- Brain Tumors. [Review]
- AJAm J Med 2018 Jan 22
- Brain tumors are common, requiring general medical providers to have a basic understanding of their diagnosis and management. The most prevalent brain tumors are intracranial metastases from systemic...
Brain tumors are common, requiring general medical providers to have a basic understanding of their diagnosis and management. The most prevalent brain tumors are intracranial metastases from systemic cancers, meningiomas, and gliomas, specifically, glioblastoma. Central nervous system metastases may occur anywhere along the neuroaxis, and require complex multidisciplinary care with neurosurgery, radiation oncology, and medical oncology. Meningiomas are tumors of the meninges, mostly benign and often managed by surgical resection, with radiation therapy and chemotherapy reserved for high-risk or refractory disease. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, with a limited response to standard-of-care concurrent chemoradiation. The new classification of gliomas relies on molecular features, as well as histology, to arrive at an "integrated diagnosis" that better captures prognosis. This manuscript will review the most common brain tumors with an emphasis on their diagnosis, oncologic management, and management of medical complications.
- The meninges as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens related to the rodent and human CNS. [Review]
- ANActa Neuropathol 2018 Jan 24
- Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (lepto...
Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (leptomeninges) that form the boundaries of the subarachnoid space. In this review we (1) examine the development of leptomeninges and their role as barriers and facilitators in the foetal CNS. There are two separate CSF systems during early foetal life, inner CSF in the ventricles and outer CSF in the subarachnoid space. As the foramina of Magendi and Luschka develop, one continuous CSF system evolves. Due to the lack of arachnoid granulations during foetal life, it is most likely that CSF is eliminated by lymphatic drainage pathways passing through the cribriform plate and nasal submucosa. (2) We then review the fine structure of the adult human and rodent leptomeninges to establish their roles as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens. Leptomeningeal cells line CSF spaces, including arachnoid granulations and lymphatic drainage pathways, and separate elements of extracellular matrix from the CSF. The leptomeningeal lining facilitates the traffic of inflammatory cells within CSF but also allows attachment of bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis and of tumour cells as CSF metastases. Single layers of leptomeningeal cells extend into the brain closely associated with the walls of arteries so that there are no perivascular spaces around arteries in the cerebral cortex. Perivascular spaces surrounding arteries in the white matter and basal ganglia relate to their two encompassing layers of leptomeninges. (3) Finally we examine the roles of ligands expressed by leptomeningeal cells for the attachment of inflammatory cells, bacteria and tumour cells as understanding these roles may aid the design of therapeutic strategies to manage developmental, autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases relating to the CSF, the leptomeninges and the associated CNS.
- [A case of leptomeningeal melanomatosis with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies]. [Case Reports]
- RSRinsho Shinkeigaku 2017 Dec 27; 57(12):769-774
- A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left...
A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left eye, hoarseness and dysphagia, but no meningeal irritation signs. MRI of the spinal canal showed swellings of the conus medullaris and the cauda equine, and also contrast enhancement of the spinal meninges. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and protein increment. The lymph node was swollen in his right axilla. The biopsy specimen from the right axillary lymph node revealed metastasis of malignant melanoma histologically. Careful check-up of his whole body found a malignant melanoma in the subungual region of the right ring finger. Repeated cytological examination revealed melanoma cells in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of leptomeningeal melanomatosis. His consciousness was gradually deteriorated. His family members chose supportive care instead of chemotherapy or surgical therapy after full information about his conditions. Finally, he died 60 days after transfer to our hospital. This is a rare case of leptomenigeal melanomatosis presenting with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies. Careful follow-up and repeated studies are vital for the early diagnosis of leptomenigeal melanomatosis in spite of atypical clinical presentation.
- Heterotopic Cutaneous Meningioma: An Unusual Presentation Occurring in a Patient With a Remote History of Intracranial Meningioma. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2017 Sep 28
- Meningioma is a neoplasm of the meninges, which usually occurs in intracranial sites. Extracranial meningioma has been frequently reported in the sinonasal tract and skull bone, often as extension of...
Meningioma is a neoplasm of the meninges, which usually occurs in intracranial sites. Extracranial meningioma has been frequently reported in the sinonasal tract and skull bone, often as extension of intracranial meningiomas. Isolated heterotopic meningioma without contiguous intracranial lesion is extremely rare. A 56-year-old woman presented in December 2015 with 2 firm subcutaneous scalp masses; one in the left lateral (temporal) and the other in the left superior (parietal) region. The clinical impression was that of lipoma. Pathologic examination revealed an ill-defined proliferation of uniform meningothelial cells in a fibroblastic stroma interspersed within adipose tissue. The excised lesions had similar histologic features. Immunohistochemical stains were performed and the tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for S-100. A diagnosis of extracranial meningioma, WHO grade I was made. The patient's medical history was significant for intracranial meningioma of the frontal lobe in October 2007, which was diagnosed as atypical meningioma, WHO grade II. Comparison of the scalp masses to her previous meningioma revealed a distinctly different morphologic pattern. In light of the 8-year interval between the scalp and intracranial meningioma and the difference in histologic grades, it is unlikely that her most recent tumors represent a recurrence or metastasis of the intracranial tumor.
- Hemispheric Chronic Subdural Hematoma Concealing Subdural Metastases: Terrible Surprise Behind Routine Emergency Department Consultation. [Case Reports]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2017; 106:1049.e5-1049.e6
- The patient is a 79-year-old male, suffering from advanced metastatic prostate cancer, who developed a progressively worsening ideomotor slowing and was therefore referred to the emergency department...
The patient is a 79-year-old male, suffering from advanced metastatic prostate cancer, who developed a progressively worsening ideomotor slowing and was therefore referred to the emergency department of our institution. A plain axial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a vast hemispheric subdural fluid collection, apparently a subdural hematoma. On closer inspection, and most of all, in hindsight, a tenuously isohyperdense signal irregularity at the frontal aspect of the fluid collection appears. Because of the declined general medical conditions and the paucity of the neurologic impairment, a high-dose, corticosteroid-based conservative strategy was performed. The total body CT scan for the routine oncologic follow-up of the prostate cancer scan fell at 20 days from the first CT of the emergency department. A second contrast-enhanced axial CT scan demonstrated the presence of 2 subdural metastases, presumably the initial pathogenesis of the subdural fluid collection.
- Metastatic non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with meningeal carcinomatosis: case report of an unexpected response. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2017 May 11; 17(1):323
- CONCLUSIONS: Metastasis in non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma is rare. Meningeal carcinomatosis outcome is poor, usually appearing in widely metastatic and progressive cancers but also because most systemic agents fail to pass the blood-brain barrier and penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid. We described an unexpected response with complete response after chemotherapy for meningeal carcinomatosis of non muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma.
- Overexpression of syndecan-1, MUC-1, and putative stem cell markers in breast cancer leptomeningeal metastasis: a cerebrospinal fluid flow cytometry study. [Journal Article]
- BCBreast Cancer Res 2017 Apr 11; 19(1):46
- CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometry can be successfully employed for solid tumor LM characterization even in CSF samples with low cell count. This in vivo study documents that CSF floating BC cells overexpress prognostic and putative cancer stem cell biomarkers related to tumor invasiveness, potentially representing a molecular target for circulating tumor cell detection and LM treatment monitoring, as well as a primary target for innovative treatment strategies. The T lymphocyte infiltration, documented in all CSF samples, suggests a possible involvement of the CNS lymphatic system in both lymphoid and cancer cell migration into and out of the meninges, supporting the extension of a new form of cellular immunotherapy to LM. Due to the small number of cases, validation on large cohorts of patients are warranted to confirm these findings and to evaluate the impact and value of these results for diagnosis and management of LM.
- Preferential sites of metastatic relapse on MRI of initially localized ependymoma in children. [Journal Article]
- CIClin Imaging 2017 Jul - Aug; 44:12-15
- CONCLUSIONS: A meticulous assessment of the brain and spine including a thorough evaluation of the hypothalamic area is recommended.
- Intracranial Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis in Three Cases from Breast Cancer Demonstrated on F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography. [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Nucl Med 2017 Jan-Mar; 32(1):16-18
- Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is...
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is an uncommon late manifestation of non-central nervous system (CNS) solid tumors. With prolonged survival in solid tumors, an increased frequency of metastases is noted in these tumors too. The detection of tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid remains the gold standard. Noninvasively, magnetic resonance imaging is frequently used for the diagnosis of LC. Although its low sensitivity of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) on demonstrating CNS lesions, it could be useful in identifying the possibility of LC of breast carcinoma by giving high attention to the meninges. We discuss here three cases all of them having intracranial LC; where (18)F-FDG PET/CT study helped us in the diagnosis of LC. To our knowledge, this is the second report about intracranial LC from breast cancer demonstrating on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.
New Search Next
- Neoplastic Meningitis Due to Lung, Breast, and Melanoma Metastases. [Review]
- CCCancer Control 2017; 24(1):22-32
- CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of neoplastic meningitis remains poor. The increasing use of novel, targeted therapies and immunotherapy in solid tumors and its impact on neoplastic meningitis remains to be determined and is an area of active research. Thus, well conducted trials are needed.