- [Syndrome of vertebral destruction: understanding to practice]. [Review]
- AOActa Ortop Mex 2018 May-Jun; 32(3):182-187
- The term «vertebral destruction syndrome» comprises pathologies causing structural changes in the spine, mainly in the vertebral body, producing mechanical deformity and neurological involvement. The...
The term «vertebral destruction syndrome» comprises pathologies causing structural changes in the spine, mainly in the vertebral body, producing mechanical deformity and neurological involvement. The pathologies found in this definition may be infectious, metabolic or tumoral. Vertebral osteomyelitis is a disease that occurs mainly in adults > 50 years; we speak of spondylodiscitis when the condition affects the disc and vertebral body. The most important organism in vertebral osteomyelitis is Staphylococcus aureus, seen in over 50% of cases. Tumors of the spine can start from local or adjacent spinal injuries or distant ones, and spread through the blood or lymphatic system. Metastases account for about 97% of all tumors of the spine. Primary tumors that most commonly spread to the spine are lung, prostate, breast and kidney. Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that occur as a result of changes in the calcium metabolism. The spine contains large amounts of metabolically active cancellous bone, which must withstand axial loads during stance. Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that most commonly affects the spine; it is characterized by low bone mass. The diagnosis of these entities is important for the treatment and prognosis of the patient. The term «vertebral destruction syndrome» proposes a notarized scheme aimed at improving the patients prognosis and his/her prompt treatment.
- Focused ultrasound for the treatment of bone metastases: effectiveness and feasibility. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Ther Ultrasound 2018; 6:8
- CONCLUSIONS: HIFU under MR-guidance seems to be an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of symptomatic bone lesions for patients suffering from metastatic disease. A significant decrease of patient pain was observed.
- LINC00852 Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Spinal Metastasis by Targeting S100A9. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer 2018; 9(22):4139-4149
- Background: Lung adenocarcinoma has a strong tendency to develop into bone metastases, especially spinal metastases (SM). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in regulating several biol...
Background: Lung adenocarcinoma has a strong tendency to develop into bone metastases, especially spinal metastases (SM). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in regulating several biological processes in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the roles of lncRNAs in the development of SM have not been elucidated to date. Methods: Clinical specimens were collected for analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was used to examine the effects of these genes on pathways. RNA pull-down was utilized to identify the targeting protein of lncRNAs. The effects of lncRNA on its target were detected in A549 and SPCA-1 cells via perturbation of the lncRNA expression. Oncological behavioral changes in transfected cells and phosphorylation of kinases in the relevant pathways, with or without inhibitors, were observed. Further, tumorigenicity was found to occur in experimental nude mice. Results: LINC00852 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were found to be associated with SM. Moreover, the LINC00852 target S100A9 had a positive regulatory role in the progression, migration, invasion, and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, S100A9 strongly activated the P38 and REK1/2 kinases, and slightly activated the phosphorylation of the JNK kinase in the MAPK pathway in A549 and SPCA-1 cells. Conclusion: LINC00852 targets S100A9 to promote progression and oncogenic ability in lung adenocarcinoma SM through activation of the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest a potential novel target for early intervention against SM in lung cancer.
- Pain response rates after conventional radiation therapy for bone metastases in prospective non-randomized studies: A systematic review. [Review]
- PRPract Radiat Oncol 2018 Nov 30
- CONCLUSIONS: We determined pain response rates following conventional radiation therapy for painful bone metastases in prospective non-randomized studies. The present review may provide benchmarks for future non-randomized studies investigating palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases.
- Prediction of therapy response in bone-predominant metastatic breast cancer: comparison of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]-fluoride PET/CT with whole-body MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 01
- CONCLUSIONS: FDG PET/CT and WB-MRI best predicted clinical non-PD and both FDG and NaF PET/CT predicted PFS < 24 weeks. Lesional response heterogeneity occurs with all modalities and flare is common with NaF PET/CT.
- False-positive prostate cancer bone metastases on magnetic resonance imaging correctly classified on gallium-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography computed tomography. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 17(4):305-307
- Imaging in prostate cancer is important in defining the local extent of disease, nodal involvement, and identifying metastases. Bone scan is the most commonly used modality for identification of bone...
Imaging in prostate cancer is important in defining the local extent of disease, nodal involvement, and identifying metastases. Bone scan is the most commonly used modality for identification of bone metastasis in prostate cancer despite its reported low sensitivity and specificity compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which is the imaging gold standard for bone metastasis. Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography (68Ga PSMA PET-CT) imaging is a relatively new addition to the imaging modalities in prostate cancer. This is a report of a patient with high-risk prostate cancer with features consistent with skeletal metastases on MRI but negative for skeletal metastases on bone scan and 68Ga PSMA PET CT. Histology confirmed the absence of skeletal metastases.
- False-positive technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan activity in the orbit in a patient with a history of breast carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 17(4):299-301
- Metastasis of breast carcinoma to the orbit is an uncommon entity and carries a poor prognosis. This case report presents false-positive technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate activity in the right o...
Metastasis of breast carcinoma to the orbit is an uncommon entity and carries a poor prognosis. This case report presents false-positive technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate activity in the right orbit of a patient with a history of a primary breast neoplasm. Orbital computed tomography imaging was obtained to further characterize the radiotracer uptake identified on the bone scan and demonstrated diffuse right globe intraocular calcifications secondary to degenerative intraocular changes. A brief literature review of orbital metastasis from breast carcinoma and causes of intraocular calcification in the context of chronic vision loss are provided.
- Fluroine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computer tomography in staging of renal cell carcinoma arising from a native kidney with liver and bone metastasis in a renal transplant patient. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 17(4):296-298
- Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the native kidney accounts for <5% of all malignancies found in transplant recipients. There have been only a few reported cases comprising of few renal transplant patie...
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) of the native kidney accounts for <5% of all malignancies found in transplant recipients. There have been only a few reported cases comprising of few renal transplant patients with RCC of native kidneys due to the relative rarity of the condition. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used in the staging of RCC. Prognosis of metastatic RCC is poor. We report the first case of 55-year-old postrenal transplant recipient diagnosed with RCC of the native kidney with liver and bone metastases imaged using F-18 FDG PET/CT.
- Initial risk stratification and staging in prostate cancer with prostatic-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography: A first-stop-shop. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 17(4):261-269
- Current imaging for prostate cancer (PCa) had limitations for risk stratification and staging. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently underestimated lymph node metastasis while bone scintigraphy often...
Current imaging for prostate cancer (PCa) had limitations for risk stratification and staging. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently underestimated lymph node metastasis while bone scintigraphy often had diagnostic dilemmas. Prostatic-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has been remarkable in PCa recurrence. Ninety-seven PSMA PET-CT scans were reanalyzed for tumor node metastases staging and risk stratification of lymph node and distant metastasis proportion. Histopathology of 23/97 patients was available as gold standard. Chi-square test was used for proportion comparison. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), overestimation, underestimation, and correct estimation of T and N stages were calculated. Kappa coefficient (κ) was derived for inter-rater agreement. Lymph node or distant metastasis detection on PSMA PET/CT increased significantly with increase in risk category. PSMA PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastases were 63.16%, 100%, 100%, 36.36%; 55%, 100%, 100%, 25%; and 65.62%, 99.31%, 87.50%, and 97.53%, respectively. Kappa coefficient showed substantial agreement between PSMA PET/CT and histopathological lymph node metastases (κ = 0.734); however, it was just in fair agreement (κ = 0.277) with T stage. PSMA PET/CT overestimated, underestimated, and correct estimated T and N stages in 8.71%, 39.13%, 52.17% and 8.71%, 4.35%, and 86.96% cases, respectively. PSMA PET/CT has potential for initial risk stratification with reasonable correct N stage estimation, however underestimates T stage. Hence, we concluded that PSMA PET/CT should be used as " first-stop-shop" for staging and initial risk stratification of PCa with regional magnetic resonance imaging in surgically resectable cases.
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- Clinical utility of 188Rhenium-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate as a bone pain palliative in multiple malignancies. [Journal Article]
- WJWorld J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec; 17(4):228-235
- 188Rhenium-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate (188Re-HEDP) is a clinically established radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation of patients with metastatic bone cancer. Herein, the effectiveness...
188Rhenium-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate (188Re-HEDP) is a clinically established radiopharmaceutical for bone pain palliation of patients with metastatic bone cancer. Herein, the effectiveness of 188Re-HEDP for the palliation of painful bone metastases was investigated in an uncontrolled initial trial in 48 patients with different types of advanced cancers. A group of 48 patients with painful bone metastases of lung, prostate, breast, renal, and bladder cancer was treated with 2.96-4.44 GBq of 188Re-HEDP. The overall response rate in this group of patients was 89.5%, and their mean visual analog scale score showed a reduction from 9.1 to 5.3 (P < 0.003) after 1 week posttherapy. The patients did not report serious adverse effects either during intravenous administration or within 24 h postadministration of 188Re-HEDP. Flare reaction was observed in 54.2% of patients between day 1 and day 3. There was no correlation between flare reaction and response to therapy (P < 0.05). Although bone marrow suppression was observed in patients receiving higher doses of 188Re-HEDP, it did not result in any significant clinical problems. The present study confirmed the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of 188Re-HEDP for palliation of painful bone metastases from various types of cancer in developing countries.