- StatPearls [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or specific lymphocytes to fight off pathogens and ...
Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or specific lymphocytes to fight off pathogens and more recent to protect against malignant tumors. This immunotherapy creates an immunological memory that can be long-lasting. The current immunizations protect against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, pneumococcal pneumonia, smallpox, sepsis, meningitis, hepatitis B, varicella-zoster, tuberculosis, cholera, diarrhea caused by rotavirus, salmonellosis, and dengue. However, the development of vaccine technology in recent years, the emergence of HIV, SARS, avian influenza, Ebola, and Zika emphasizes the need for global preparedness for a pandemic..
- Sero-molecular epidemiology of enterovirus-associated encephalitis in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2014 to 2017. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Enterovirus-associated encephalitis pathogens circulating in Zhejiang caused sporadic aseptic meningitis in children. The level of nAbs against human enterovirus reflects the history of previous infections in different age groups. Therefore, additional surveillance sites and more precise seroprevalence studies based on these populations are required to gain better insight into the epidemiology of enterovirus-associated encephalitis in Zhejiang Province.
- Tick-borne encephalitis: A 43-year summary of epidemiological and clinical data from Latvia (1973 to 2016). [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(11):e0204844
- CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that the incidence of TBE varies by about one third based on the case definition used. TBE occurs almost entirely in the unvaccinated population. Regular TBE awareness campaigns could encourage the population in Latvia to use protective measures to further control TBE in the country, either via vaccination or tick avoidance.
- Hypothermia in Young Infants: Frequency and Yield of Sepsis Workup. [Journal Article]
- PEPediatr Emerg Care 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Approximately a quarter of infants younger than 60 days with hypothermia were evaluated for SBI. Serious bacterial infection was identified in 9% of evaluated infants (2% of all hypothermic infants). Hypothermia can be a presenting sign of SBI.
- Test Characteristics of Cerebrospinal Fluid Gram Stain to Identify Bacterial Meningitis in Infants Younger Than 60 Days. [Journal Article]
- PEPediatr Emerg Care 2018 Nov 12
- In our cohort of 20,947 infants aged 60 days or younger, cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain had a sensitivity of 34.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.1%-41.1%) and a positive predictive value of 61.4% (95%...
In our cohort of 20,947 infants aged 60 days or younger, cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain had a sensitivity of 34.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.1%-41.1%) and a positive predictive value of 61.4% (95% confidence interval, 52.2%-69.8%) for positive cerebrospinal fluid culture, suggesting that Gram stain alone may lead to both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of bacterial meningitis.
- Laboratory-reflex cryptococcal antigen screening is associated with a survival benefit in Tanzania. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Nov 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Implementing laboratory-reflex CrAg screening among outpatients and hospitalized-individuals resulted in a rapid detection of cryptococcosis and a survival benefit. These results provide a model of a feasible, effective and scalable CrAg screening and treatment strategy integrated into routine care in sub-Saharan Africa.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC) , where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.
- Letter to the editor: economic analysis lacks external validity to support universal syndromic testing for suspected meningitis/encephalitis. [Journal Article]
- FMFuture Microbiol 2018 Nov 13
- In Response to: Duff S, et al. "Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients" Future Microbiology (2018) (Epub ahead of pri...
In Response to: Duff S, et al. "Economic analysis of rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for meningitis/encephalitis in pediatric patients" Future Microbiology (2018) (Epub ahead of print).
- Admission diagnoses of patients later diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurol 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: These data show the broad spectrum of initial symptoms of AE; the correct initial diagnosis of AE is often missed or delayed. Hence, clinicians in neurological and psychiatric hospitals should consider AE in the differential diagnosis of cases with atypical clinical presentations.
- Born to Cry: A Genetic Dissection of Infant Vocalization. [Journal Article]
- FBFront Behav Neurosci 2018; 12:250
- Infant vocalizations are one of the most fundamental and innate forms of behavior throughout avian and mammalian orders. They have a critical role in motivating parental care and contribute significa...
Infant vocalizations are one of the most fundamental and innate forms of behavior throughout avian and mammalian orders. They have a critical role in motivating parental care and contribute significantly to fitness and reproductive success. Dysregulation of these vocalizations has been reported to predict risk of central nervous system pathologies such as hypoxia, meningitis, or autism spectrum disorder. Here, we have used the expanded BXD family of mice, and a diallel cross between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J parental strains, to begin the process of genetically dissecting the numerous facets of infant vocalizations. We calculate heritability, estimate the role of parent-of-origin effects, and identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) on postnatal days 7, 8, and 9; a stage that closely matches human infants at birth. Heritability estimates for the number and frequency of calls are low, suggesting that these traits are under high selective pressure. In contrast, duration and amplitude of calls have higher heritabilities, indicating lower selection, or their importance for kin recognition. We find suggestive evidence that amplitude of infant calls is dependent on the maternal genotype, independent of shared genetic variants. Finally, we identify two loci on Chrs 2 and 14 influencing call frequency, and a third locus on Chr 8 influencing the amplitude of vocalizations. All three loci contain strong candidate genes that merit further analysis. Understanding the genetic control of infant vocalizations is not just important for understanding the evolution of parent-offspring interactions, but also in understanding the earliest innate behaviors, the development of parent-offspring relations, and the early identification of behavioral abnormalities.
New Search Next
- Recognition and management of febrile convulsions in children. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Nurs 2018 Nov 08; 27(20):1156-1162
- Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countr...
Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countries. This is the most common seizure disorder seen in children. The cause of febrile illness in FC is usually benign and most frequently due to acute viral infection. Convulsions secondary to an intracranial infection (e.g. meningitis, encephalitis) or from acute electrolyte imbalance should not be labelled as FCs. The diagnosis is based mainly on clinical history, and further investigations are generally unnecessary; management is largely symptomatic. Prolonged FC may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be considered in cases of complex or recurrent FC or in children where there is a pre-existing neurological disorder. One third of children with a first FC will develop a further FC during subsequent febrile illness; the likelihood increases in presence of other risk factors. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for FC, and highlights how nurses in different clinical settings can provide education, support and counselling to help families return to normality after the event. An illustrative case study is also included to highlight the challenges faced by health professionals while managing children with this condition.