. Cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion assays were detected, and oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates were also measured with Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Our studies showed that garcinol represses OSCC cells proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion, and colony formation. Of note, garcinol directly targeted cancer cell energy producing pathway mitochondrial respiration by significantly inhibiting ATP production, maximal respiration, spare respiration capacity and basal respiration in a dose-dependent manner. But garcinol treatment reflexively boosted glycolysis presented by increased glycolysis and glycolytic capacity. The promotion of garcinol on glycolytic pathway is also confirmed presented by elevated lactic acid content and the activity of pyruvate kinase. Furthermore, the expression of glucose transporter1 and 4, and several important genes related to the glycolysis pathway, including HIF-1α, AKT, and PTEN, was also upregulated after garcinol treatment. Taken together, our results revealed that garcinol has opposite effects on tumor energy metabolism through inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation significantly, and reflexively enhancing glycolysis in OSCC cells. Abbreviations OSCC oral squamous cell carcinoma DMBA dimethylbenzanthracene OCR oxygen consumption rate OXPHOS oxidative phosphorylation ECAR extracellular acidification rate.
- Effects of statins on anxiety and depression in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Affect Disord 2019 May 02; 253:277-284
- CONCLUSIONS: The ACOS cohort with statin use had lower risks of anxiety and depression, regardless of age, sex, commodities, or ICSs and OSs. The incidences of anxiety and depression were relatively low among users of statins with ICSs or OSs in the ACOS cohort.
- Role of C-reactive Protein as an Indicator for Determining the Outcome of Sepsis. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Crit Care Med 2019; 23(1):11-14
- CONCLUSIONS: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a more useful tool in predicting improvement and outcome in patients admitted with sepsis when compared to scoring systems like SOFA score.
- Optimizing Radiology Reports for Patients and Referring Physicians: Mitigating the Curse of Knowledge. [Journal Article]
- ARAcad Radiol 2019 May 04
- As the movement for increased transparency in healthcare continues, more and more patients are accessing their imaging reports via patient portals. The shift to structured radiology reports has incre…
As the movement for increased transparency in healthcare continues, more and more patients are accessing their imaging reports via patient portals. The shift to structured radiology reports has increased report clarity for referring providers and is supported by most radiologists. When radiologists address the clinical question that was posed, avoid the use of abbreviations, and create a report impression that is as simple as possible, we provide real added value via effective communication through our reports. In creating our reports with the patient in mind, and specifically knowing that many patients now directly review their imaging reports, we must be cognizant of the "curse of knowledge." The curse of knowledge is a cognitive bias that exists when we assume others have the background to understand our often complex radiology reports. Striving to mitigate the curse of knowledge is important for both patients and referring providers reading our reports, and a report impression that is presented as simply as possible in "lay language" is one tangible step toward this goal. Educating our residents and fellows about these important considerations as they create their reports is imperative to their success as radiologists.
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- Association of serum levels of p,p'- Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) with type 2 diabetes in African American and Caucasian adult men from agricultural (Delta) and non-agricultural (non-Delta) regions of Mississippi. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Toxicol Environ Health A 2019 May 07; :1-14
- Epidemiological associations were reported in several studies between persistent organochlorine organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Mississippi is a highly agricultural state in th…
Epidemiological associations were reported in several studies between persistent organochlorine organic pollutants and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Mississippi is a highly agricultural state in the USA, particularly the Delta region, with previous high usage of organochlorine (OC) insecticides such as p,p'- dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). In addition, there is a high proportion of African Americans who display elevated prevalence of T2D. Therefore, this State provides an important dataset for further investigating any relationship between OC compounds and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether soil and serum levels of OC compounds, such as p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), arising from the heavy historical use of legacy OC insecticides, might serve as an environmental public health indicator for T2D occurrence. Soil samples from 60 Delta and 60 non-Delta sites randomly selected were analyzed for the presence of OC compounds. A retrospective cohort study of adult men (150 from each region) was recruited to provide a blood sample for OC compound quantitation and select demographic and clinical information including T2D. Using multivariable logistic regression, an association was found between increasing serum DDE levels and T2D occurrence in non-Delta participants (those subjects with lower serum DDE levels), as opposed to Delta participants (individuals with higher serum DDE levels). Thus, while there was a relationship between serum DDE levels and T2D in those with lower burdens of DDE, the lack of association in those with higher levels of DDE indicates a complex non-monotonic correlation between serum DDE levels and T2D occurrence complicating the goal of finding a public health marker for T2D. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; CDC, Center for Disease Control, United States of America; DDE, p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; DDT, p,p'- dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; GC/MS, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; GIS, geographic information system; GPS, global positioning system; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HTN, hypertension; IDW, inverse distance weighting; IRB, Institutional Review Board; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; LOQ, limit of quantitation; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; POPs, persistent organic pollutants; OC, organochlorine; PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl; SIM, single-ion monitoring; T2D, type 2 diabetes mellitus; USA, United States of America.