- Head coaches' attitudes towards injury prevention and use of related methods in professional basketball: A survey. [Journal Article]
- PTPhys Ther Sport 2018 Apr 17; 32:133-139
- CONCLUSIONS: The methods applied to conduct injury screening and prevent musculoskeletal disorders in German professional basketball teams seem only partially backed by scientific evidence. Although not correlated with the tests and interventions used, the involvement of health-related stakeholders might help to identify players at increased injury risk.
- Association of glucocerebrosidase polymorphisms and mutations with dementia in incident Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- ADAlzheimers Dement 2018 May 21
- CONCLUSIONS: GBA variants are of great clinical relevance for the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease, especially due to the relatively higher frequency of these alleles compared with other risk alleles.
- The Global Burden of Headache. [Journal Article]
- SNSemin Neurol 2018; 38(2):182-190
- At the turn of the century, most of the world's population lived in regions where the prevalence of headache was unknown and its impact poorly understood. Lifting The Burden (LTB), a nonprofit organi...
At the turn of the century, most of the world's population lived in regions where the prevalence of headache was unknown and its impact poorly understood. Lifting The Burden (LTB), a nonprofit organization in official relations with the World Health Organization, established the Global Campaign against Headache, with the ultimate purpose of reducing the burden of headache worldwide. First, the scope and scale of this burden had to be known. LTB embarked upon a program of population-based studies in countries in all world regions in order to achieve its aim. Its studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of headache disorders, including migraine, tension-type headache, and medication-overuse headache, and their associations with impaired quality of life, substantial lost productivity, and high economic costs in every country surveyed. Informed by these, the Global Burden of Disease study ranks headache disorders as the second leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide; migraine alone is third among people aged 15 to 49 years. With interventions urgently needed to reduce these burdens throughout the world, we review the epidemiological studies conducted by LTB, examine proposed interventions to improve provision of headache care including a three-tier system of structured headache services, and consider the challenges still remaining in providing effective, efficient, and equitable headache care especially in low-income countries.
- Interactions between insulin and diet on striatal dopamine uptake kinetics in rodent brain slices. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Neurosci 2018 May 23
- Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of str...
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release. Here we determined the functional consequences of acute insulin exposure and chronic diet-induced changes in insulin on DAT activity after evoked dopamine release in striatal slices from adult ad-libitum fed (AL) rats and mice, and food-restricted (FR) or high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic (OB) diet rats. Uptake kinetics were assessed by fitting evoked dopamine transients to the Michaelis-Menten equation and extracting Cpeak and Vmax . Insulin (30 nM) increased both parameters in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens core of AL rats in an insulin receptor- and PI3-kinase-dependent manner. A pure effect of insulin on uptake was unmasked using mice lacking striatal acetylcholine, in which increased Vmax caused a decrease in Cpeak . Diet also influenced Vmax , which was lower in FR versus AL. The effects of insulin on Cpeak and Vmax were amplified by FR but blunted by OB, consistent with opposite consequences of these diets on insulin levels and insulin receptor sensitivity. Overall, these data reveal acute and chronic effects of insulin and diet on dopamine release and uptake that will influence brain reward pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Alpha-synuclein Aggregates in Labial Salivary Glands of Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. [Journal Article]
- SSleep 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Labial minor salivary glands biopsy proved to be a safe and useful procedure to identify pAS in IRBD, and in PD and DLB subjects initially diagnosed with IRBD. The biopsy provides direct histopathological evidence that IRBD represents a synucleinopathy, and that could be useful histological confirmation of synuclein pathology in PD and DLB.
- Genetics of Movement Disorders and the Practicing Clinician; Who and What to Test for? [Review]
- CNCurr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 May 23; 18(7):37
- This review aims to provide the basic knowledge on the genetics of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders to guide clinicians in the decision of "who and what to test for?"
This review aims to provide the basic knowledge on the genetics of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders to guide clinicians in the decision of "who and what to test for?"
- [Pilot study to investigate sleep disorders in the blind and persons with relevant visual impairment]. [Journal Article]
- OOphthalmologe 2018 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder is a frequent problem among people with no light perception, associated with problems falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and daytime sleepiness. The perception of light as an external cue for our circadian rhythm plays a key role. However, sleep disruption is not fully explained by non-24, making a detailed sleep history essential.
- Intron retention and nuclear loss of SFPQ are molecular hallmarks of ALS. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2018 May 22; 9(1):2010
- Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) strongly implicate ubiquitously expressed regulators of RNA processing. To understand the molecular impact of ALS-causing mutations on neuronal d...
Mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) strongly implicate ubiquitously expressed regulators of RNA processing. To understand the molecular impact of ALS-causing mutations on neuronal development and disease, we analysed transcriptomes during in vitro differentiation of motor neurons (MNs) from human control and patient-specific VCP mutant induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identify increased intron retention (IR) as a dominant feature of the splicing programme during early neural differentiation. Importantly, IR occurs prematurely in VCP mutant cultures compared with control counterparts. These aberrant IR events are also seen in independent RNAseq data sets from SOD1- and FUS-mutant MNs. The most significant IR is seen in the SFPQ transcript. The SFPQ protein binds extensively to its retained intron, exhibits lower nuclear abundance in VCP mutant cultures and is lost from nuclei of MNs in mouse models and human sporadic ALS. Collectively, we demonstrate SFPQ IR and nuclear loss as molecular hallmarks of familial and sporadic ALS.
- The neurological examination adapted for neuropsychiatry. [Journal Article]
- CSCNS Spectr 2018 May 23; :1-9
- The neuropsychiatric examination includes standard neurological and cognitive examination techniques with several additional observations and tasks designed to capture abnormalities common among pati...
The neuropsychiatric examination includes standard neurological and cognitive examination techniques with several additional observations and tasks designed to capture abnormalities common among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders or neurocognitive complaints. Although useful as a screening tool, a single standardized rating scale such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is insufficient to establish a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. Extra attention is paid to findings commonly seen in the setting of psychiatric disorders, dementias, movement disorders, or dysfunction of cortical or subcortical structures. Dysmorphic features, dermatologic findings, neurodevelopmental signs, signs of embellishment, and expanded neurocognitive testing are included. The neuropsychiatric clinician utilizes the techniques described in this article to adapt the examination to each patient's situation, choosing the most appropriate techniques to supplement the basic neurological and psychiatric examinations in support of diagnostic hypotheses being considered. The added examination techniques facilitate diagnosis of neurocognitive disorders and enable neuropsychiatric formulation.
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- Individualized tractography-based parcellation of the globus pallidus pars interna using 7T MRI in movement disorder patients prior to DBS surgery. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2018 May 19
- The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries for the treatment of movement disorders relies on the accurate placement of an electrode within the motor portion of subcortical brain targets. H...
The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries for the treatment of movement disorders relies on the accurate placement of an electrode within the motor portion of subcortical brain targets. However, the high number of electrodes requiring relocation indicates that today's methods do not ensure sufficient accuracy for all patients. Here, with the goal of aiding DBS targeting, we use 7 T (T) MRI data to identify the functional territories and parcellate the globus pallidus interna (GPi) into motor, associative and limbic regions in individual subjects. 7 T MRI scans were performed in seventeen patients (prior to DBS surgery) and one healthy control. Tractography-based parcellation of each patient's GPi was performed. The cortex was divided into four masks representing motor, limbic, associative and "other" regions. Given that no direct connections between the GPi and the cortex have been shown to exist, the parcellation was carried out in two steps: 1) The thalamus was parcellated based on the cortical targets, 2) The GPi was parcellated using the thalamus parcels derived from step 1. Reproducibility, via repeated scans of a healthy subject, and validity of the findings, using different anatomical pathways for parcellation, were assessed. Lastly, post-operative imaging data was used to validate and determine the clinical relevance of the parcellation. The organization of the functional territories of the GPi observed in our individual patient population agrees with that previously reported in the literature: the motor territory was located posterolaterally, followed anteriorly by the associative region, and further antero-ventrally by the limbic territory. While this organizational pattern was observed across patients, there was considerable variability among patients. The organization of the functional territories of the GPi was remarkably reproducible in intra-subject scans. Furthermore, the organizational pattern was observed consistently by performing the parcellation of the GPi via the thalamus and via a different pathway, going through the striatum. Finally, the active therapeutic contact of the DBS electrode, identified with a combination of post-operative imaging and post-surgery DBS programming, overlapped with the high-probability "motor" region of the GPi as defined by imaging-based methods. The consistency, validity, and clinical relevance of our findings have the potential for improving DBS targeting, by increasing patient-specific knowledge of subregions of the GPi to be targeted or avoided, at the stage of surgical planning, and later, at the stage when stimulation is adjusted.