- Urinary albumin excretion in rheumatoid arthritis is not associated with markers of vasculopathy in distal microvascular beds. [Journal Article]
- MMicrocirculation 2018 Nov 13; :e12514
- CONCLUSIONS: Among RA patients, UAE was not associated with markers of vasculopathy in distal microvascular beds. Increased UAE in RA might be primarily considered as a manifestation of localized, compromised function of the renal microvasculature, rather than a marker of generalized microvascular impairment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Losartan Alleviates Renal Fibrosis and Inhibits Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Under High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperglycemia. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2018; 9:1213
- The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of glomerular vascular endothelial cells is considered to be pivotal in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The risk of DN can be decreased by losartan, but the...
The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of glomerular vascular endothelial cells is considered to be pivotal in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The risk of DN can be decreased by losartan, but the potential molecular mechanism(s) are not fully understood. Extensive data show that the EMT occurs in proximal tubular endothelial cells resulting in an endothelial phenotype switch (fibrotic matrix accumulation), consequently enhancing the development of renal interstitial fibrosis. Here, we found that losartan significantly ameliorated DN-induced renal fibrosis progression via inhibition of the EMT in mice. In vivo experiments suggested that losartan significantly alleviated microalbuminuria and pathologic changes under high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. Immunohistochemistry indicated that losartan suppressed the EMT in glomeruli. In addition, losartan decreased oxidative stress damage and inhibited the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad pathway. Furthermore, consistent changes were detected in vitro where losartan markedly inhibited the EMT and TGF-β1/Smad pathway induced by high glucose in glomerular endothelial cells. Together, these results suggested that losartan could alleviate the EMT in glomeruli via inhibition of oxidative stress damage and the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway under hyperglycemia.
- The prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Botswana. [Journal Article]
- NJNiger J Clin Pract 2018; 21(11):1430-1437
- CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of MA raises an urgent need for changes in the management of patients with type 2 DM in Botswana, with emphasis on prevention and reduction of MA to avoid development of overt diabetic nephropathy and ensuing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
- Progression of diabetic kidney disease and trajectory of kidney function decline in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Nov 02
- Diabetes is a major cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), yet the natural history of diabetic kidney disease is not well understood. We aimed to identify patterns of estimated GFR (eGFR) trajector...
Diabetes is a major cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD), yet the natural history of diabetic kidney disease is not well understood. We aimed to identify patterns of estimated GFR (eGFR) trajectory and to determine the clinical and genetic factors and their associations of these different patterns with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Among 6330 patients with baseline eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the Hong Kong Diabetes Register, a total of 456 patients (7.2%) developed Stage 5 chronic kidney disease or ESRD over a median follow-up of 13 years (incidence rate 5.6 per 1000 person-years). Joint latent class modeling was used to identify different patterns of eGFR trajectory. Four distinct and non-linear trajectories of eGFR were identified: slow decline (84.3% of patients), curvilinear decline (6.5%), progressive decline (6.1%) and accelerated decline (3.1%). Microalbuminuria and retinopathy were associated with accelerated eGFR decline, which was itself associated with all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.6-8.4 for comparison with slow eGFR decline). Of 68 candidate genetic loci evaluated, the inclusion of five loci (rs11803049, rs911119, rs1933182, rs11123170, and rs889472) improved the prediction of eGFR trajectories (net reclassification improvement 0.232; 95% CI: 0.057--0.406). Our study highlights substantial heterogeneity in the patterns of eGFR decline among patients with diabetic kidney disease, and identifies associated clinical and genetic factors that may help to identify those who are more likely to experience an accelerated decline in kidney function.
- Association between urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites and impaired renal function in Shanghai adults. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2018 Nov 02; 245:149-162
- CONCLUSIONS: Certain metabolites of phthalates, including bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and benzyle butyl phthalate (BBzP), were associated with impaired renal function in Shanghai adults.
- Empagliflozin and kidney outcomes in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease: results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Investig 2018 Nov 09
- CONCLUSIONS: In Asian patients from EMPA-REG OUTCOME® , empagliflozin improved kidney outcomes, slowed eGFR decline and lowered albuminuria versus placebo, consistent with the overall trial population findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Effect of microalbuminuria on macular thickness in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 08; :1120672118811256
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a significantly decreased parafoveal macular thickness was measured in patients with mild diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria compared to patients without diabetic retinopathy and microalbuminuria.
- Prevalence and progression of diabetic nephropathy in South Asians, White Europeans and Afro-Caribbeans with Type 2 diabetes; a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- DODiabetes Obes Metab 2018 Nov 08
- Diabetic nephropathy remains the most common cause of renal disease in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetic nephropathy remains the most common cause of renal disease in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
- Infusion of autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear stem cells potentially reduces urinary markers in diabetic nephropathy. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nephrol 2018 Nov 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Infusion of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells significantly reduced levels of MAU in DN patients. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these observations.
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- Histone demethylase LSD1 and biological sex: impact on blood pressure and aldosterone production. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Endocrinol 2018 Nov 01
- Human risk allele carriers of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and LSD1 deficient mice have salt sensitive hypertension for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that LSD1 deficiency causes dysregulat...
Human risk allele carriers of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and LSD1 deficient mice have salt sensitive hypertension for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that LSD1 deficiency causes dysregulation of aldosterone's response to salt intake resulting in increased cardiovascular risk factors [blood pressure and microalbumin]. Furthermore, we determined the effect of biological sex on these potential abnormalities. To test our hypotheses, LSD1 male and female heterozygote knockout (LSD1+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were assigned to two age groups: 18 weeks and 36 weeks. Plasma aldosterone levels and aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells studied ex vivo were greater in both male and female LSD1+/- mice consuming a liberal salt diet as compared to WT mice consuming the same diet. However, salt sensitive blood pressure elevation and increased microalbuminuria were only observed in male LSD1+/- mice. These data suggest that LSD1 interacts with aldosterone's secretory response to salt intake. Lack of LSD1 causes inappropriate aldosterone production on a liberal salt diet; males appear to be more sensitive to this aldosterone increase as males, but not females, develop salt sensitivity of blood pressure and increased microalbuminuria. The mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular protective effect in females is uncertain but may be related to estrogen modulating the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor activation.