- Tumor-to-lesion metastasis: a case report of carcinoma metastasis to multiple sclerosis lesion. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 May 14
- CONCLUSIONS: The carcinoma-hosting MS lesions are unlike typical active lesions but recapitulate the CNS metastatic niche. Our observations suggest that metastasis-hosting MS lesions might require a distinct immune microenvironment to be permissive to the seeding and growth of metastatic tumors.
- Epidemiology and national trends in prevalence and surgical management of metastatic spinal disease. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Neurosci 2018 Apr 19
- Surgical treatment for spinal metastasis has benefited from improvements in surgical techniques. However, the trends in treatment and outcomes for spinal metastasis surgery have not been well-establi...
Surgical treatment for spinal metastasis has benefited from improvements in surgical techniques. However, the trends in treatment and outcomes for spinal metastasis surgery have not been well-established in a pediatric population. Patients <20 years old with metastatic spinal tumors undergoing spinal surgery were identified in the KID database. Trends for spinal metastases treatment and patient outcomes were analyzed using weight-adjusted ANOVAs. 333 patients were identified in the KID database. The top five primary diagnoses were metastatic brain/spinal cord tumor (19.8%), metastatic nervous system tumor (15.9%), metastatic bone cancer (13.2%), spinal cord tumor (4.2%), and tumor of ventricles (3.0%). There was an increased incidence of spinal metastasis diagnoses from 2003 to 2012 (88.5-117.9 per 100,000; p < 0.001) and an increased trend in the incidence of surgical treatment for spinal metastasis from 2003 to 2012 (p = 0.014). The average age was 10.19 ± 6.33 years old and 38.4% were female. The average length of stay was 17.34 ± 24.36 days. Average CCI increased over time (2003: 7.87 ± 1.40, 2012: 8.44 ± 1.39; p = 0.006). The most common surgeries were excision of spinal cord/meninges lesions (69.1%) and decompression of spinal canal (38.1%). Length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality did not change over time (17.34-18.04 days, p = 0.337; 1.6%-2.9%, p = 0.801). 10.5% of patients underwent a posterior fusion and 22.2% had at least one complication (nervous system, respiratory, dysphagia, infection). The overall complication rate remained stable over time (23.4%-21.8%, p = 0.952). Surgical treatment for spinal metastasis in the last decade has increased, though the complication rates, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay have remained stable.
- Intracranial Epidural Metastases of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma: A Rare Entity. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Mar 24
- Pheochromocytomas are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla. Malignant behavior is seen in approximately 10% of these lesions, evidenced by distant metastasis to sites without chromaf...
Pheochromocytomas are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla. Malignant behavior is seen in approximately 10% of these lesions, evidenced by distant metastasis to sites without chromaffin tissue. The authors report a rare case of intracranial epidural metastases of an adrenal pheochromocytoma in a 24-year-old man. The patient originally presented at the age of 10 years with adrenal pheochromocytoma and subsequently developed extensive metastatic bone and lung disease. He was monitored in the intervening years until recent imaging demonstrated an enlarging right parietal mass. Upon surgical resection of the parietal lesion, the tumor was highly vascularized and confined to the epidural space. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic epidural spread of pheochromocytoma without concomitant subdural or intraparenchymal extension reported to date.
- Dural Cells Release Factors Which Promote Cancer Cell Malignancy and Induce Immunosuppressive Markers in Bone Marrow Myeloid Cells. [Journal Article]
- NNeurosurgery 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Factors released by primary dural cells induce proliferation of tumor cells and alter bone marrow to create a fertile environment for tumor growth. The dura therefore may play an important role in the increased incidence of metastases to adjacent bone.
- Brain Tumors. [Review]
- AJAm J Med 2018 Jan 31
- Brain tumors are common, requiring general medical providers to have a basic understanding of their diagnosis and management. The most prevalent brain tumors are intracranial metastases from systemic...
Brain tumors are common, requiring general medical providers to have a basic understanding of their diagnosis and management. The most prevalent brain tumors are intracranial metastases from systemic cancers, meningiomas, and gliomas, specifically, glioblastoma. Central nervous system metastases may occur anywhere along the neuroaxis, and require complex multidisciplinary care with neurosurgery, radiation oncology, and medical oncology. Meningiomas are tumors of the meninges, mostly benign and often managed by surgical resection, with radiation therapy and chemotherapy reserved for high-risk or refractory disease. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, with a limited response to standard-of-care concurrent chemoradiation. The new classification of gliomas relies on molecular features, as well as histology, to arrive at an "integrated diagnosis" that better captures prognosis. This manuscript will review the most common brain tumors with an emphasis on their diagnosis, oncologic management, and management of medical complications.
- The meninges as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens related to the rodent and human CNS. [Review]
- ANActa Neuropathol 2018; 135(3):363-385
- Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (lepto...
Meninges that surround the CNS consist of an outer fibrous sheet of dura mater (pachymeninx) that is also the inner periosteum of the skull. Underlying the dura are the arachnoid and pia mater (leptomeninges) that form the boundaries of the subarachnoid space. In this review we (1) examine the development of leptomeninges and their role as barriers and facilitators in the foetal CNS. There are two separate CSF systems during early foetal life, inner CSF in the ventricles and outer CSF in the subarachnoid space. As the foramina of Magendi and Luschka develop, one continuous CSF system evolves. Due to the lack of arachnoid granulations during foetal life, it is most likely that CSF is eliminated by lymphatic drainage pathways passing through the cribriform plate and nasal submucosa. (2) We then review the fine structure of the adult human and rodent leptomeninges to establish their roles as barriers and facilitators for the movement of fluid, cells and pathogens. Leptomeningeal cells line CSF spaces, including arachnoid granulations and lymphatic drainage pathways, and separate elements of extracellular matrix from the CSF. The leptomeningeal lining facilitates the traffic of inflammatory cells within CSF but also allows attachment of bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis and of tumour cells as CSF metastases. Single layers of leptomeningeal cells extend into the brain closely associated with the walls of arteries so that there are no perivascular spaces around arteries in the cerebral cortex. Perivascular spaces surrounding arteries in the white matter and basal ganglia relate to their two encompassing layers of leptomeninges. (3) Finally we examine the roles of ligands expressed by leptomeningeal cells for the attachment of inflammatory cells, bacteria and tumour cells as understanding these roles may aid the design of therapeutic strategies to manage developmental, autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases relating to the CSF, the leptomeninges and the associated CNS.
- [A case of leptomeningeal melanomatosis with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies]. [Case Reports]
- RSRinsho Shinkeigaku 2017 Dec 27; 57(12):769-774
- A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left...
A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left eye, hoarseness and dysphagia, but no meningeal irritation signs. MRI of the spinal canal showed swellings of the conus medullaris and the cauda equine, and also contrast enhancement of the spinal meninges. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and protein increment. The lymph node was swollen in his right axilla. The biopsy specimen from the right axillary lymph node revealed metastasis of malignant melanoma histologically. Careful check-up of his whole body found a malignant melanoma in the subungual region of the right ring finger. Repeated cytological examination revealed melanoma cells in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of leptomeningeal melanomatosis. His consciousness was gradually deteriorated. His family members chose supportive care instead of chemotherapy or surgical therapy after full information about his conditions. Finally, he died 60 days after transfer to our hospital. This is a rare case of leptomenigeal melanomatosis presenting with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies. Careful follow-up and repeated studies are vital for the early diagnosis of leptomenigeal melanomatosis in spite of atypical clinical presentation.
- Heterotopic Cutaneous Meningioma: An Unusual Presentation Occurring in a Patient With a Remote History of Intracranial Meningioma. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Dermatopathol 2018; 40(4):e57-e59
- Meningioma is a neoplasm of the meninges, which usually occurs in intracranial sites. Extracranial meningioma has been frequently reported in the sinonasal tract and skull bone, often as extension of...
Meningioma is a neoplasm of the meninges, which usually occurs in intracranial sites. Extracranial meningioma has been frequently reported in the sinonasal tract and skull bone, often as extension of intracranial meningiomas. Isolated heterotopic meningioma without contiguous intracranial lesion is extremely rare. A 56-year-old woman presented in December 2015 with 2 firm subcutaneous scalp masses; one in the left lateral (temporal) and the other in the left superior (parietal) region. The clinical impression was that of lipoma. Pathologic examination revealed an ill-defined proliferation of uniform meningothelial cells in a fibroblastic stroma interspersed within adipose tissue. The excised lesions had similar histologic features. Immunohistochemical stains were performed and the tumor cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for S-100. A diagnosis of extracranial meningioma, WHO grade I was made. The patient's medical history was significant for intracranial meningioma of the frontal lobe in October 2007, which was diagnosed as atypical meningioma, WHO grade II. Comparison of the scalp masses to her previous meningioma revealed a distinctly different morphologic pattern. In light of the 8-year interval between the scalp and intracranial meningioma and the difference in histologic grades, it is unlikely that her most recent tumors represent a recurrence or metastasis of the intracranial tumor.
- Hemispheric Chronic Subdural Hematoma Concealing Subdural Metastases: Terrible Surprise Behind Routine Emergency Department Consultation. [Case Reports]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2017; 106:1049.e5-1049.e6
- The patient is a 79-year-old male, suffering from advanced metastatic prostate cancer, who developed a progressively worsening ideomotor slowing and was therefore referred to the emergency department...
The patient is a 79-year-old male, suffering from advanced metastatic prostate cancer, who developed a progressively worsening ideomotor slowing and was therefore referred to the emergency department of our institution. A plain axial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a vast hemispheric subdural fluid collection, apparently a subdural hematoma. On closer inspection, and most of all, in hindsight, a tenuously isohyperdense signal irregularity at the frontal aspect of the fluid collection appears. Because of the declined general medical conditions and the paucity of the neurologic impairment, a high-dose, corticosteroid-based conservative strategy was performed. The total body CT scan for the routine oncologic follow-up of the prostate cancer scan fell at 20 days from the first CT of the emergency department. A second contrast-enhanced axial CT scan demonstrated the presence of 2 subdural metastases, presumably the initial pathogenesis of the subdural fluid collection.
New Search Next
- Stereotactic radiosurgery for focal leptomeningeal disease in patients with brain metastases. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurooncol 2017; 134(1):139-143
- Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is well described in patients with brain metastases, presenting symptomatically in approximately 5% of patients. Conventionally, the presence of LMD is an indication for ...
Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is well described in patients with brain metastases, presenting symptomatically in approximately 5% of patients. Conventionally, the presence of LMD is an indication for whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and not suitable for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the local control and overall survival of patients who underwent SRS to focal LMD. We reviewed our prospective registry and identified 32 brain metastases patients with LMD, from a total of 465 patients who underwent SRS between 2013 and 2015. Focal LMD was targeted with SRS in 16 patients. The median imaging follow-up time was 7 months. The median volume of LMD was 372 mm3 and the median margin dose was 16 Gy. Five patients underwent prior WBRT. Histology included non-small cell lung (8), breast (5), melanoma (1), gastrointestinal (1) and ovarian cancer (1). Follow-up MR imaging was available for 14 patients. LMD was stable in 5 and partially regressed in 8 patients at follow-up. One patient had progression of LMD with hemorrhage 5 months after SRS. Seven patients developed distant LMD at a median time of 7 months. The median actuarial overall survival from SRS for LMD was 10.0 months. The 6-month and 1-year actuarial overall survival was 60% and 26% respectively. Six patients underwent WBRT after SRS for focal LMD at a median time of 6 months. Overall, focal LMD may be may be treated successfully with radiosurgery, potentially delaying WBRT in some patients.