- Dysexecutive disorders and their diagnosis: A position paper. [Review]
- CCortex 2018 Oct 17; 109:322-335
- Although executive function disorders are among the most prevalent cognitive impairments a consensus on diagnostic criteria has yet to be reached. With a view to harmonizing these criteria, the prese...
Although executive function disorders are among the most prevalent cognitive impairments a consensus on diagnostic criteria has yet to be reached. With a view to harmonizing these criteria, the present position paper (i) focuses on the main dysexecutive disorders, (ii) examines recent approaches in both the behavioral and cognitive domains, (iii) defines diagnostic boundaries for frontal syndrome, (iv) reports on the frequency and profile of the executive function disorders observed in the main brain diseases, and (v) proposes an operationalization of diagnostic criteria. Future work must define the executive processes involved in human adaptive behavior, characterize their impairment in brain diseases, and improve the management of these conditions (including remediation strategies and rehabilitation).
- Awake Craniotomy for the Removal of a Left Insular Cavernous Malformation. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Nov 08
- The insula plays a crucial role in speech planning due to its connections with cortical and sub-cortical areas. Surgical management of cavernous malformation (CM) of the insula consist in total resec...
The insula plays a crucial role in speech planning due to its connections with cortical and sub-cortical areas. Surgical management of cavernous malformation (CM) of the insula consist in total resection of the lesion and the surrounding gliosis to avoid or reduce seizures. When located in the dominant hemisphere an awake craniotomy with intraoperative mapping reduce the risk of functional damage. The insula is covered by the operculum and gets relationship with the middle cerebral artery and its branches that run along its lateral surface. Therefore, high expertise is required to manage the exposure of the insula and its complex anatomy. This video demonstrates the surgical management of a large left insular CM. A 29-years-old female with multiple CM and seven years of partial seizures and recent onset of short memory loss. Neuroimaging showed a large left insular and planum polare CM with important mass effect and hemorrhage signs. The patient consented to surgery and an awake pretemporal craniotomy was carried out with continuous motor evoked potential monitoring. No language function was localized in the superior temporal gyrus, therefore cortisectomy of the middle portion was performed to expand the operative corridor. The vessel manipulation during wide opening of the sylvian fissure increased the risk of postoperative vasospasm and blood drain into the surgical field. The CM was exposed and completely removed without functional damage. The patient recovered from surgery without complications and no seizures occurred at 2-months follow-up. Postoperative imaging showed complete removal of the CM.
- Nootropic and Anti-Alzheimer's Actions of Medicinal Plants: Molecular Insight into Therapeutic Potential to Alleviate Alzheimer's Neuropathology. [Review]
- MNMol Neurobiol 2018 Nov 09
- Medicinal plants are the backbone of modern medicine. In recent times, there is a great urge to discover nootropic medicinal plants to reverse cognitive dysfunction owing to their less adverse effect...
Medicinal plants are the backbone of modern medicine. In recent times, there is a great urge to discover nootropic medicinal plants to reverse cognitive dysfunction owing to their less adverse effects. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the inevitable loss of cognitive function, memory and language impairment, and behavioral disturbances, which turn into gradually more severe. Alzheimer's has no current cure, but symptomatic treatments are available and research continues. The number of patients suffering from AD continues to rise and today, there is a worldwide effort under study to find better ways to alleviate Alzheimer's pathogenesis. In this review, the nootropic and anti-Alzheimer's potentials of 6 medicinal plants (i.e., Centella asiatica, Clitoria ternatea, Crocus sativus, Terminalia chebula, Withania somnifera, and Asparagus racemosus) were explored through literature review. This appraisal focused on available information about neuroprotective and anti-Alzheimer's use of these plants and their respective bioactive compounds/metabolites and associated effects in animal models and consequences of its use in human as well as proposed molecular mechanisms. This review progresses our existing knowledge to reveal the promising linkage of traditional medicine to halt AD pathogenesis. This analysis also avowed a new insight to search the promising anti-Alzheimer's drugs.
- Development of a peptide targeting dopamine transporter to improve ADHD-like deficits. [Journal Article]
- MBMol Brain 2018 Nov 09; 11(1):66
- Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, working memory deficits and impulsivity. Its worldwide prevalence is estimate...
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, working memory deficits and impulsivity. Its worldwide prevalence is estimated to be 3-5% in children and adolescents. The mainstay treatment for ADHD is stimulant medications (e.g. methylphenidate), which increase synaptic dopamine by directly blocking dopamine transporter (DAT). Although these pharmacological agents are effective, they are often associated with various side effects including risks for future substance use disorders in ADHD patients. Here, we investigated an interaction between DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) as a novel target to develop potential therapeutics for the treatment of ADHD by using an interfering peptide (TAT-DATNT) to dissociate this protein complex. We found that TAT-DATNT promotes locomotor behavior in Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, using in vivo microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that the disruption of D2R-DAT elevates extracellular dopamine level. More importantly, the interfering peptide, TAT-DATNT, attenuates hyperactivity and improves spontaneous alternation behavior in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) ------ a common animal model of ADHD. This work presents a different means (i.e. other than direct blockade by a DAT inhibitor) to regulate the activity of DAT and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and a potential target site for future development of ADHD treatments.
- Scenes enable a sense of reliving: Implications for autobiographical memory. [Journal Article]
- CCognition 2018 Nov 06; 183:44-56
- Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recal...
Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recall the layout of a scene also results in amnesia suggesting a possible milder effect in people without such neurological damage. Based on this and other observations, we hypothesized that the degree to which the layout of a scene is recalled will correlate positively with ratings of reliving, vividness, and belief, and will explain more variance in multiple regressions than recalling the scene's contents. We also hypothesized that a lack of layout underlies nonspecific autobiographical memories which are common in aging, future events, and clinical disorders, whereas currently such memories are most commonly measured by reports of extended duration. We tested these theory-driven novel hypotheses in three studies to replicate our results. In each study, approximately 200 participants rated the layout, content, and other properties of personal events. Correlational analyses in each study and a structural equation model for the combined studies provide strong support for the role of mental scene construction in an integrative neurocognitive approach to clarify cognitive theory and clinical phenomena.
- Combined effects of olfactory dysfunction and chronic stress on anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors in mice. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2018 Nov 06
- There is a close relationship between olfactory dysfunction and depression, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies have shown that olfactory deprived animal experience a higher level o...
There is a close relationship between olfactory dysfunction and depression, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies have shown that olfactory deprived animal experience a higher level of stress compared with controls. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether olfactory deprived mice would be more vulnerable to develop cognitive and emotional impairments under chronic stresses. Mice were treated with intranasal zinc sulfate infusion which resulted in a complete but reversible loss of olfactory function, and then they were treated with either chronic restraint stress (CRS) or chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for three consecutive weeks. After that, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as spatial learning and memory were measured. We found that olfactory deficit induced depressive-like behavior and impaired spatial learning and memory in mice, and the olfactory scores were significantly correlated with depressive-like behavior or the spatial learning. After CRS, olfactory deprived mice showed less anxiety- and depressive- like behaviors and better olfactory recovery than non-stressed anosmia mice. In contrast, CUMS led to increased anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and deterred the olfactory recovery. These results indicated that transient olfactory deprivation induces emotional and cognitive impairment in mice, which could be modulated by chronic stresses with a stressor intensity dependent way.
- Cognitive rehabilitation, self-management, psychotherapeutic and caregiver support interventions in progressive neurodegenerative conditions: a scoping review. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroRehabilitation 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: The limited range of studies for all conditions except MS suggests a need firstly to synthesise systematically the available evidence across conditions and secondly to develop well-designed studies to provide evidence about the effectiveness of CR and other psychological interventions.
- Utility of an Alzheimer's Disease Risk-Weighted Polygenic Risk Score for Predicting Rates of Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 08
- CONCLUSIONS: An AD-risk-weighted PRS is associated with cognitive decline in CN older adults. However, this association is absent when APOE genotype is excluded from the PRS, suggesting that associations with cognitive decline in this model of polygenic risk are driven by APOE genotype alone. Further research is needed to define appropriate PRSs with greater utility for predicting preclinical AD cognitive decline.
- Association Between Physical Activity on Changes in Cognitive Function: Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. [Journal Article]
- PSPhys Sportsmed 2018 Nov 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Among Puerto Rican adults, physical activity may help attenuate memory decline.
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- Obesity and Alzheimer's disease, does the obesity paradox really exist? A magnetic resonance imaging study. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Oct 05; 9(78):34691-34698
- Mid-life obesity is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, whereas late-life obesity has been proposed as a protective state. Weight loss, which predates cognitive decline,...
Mid-life obesity is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, whereas late-life obesity has been proposed as a protective state. Weight loss, which predates cognitive decline, might explain this obesity paradox on AD risk. We aimed to assess the impact of late life obesity on brain structure taking into account weight loss as a potential confounder. We included 162 elderly controls of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) with available 3T MRI scan. Significant weight loss was defined as relative weight loss ≥5% between the baseline and last follow-up visit. To be able to capture weight loss, only subjects with a minimum clinical and anthropometrical follow-up of 12 months were included. Individuals were categorized into three groups according to body mass index (BMI) at baseline: normal-weight (BMI<25 Kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25-30 Kg/m2) and obese (BMI>30 Kg/m2). We performed both an interaction analysis between obesity and weight loss, and stratified group analyses in the weight-stable and weigh-loss groups. We found a significant interaction between BMI and weight loss affecting brain structure in widespread cortical areas. The stratified analyses showed atrophy in occipital, inferior temporal, precuneus and frontal regions in the weight stable group, but increased cortical thickness in the weight-loss group. In conclusion, our data support that weight loss negatively confounds the association between late-life obesity and brain atrophy. The obesity paradox on AD risk might be explained by reverse causation.