- Metastatic Dermatosis in Breast Carcinoma on Adjuvant Trastuzumab: Is Skin a Sanctuary Site in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Amplified Disease? [Journal Article]
- IJIndian J Dermatol 2018 Sep-Oct; 63(5):424-426
- Cutaneous metastasis (CM) from internal malignancies is commonly seen. Sometimes, skin metastases can be the first sign of advanced cancer or an indicator of cancer recurrence. Cases of breast cancer...
Cutaneous metastasis (CM) from internal malignancies is commonly seen. Sometimes, skin metastases can be the first sign of advanced cancer or an indicator of cancer recurrence. Cases of breast cancer with cutaneous progression after or during trastuzumab therapy have been described in the past, frequently associated with systemic disease progression. However, CM during adjuvant trastuzumab therapy is very rare. It has been hypothesized that cancer cells located in the skin survive and take proliferative advantage by virtue of an immune-tolerance mechanism that hampers trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We describe a case of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-overexpressing breast cancer presenting with diffuse CM during adjuvant trastuzumab therapy.
- Primary parotid carcinoma: analysis of risk factors and validation of a prognostic index. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Sep 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Major risk factors in primary PG carcinomas can effectively identify high-risk patients. The prognostic score by Vander Poorten et al. is a highly reliable tool to predict the prognostic profile.
- Androgen receptor expression reduces stemness characteristics of prostate cancer cells (PC3) by repression of CD44 and SOX2. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2018 Sep 11
- Studies have shown that a subgroup of tumor cells possess stemness characteristics having self-renewal capacity and the ability to form new tumors. We sought to identify the plausible stemness factor...
Studies have shown that a subgroup of tumor cells possess stemness characteristics having self-renewal capacity and the ability to form new tumors. We sought to identify the plausible stemness factor that determines the "molecular signature" of prostate cancer (PCa) cells derived from different metastases (PC3, PCa2b, LNCaP, and DU145) and whether androgen receptor (AR) influences the maintenance of stemness features. Here we show sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 2 (SOX2) as a putative stem cell marker in PC3 PCa cells and not in DU145, PCa2b, or LNCaP cells. PCa2b and PC3 cells were derived from bone metastases. PCa2b cells which are positive for the AR failed to demonstrate the expression of either cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) or SOX2. Knockdown (KD) of AR in these cells did not affect the expression of either CD44 or SOX2. Conversely, PC3 cells, which are negative for AR, expressed both CD44 and SOX2. However, the expression of AR downregulated the expression of both CD44 and SOX2 in PC3 cells. CD44 regulates SOX2 expression as KD of CD44 and reduces SOX2 levels considerably. SOX2 KD attenuated not only the expression of SNAIL and SLUG but also the migration and tumorsphere formation in PC3 cells. Collectively, our findings underscore a novel role of CD44 signaling in the maintenance of stemness and progression of cancer through SOX2 in AR-independent PC3 cells. SOX2 has a role in the regulation of expression of SNAIL and SLUG. SOX2 could be a potential therapeutic target to thwart the progression of SOX2-positive cancer cells or recurrence of androgen-independent PCa.
- Melanoma signature in Brazil: epidemiology, incidence, mortality, and trend lessons from a continental mixed population country in the past 15 years. [Journal Article]
- MRMelanoma Res 2018 Sep 10
- The current research aimed to understand melanoma epidemiology in Brazil and to evaluate temporal trends in incidence and mortality. The data came from Brazilian Hospital Cancer Registries, Populatio...
The current research aimed to understand melanoma epidemiology in Brazil and to evaluate temporal trends in incidence and mortality. The data came from Brazilian Hospital Cancer Registries, Population Based Cancer Registries, and the National Mortality Information System from 2000 to 2014. Descriptive statistics were used for epidemiological and clinical characteristics. To describe trends in change in incidence and mortality rates, the Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) was calculated. Between 2000 and 2013, in men, the median incidence rate rose from 2.52 to 4.84, with an AAPC of +21.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.4-28] and in women from 1.93 to 3.22 per 100 000, with an AAPC of +13.9% (95% CI: 8.1-20). Regarding mortality, between 2000 and 2014, the rates went from 0.85 to 0.9 per 100 000 for men (AAPC=+0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.1) and from 0.56 for 0.53 per 100 000 for women (AAPC=-0.1, 95% CI: -0.2 to 0). From the database, a total of 28 624 patients with melanoma were included. Most of the patients were females (51.9%), White (75%) and with stage I or II (53.2%). Sex, ethnicity, education level, geographical area of the cancer center, topography, histology, time between diagnosis and treatment, and early death were significantly associated with distant metastases. Brazil is a large country with a very young population and a low rate of melanoma incidence and prevalence that should increase over the years. Understanding the trends attributed to melanoma is important for behavioral counseling interventions that focus on promoting skin cancer prevention.
- [Electrochemotherapy - a simple and effective treatment of skin metastases]. [Journal Article]
- LLakartidningen 2018 Sep 11; 115
- Electrochemotherapy is a simple and effective treatment of skin metastases. Electrochemotherapy is possible after previous surgery, radiotherapy and/or limb perfusion. Electrochemotherapy is most li...
Electrochemotherapy is a simple and effective treatment of skin metastases. Electrochemotherapy is possible after previous surgery, radiotherapy and/or limb perfusion. Electrochemotherapy is most likely an under-used treatment modality in Sweden.
- Docetaxel-induced radiation recall dermatitis with atypical features: A case report. [Case Reports]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(36):e12209
- CONCLUSIONS: This case report draws attention to the development of atypical RRD after administration of docetaxel and advises careful follow-up even if RRD does not appear after the first docetaxel administration.
- Malignant granular cell tumor: Clinical features and long-term survival. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Surg Oncol 2018 Sep 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Particular tumor features and treatments are associated with superior survival. This information may be used to more accurately estimate prognosis.
- Complete Clinical Remission of Stage IV Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis Administering Low-Dose Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Combination With Hyperthermia and Interleukin-2. [Journal Article]
- ICIntegr Cancer Ther 2018 Sep 07; :1534735418794867
- The prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer with metastases after chemotherapy remains dismal. We report the case of a 50-year-old female with first disease recurrence at the axillary lymph node a...
The prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer with metastases after chemotherapy remains dismal. We report the case of a 50-year-old female with first disease recurrence at the axillary lymph node and, later on, bilateral pulmonary metastases with severe shortness of breath. The patient received low-dose immune checkpoint blockade (concurrent nivolumab and ipilimumab) weekly over 3 weeks with regional hyperthermia 3 times a week, followed by systemic fever-range hyperthermia induced by interleukin-2 for 5 days. She went into complete remission of her pulmonary metastases with transient WHO I-II diarrhea and skin rash. The patient remained alive for 27 months after the start of treatment, with recurrence of metastases as a sternal mass, and up to 3 cm pleural metastases. This exceptional response should instigate further research efforts with this protocol, which consists only of approved drugs and treatments.
- Ketoconazole plus Lenalidomide in patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC): results of an open-label phase II study. [Journal Article]
- INInvest New Drugs 2018 Sep 06
- Introduction Ketoconazole is CYP-17 inhibitor with demonstrated activity in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Lenalidomide is an antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory agent with bro...
Introduction Ketoconazole is CYP-17 inhibitor with demonstrated activity in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Lenalidomide is an antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory agent with broad antitumor activity. We hypothesized that the modulation of the cellular immune response to apoptosis caused by ketoconazole may be increased with the addition of lenalidomide. Methods This is an open-label, non-randomized, single-arm phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of the combination of ketoconazole and lenalidomide in patients with CRPC. Treatment schema included standard ketoconazole 400 mg orally three times daily plus hydrocortisone orally (20 mg in the morning and 10 mg at night) in combination with lenalidomide 25 mg orally daily for 21 days in a 28-day cycle and aspirin 75 mg daily. The primary endpoint of this study was response (either by ≥ 50% PSA decline or objective disease assessed by RECIST v1.0). Exploratory endpoints included changes in T cell, dendritic cell (DC) marker counts, and their correlation with PSA response to treatment. Results A total of 34 CRPC patients, median age 69 years, 76% ECOG 0 and 76% with metastases participated in the study. Patients received a median of 2 cycles (range 1-35); nine patients (26%) received >10 cycles of treatment. PSA responses were observed in 17 patients (50%) with 11 patients (32%) achieving a PSA decline of >90%. Among the 9 patients with measurable disease, 2 patients (22%) had PR and 2 other (22%) had SD as best response. Median time to failure (TTF) was 2.7 months (range 0.2-32.8); and 8 patients were treated for ≥ 15 months. Most common adverse events included fatigue (76%), skin reactions (62%), lymphopenia (44%) and anemia (44%). One possible treatment-related death was noted. For 16 patients with available serial correlative data, there was a significant increase in the dendritic cells subsets BDCA-1 (+146.7, -20.1 to +501.1%, p = 0.018) and BDCA-3 (39.8%, -100 to 282.6%, p = 0.001) after 8 weeks of treatment. No association between immune cell counts and PSA response at 8 weeks was observed. Conclusion The combination of ketoconazole and lenalidomide was well tolerated but did not meet the primary endpoint of response, despite durable responses were observed in a selected group of patients. Although ketoconazole has now been replaced with more active novel agents, the combination of novel CYP-17 inhibitors with agents capable of modulating the immune system warrants further prospective investigation. NCT00460031.
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- Multiple Subcutaneous Nodules Leading to Diagnosis of Colon Cancer. [Journal Article]
- MEMiddle East J Dig Dis 2018; 10(3):188-191
- Skin metastases from colorectal carcinoma are rare and signal advanced disease. Skin metastasis refers to growth of cancer cells in the skin originating from an internal cancer. In most cases, cutane...
Skin metastases from colorectal carcinoma are rare and signal advanced disease. Skin metastasis refers to growth of cancer cells in the skin originating from an internal cancer. In most cases, cutaneous metastasis develops after the initial diagnosis of the primary internal malignancy and late in the course of the disease. In very rare cases, skin metastasis may occur at the same time or before the primary cancer has been discovered and may be the prompt for further thorough investigation. The incidence of skin metastasis varies but is somewhere between 3-10% in patients with a primary malignant tumor. Most common ones are melanoma (45%), breast cancer (30%), nasal sinus cancers (20%), cancer of the larynx and cancer of the oral cavity (12%) cases. Here we present a case of 39-year-old man presented to us with multiple subcutaneous lesions over the chest and forehead. Fine needle aspiration cytology of skin nodules revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma features. Further imaging of the abdomen with computed tomography (CT) revealed circumferential narrowing of caecum and ascending colon. The patient was managed with palliative right hemicolectomy in view of constipation and palliative chemotherapy as systemic treatment. An extensive review of the English literature did not reveal extensive data on metastatic subcutaneous nodules leading to diagnosis of colon cancer.