- Deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus modulates subthalamic pathological oscillations. [Review]
- NDNeurobiol Dis 2018 Nov 10
- Low frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus area (PPNa) has been proposed as a novel surgical target for gait dysfunction in the late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD)....
Low frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus area (PPNa) has been proposed as a novel surgical target for gait dysfunction in the late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the mid-2000s, we have shown that intrasurgical delivery of stimulation in the pontine tegmentum affects the firing activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), but its effect on STN oscillatory rhythms has not been studied. Neuronal oscillations detected by local field potential (LFPs) have great importance, since they express complex movement-related behavior such as locomotion. Therefore, we examined the effect of three PPNa-DBS stimulation protocols (at 10, 25 and 80 Hz) on the STN oscillatory activity of PD patients. We focused on the anti-kinetic beta (β, 15-30 Hz), the pro-kinetic gamma (γ, 60-90 Hz) and "gait-related" alpha (α, 7-12 Hz) bands. We hypothesized that modulation of STN oscillations might have clinical relevance in the PPNa-mediated effects. PPNa stimulation at 25 and 80 Hz decreased the power of the STN β band by 33.94 and 40.22%, respectively. PPNa-DBS did not affect the other two bands with a tendency to suppress α power, while γ oscillation increased. Our results suggest that the anti-kinetic β band is the oscillation most sensitive to PPNa-DBS despite the negligible clinical efficacy on bradykinesia. However, how these changes interact reciprocally with the cortex or are counterbalanced by lower brainstem/spinal pathways remain to be elucidated. Our observation might turn out to be helpful in new protocols designed with adaptive DBS supporting the addition of PPN implantation in PD patients experiencing declining efficacy of STN-DBS.
- Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III alleviates the toxic effects of triclosan on zebrafish (Danio rerio) via gut microbiota modulation. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Nov 10
- The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, plays an important role in modulating microbiota and alleviating intestinal metabolic disorders. Herein, we reported that Lactobacillus increases biodi...
The probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, plays an important role in modulating microbiota and alleviating intestinal metabolic disorders. Herein, we reported that Lactobacillus increases biodiversity of zebrafish gut flora, and attenuates toxic effects from chronic triclosan (TCS) exposure. Lactobacillus-feeding recovered the species and amount of microorganisms in the intestines of zebrafish, and inhibited toxin production by saprophytic bacterial growth. Abnormal physiological indexes and malonaldeyhde content resulting from TCS exposure were effectively alleviated. Additionally, lipid-metabolism disorders, such as increased triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, were attenuated by a probiotics diet. The number of CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenal mucosa was decreased in zebrafish receiving a Lactobacillus diet compared to the TCS-exposed group, showing a consistent expression trend for six immune genes (NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme, TLR4α, IL-10) in the intestinal mucosa. Histopathological observations of intestines, spleen and kidney showed that TCS exposure produced severe damage to the morphology and structure of immune and metabolism-related organs. Lactobacillus was capable of mitigating this damage, but bile salt hydrolase, an active extract of Lactobacillus, was not an effective mitigation strategy. The Lactobacillus-induced decrease in the number of inflammatory cells confirmed its role in preventing inflammatory injury. Three behavioral tests (T-maze, bottom dwelling and social interaction) indicated that a probiotics diet improved zebrafish movement and learning/memory capacity, effectively alleviating anxiety behavior due to TCS exposure. These findings inform development of beneficial strategies to alleviate intestinal metabolic syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases resulting from exposure to environmental contaminants through modifying gut flora with a probiotics diet.
- Ultra-high-frequency deep brain stimulation at 10,000 Hz improves motor function. [Letter]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Nov 13
- Parkinsonism due to A53E α-synuclein gene mutation: Clinical, genetic, epigenetic, and biochemical features. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: A53E as a cause of parkinsonism is not restricted to Finnish individuals. DNA methylation may contribute to disease age at onset. A53E enriches α-synuclein oligomers and fibrils dependent on the phosphorylation state.
- Ratios of proteins in cerebrospinal fluid in Parkinson's disease cognitive decline: prospective study. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Nov 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Ratios of the main proteins found in PD patient brain inclusions that can be measured in the CSF appear to have value as short- to mid-term predictors of dementia. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Wilson's Disease: A Review for the General Pediatrician. [Journal Article]
- PAPediatr Ann 2018 Nov 01; 47(11):e440-e444
- Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper...
Wilson's disease, also known as hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to a mutation of the ATP7B gene resulting in impaired hepatic copper excretion and copper accumulation in various tissues. It is associated with the classic triad of cirrhosis, neurological manifestations, and the ocular finding of Kayser-Fleischer rings; however, the clinical presentation can vary greatly from incidental findings of abnormal liver enzymes to acute liver failure necessitating liver transplant. Pediatric patients may present with subtle findings including asymptomatic hepatomegaly, transaminitis, changes in behavior, movement disorders, or school failure. The general pediatrician may be the first to recognize these symptoms and should consider Wilson's disease in their differential diagnosis. Wilson's disease can be managed with lifelong chelation or zinc therapy in patients who present early in the disease; therefore, pediatricians should have a low threshold for referral to a pediatric hepatologist for further evaluation when it is suspected. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(11):e440-e444.].
- Diagnostic accuracy and treatment approach to depression in primary care: predictive factors. [Journal Article]
- FPFam Pract 2018 Nov 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinical depression diagnosis by GPs was not always associated with a formal diagnosis through a SCID-I. GPs' training background was central to an adequate depression diagnosis. Patients' beliefs in medication were the only factor associated with treatment approach. More resources should be allocated to improving the diagnosis of depression.
- Preferred self-administered questionnaires to assess fear of movement, coping, self-efficacy and catastrophizing in patients with musculoskeletal pain - A modified Delphi study. [Journal Article]
- PAINPain 2018 Nov 12
- The way people with musculoskeletal disorders deal with pain influences their prognosis. Psychosocial factors that influence outcomes include fear of movement, coping, self-efficacy and catastrophizi...
The way people with musculoskeletal disorders deal with pain influences their prognosis. Psychosocial factors that influence outcomes include fear of movement, coping, self-efficacy and catastrophizing. A three-round modified Delphi study was conducted with the aim to reach consensus on the most appropriate questionnaires to assess these four psychosocial factors in patients at risk of developing persistent musculoskeletal pain. The panel consisted of 36 experts, with track records in medicine, psychology and allied health. To be considered an expert, a minimum number of authorships was required on research papers using self-administered questionnaires to assess these psychosocial factors in relevant patient populations. In Round 1, the experts proposed 30 questionnaires to assess the four factors. In Round 2, experts rated the questionnaires on suitability, considering clinimetric properties, content, feasibility, personal experiences and expertise. The highest ranked questionnaires (maximally five per factor) were retained for Round 3, in which the experts made a final assessment of the questionnaires, and provided their positive and negative experiences with the questionnaires. Consensus was reached for the following questionnaires to assess (1) fear of movement: Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and Tampa Scale (full version or 11-item version); (2) coping: Coping Strategies Questionnaire (initial or revised version) and Chronic Pain Coping Index; (3) self-efficacy: Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (full version or 2-item version); and (4) catastrophizing: Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the revised version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Although other questionnaires can be considered in specific circumstances, these questionnaires are recommended in people with musculoskeletal pain.
- Characterizing the Normative Voice Tremor Frequency in Essential Vocal Tremor. [Journal Article]
- JOJAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Oct 25
- CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date to characterize the normal frequency of tremor in patients with EVT. The normative frequency of EVT (range, 3.8-5.5 Hz) falls within a much narrower range than previously reported. Those whose frequency is outside this range may still have EVT but should be carefully evaluated for potential other causes of vocal tremor. Defining characteristics of EVT may aid appropriate diagnosis and improve understanding of this disease.
New Search Next
- Overground walking patterns after chronic incomplete spinal cord injury show distinct response patterns to unloading. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroeng Rehabil 2018 Nov 12; 15(1):102
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that continuous, dynamic unloading during overground walking results in subtle and proportional gait adjustments corresponding to changes in body load. CiSCI demonstrated diminished responses in specific domains of gait, indicating that their altered neural processing impeded the adjustment to environmental constraints. CiSCI retain their movement patterns under overground unloading, indicating that this is a viable locomotor therapy tool that may also offer a potential window on the diminished neural control of intralimb coordination.