- Blood pressure risk factors in early adolescents: results from a Ugandan birth cohort. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hum Hypertens 2019 Feb 25
- We aimed to investigate life-course factors associated with blood pressure (BP) among Ugandan adolescents. Between 9th April 2003 and 24th November 2005, 2507 pregnant women from Entebbe municipality…
We aimed to investigate life-course factors associated with blood pressure (BP) among Ugandan adolescents. Between 9th April 2003 and 24th November 2005, 2507 pregnant women from Entebbe municipality and Katabi sub-county were enrolled into a deworming trial. The resulting 2345 live-born offspring were followed to age 10 or 11 years, when between 20th May 2014 to 16th June 2016, BP was measured following standard protocols. Factors associated with BP were assessed using multivariable linear regression. BP was measured in 1119 adolescents with a median age of 10.2 years. Mean systolic BP and diastolic BP was 105.9 mmHg (standard deviation (SD) 8.2) and 65.2 mmHg (SD 7.3), respectively. Maternal gestational body mass index (BMI), higher maternal education status and family history of hypertension were positively associated with adolescent BP. Childhood (age ≤5 years) malaria was associated with lower adolescent systolic BP. Factors measured at time of BP measurement positively associated with systolic BP were age, BMI, waist circumference and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) infection; higher vegetable consumption was associated with lower systolic BP. Results for diastolic BP were similar, except higher fruit, rather than higher vegetable consumption was associated with lower diastolic BP and there was no association with waist circumference or Trichuris trichiura infection. In summary, life-course exposures were associated with adolescent BP in this tropical birth cohort. Malaria early in life could impact later BP. Interventions initiated early in life targeting individuals with family history of hypertension, aiming to reduce adiposity (in pregnancy and adolescence) and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption might contribute to reducing the risk of high BP and subsequent cardiovascular diseases.
- Causes of Hypochromic Microcytic Anemia in Children and Evaluation of Laboratory Parameters in the Differentiation. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2019; 41(4):e221-e223
- Most common causes of microcytic anemia in children are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia. Differentiation of these and detection of coexistence is essential for genetic counseling and to …
Most common causes of microcytic anemia in children are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia. Differentiation of these and detection of coexistence is essential for genetic counseling and to set a treatment plan. Aim is to characterize the frequency of IDA and thalassemia trait (TT) in children presenting with hypochromic, microcytic anemia and to define the significance of blood count parameters in differential diagnosis. Of the 200 enrolled, 107 were male (53.5%). In total 154 had IDA (77%), 27 had β-TT (13.5%), and in 11 (5.5%) both conditions coexisted. Eight patients had α-thalassemia gene mutations, 3 of these also had IDA. RBC, MCV, Mentzer index, serum iron, TIBC, ferritin were significantly different between IDA and β-TT patients (P<0.001); however, RDW was not different between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Sensitivity and specificity of Mentzer index for the detection of β-TT were 100% and 69.4%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of Mentzer index in diagnosing β-TT were 36.6% and 100%, respectively. Differential diagnosis of microcytic anemia is important in children, especially in regions where IDA and thalassemia are both prevalent. We found that 7% of children referred to our clinic for hypochromic, microcytic anemia had both TT and IDA. Our data showed that serum iron, ferritin, TIBC, MCV, and Mentzer index were all valuable markers in diagnosing IDA and were significantly different compared with β-TT patients; RDW was not different between the 2 groups.
- Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in Healthy Adolescents. [Clinical Trial]
- JPJ Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018; 40(4):298-303
- Assessing iron status in a pediatric population is not easy, as it is based on parameters that undergo physiological variations in childhood and adolescence. Analysis of the reticulocyte hemoglobin c…
Assessing iron status in a pediatric population is not easy, as it is based on parameters that undergo physiological variations in childhood and adolescence. Analysis of the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) to screen for iron deficiency may increase the accuracy of diagnosis, but, to date, reference values in healthy adolescents have not been adequately determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a population-based representative sample in the city of Almería (Spain), with 253 healthy non-iron-deficient (ID) subjects, aged 12 to 16 years. The mean CHr value was 31.6±1.3 pg. The CHr 2.5 percentile was 28.7 pg. There were no significant differences as regards age or sex. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, sex did not influence the variability of CHr, but it was related to age. CHr was influenced by hemoglobin and the Mentzer index, as well as by functional iron indicators such as erythrocyte protoporphyrin and serum transferrin receptor. These independent variables predicted two thirds of the variability in healthy adolescents (R=0.55). This study provides CHr reference ranges in healthy adolescents for use in clinical practice for the early detection of ID states. In populations with similar sociodemographic characteristics, values above the 2.5 percentile rule out ID, as values under the 2.5 percentile could be suggestive of functional ID.
- The role of discriminant functions in screening beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia among laboratory samples. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Lab Physicians 2017 Jul-Sep; 9(3):195-201
- CONCLUSIONS: MI was the most efficient in discriminating BTT from iron deficiency anemia (IDA). RDWI stands to be the most accurate. S and L could at best be used as screening tool rather than DF. No study except one agreed with us because convenient sampling used in other studies generated bias in their results. Statistically, this study bears far more relevance than other studies because the sample distribution reflects the prevalence of IDA and BTT in the community.
- Thoracic Trauma in the Oldest of the Old: An Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. [Journal Article]
- ASAm Surg 2017 May 01; 83(5):491-494
- Thoracic trauma (TT) has the second highest mortality rate in the geriatric population. These injuries cause significant morbidity in elderly patients. Little has been done to describe the demographi…
Thoracic trauma (TT) has the second highest mortality rate in the geriatric population. These injuries cause significant morbidity in elderly patients. Little has been done to describe the demographics and mortality of specific injuries in these patients. ICD-9 codes corresponding with thoracic trauma for patients aged >80 years were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2000 to 2010. Characteristics including gender, race, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality (IHM) were analyzed. For females and males, mean CCI was 4.84 and 4.93, respectively (P < 0.0001), and IHM was 5.49 and 2.44 per cent, respectively (P < 0.0001). For white and non-white patients, mean CCI was 4.88 and 4.84, respectively (P < 0.05), and IHM was 3.5 and 3.19 per cent, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). Logistic regression revealed correlation coefficient between CCI and mortality was 0.314 (P < 0.0001). Fitting a regression of CCI on LOS adjusting for gender and race, the adjusted effect was 0.146 (P < 0.0001). LOS was significantly less for patients surviving hospitalization. Males had higher CCI and mortality than females. Although whites had a higher CCI than non-whites, there was no difference in IHM between these two groups.
- Evaluation of five discriminating indexes to distinguish Beta-Thalassemia Trait from Iron Deficiency Anaemia. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2016; 66(12):1627-1631
- CONCLUSIONS: The red cell distribution width index was the most consistent index for differentiating between beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anaemia. IIt could be used as a screening index for beta thalassemia trait in areas where haemoglobin electrophoresis facility is unavailable.
- Introduction of new formulas and evaluation of the previous red blood cell indices and formulas in the differentiation between beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia in the Makkah region. [Journal Article]
- HHematology 2016; 21(6):351-8
- CONCLUSIONS: The England and Fraser and our new formula 1 are the best formulas in men. The England and Fraser and RDW index are the best formulas in women.
- Use of the Mentzer index will assist in early diagnosis of iron deficiency in South African children. [Letter]
- SAS Afr Med J 2015; 105(9):702-3
- Hematinic deficiencies and anemia statuses in oral mucosal disease patients with folic acid deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Formos Med Assoc 2015; 114(9):806-12
- CONCLUSIONS: In addition to macrocytic anemia (2.0%), FAD patients may have concomitant normocytic (23.7%) or microcytic (11.1%) anemia.
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- Red Cell Indices and Formulas Used in Differentiation of β-Thalassemia Trait from Iron Deficiency in Thai Adults. [Journal Article]
- HHemoglobin 2015; 39(4):235-9
- β-Thalassemia (β-thal) and iron deficiency cause most microcytic anemias. Red cell indices and formulas have been established as simple, fast, and inexpensive in discrimination between these two hema…
β-Thalassemia (β-thal) and iron deficiency cause most microcytic anemias. Red cell indices and formulas have been established as simple, fast, and inexpensive in discrimination between these two hematological disorders in school children. However, whether these formulas could be applied to diagnose β-thal trait and iron deficiency in adult Thai subjects is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of five red cell indices [red blood cell (RBC) counts, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), and red cell distribution width (RDW)] and nine formulas (RDW/RBC, RDW Index, Sirdah, Green and King, Mentzer, England and Fraser, Ehsani, Srivastava and Shine and Lal). Their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV), efficiency, and Youden's Index were analyzed in 102 β-thal trait and 64 iron deficiency adult Thai subjects. The RDW/RBC formula proved to be the most reliable index as they had 100.0% specificity and PPV and the highest efficiency (94.58%) and Youden's Index (91.18%), as well as high sensitivity (91.18%) and NPV (87.67%). Therefore, this formula could be used in initial discrimination of β-thal trait from iron deficiency in adult Thai subjects.