- Changes in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression Influence Sleep-Wake Activity and Homeostatic Regulation of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep. [Journal Article]
- SSleep 2017 Nov 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Interestingly, both genotypes did not reveal any sex difference in the quality and/or quantity of REM sleep. Collectively, these results, for the first time, unequivocally demonstrate that an intact BDNF system in both sexes is a critical modulator for baseline and homeostatic regulation of REM sleep. This study further suggests that heterozygous BDNF knockdown rats are a useful animal model for the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of sleep regulation and cognitive functions of sleep.
- Less Waste on Waist Measurements: Determination of Optimal Waist Circumference Measurement Site to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity. [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2018 Feb 20; 10(2)
- With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose...
With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC) measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SEM), mean body mass index 34.5 ± 0.2 kg/m². WC was measured at the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WCmid), the narrowest point of the torso (WCnarrow), and at the level of the umbilicus (WCumbilicus). WC differed significantly according to measurement site, with WCnarrow(102.1 ± 0.7 cm) < WCmid(108.3 ± 0.7 cm) < WCumbilicus(115.7 ± 0.8 cm) (p < 0.001). WCmid, WCnarrowand WCumbilicuswere all significantly correlated with VAT, as measured by MRI (r = 0.581, 0.563 and 0.390, respectively; p < 0.001 for all), but the relationships between WCmidor WCnarrowand VAT determined by MRI were stronger than for WCumbilicus. Measurement of either WCmidor WCnarrowprovides valid estimates of VAT in postmenopausal women with obesity, with WCnarrowbeing favoured in light of its greater ease and speed of measurement in this population.
- Lifetime exposure to estrogen and progressive supranuclear palsy: Environmental and Genetic PSP study. [Journal Article]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: This case-control study suggests a protective role of lifetime estrogen exposure in PSP. Future studies will be needed to confirm this association. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Reply: MoCA for cognitive screening in Parkinson's disease: Beware of floor effect. [Letter]
- MDMov Disord 2018 Feb 20
- The Changing Age of Individuals Seeking Presymptomatic Genetic Testing for Huntington Disease. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Genet Couns 2018 Feb 20
- Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Presymptomatic genetic testing allows at-risk individuals to clarify their risk status. Understanding the characteristics and moti...
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Presymptomatic genetic testing allows at-risk individuals to clarify their risk status. Understanding the characteristics and motivations of individuals seeking HD presymptomatic genetic testing better equips genetic counselors and other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive and personalized care. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether the average age when individuals seek presymptomatic HD genetic testing has decreased over time, (2) assess motivations for seeking testing, (3) explore whether there is a relationship between age and motivations, and (4) explore genetic counselors' perceptions of the shift in age. Data from the US HD testing centers (N = 4) were analyzed. A small but statistically significant decrease in age of individuals seeking presymptomatic testing was observed (p = 0.045). HD community members (N = 77) were surveyed regarding presymptomatic testing motivations. Younger individuals were more likely than older individuals to cite "To learn whether or not you would develop HD" and "To make choices about further education or a career" compared to older individuals (p < 0.05). Conversely, older individuals more frequently cited "To give children a better idea of their risk" (p < 0.002). Sixteen percent of genetic counselors surveyed (6/37) perceived a change in age of testing. All of these respondents had provided HD testing for ten or more years and anecdotally believed the age at testing has decreased over time. Study results help providers personalize counseling based on patient's age and serve as a starting point for more research into the relationship between age at testing and motivations for testing.
- Progressive supranuclear palsy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease are associated with local reduction of in vivo brain viscoelasticity. [Journal Article]
- EREur Radiol 2018 Feb 19
- CONCLUSIONS: MRE-measured viscoelasticity reflects local structural changes of brain tissue in PSP and in PD and provides a useful parameter to differentiate neurodegenerative movement disorders based on imaging examinations.• 3D multifrequency MR-elastography reveals diffuse regional changes in brain viscoelasticity in neurodegenerative disorders. • Reduced mesencephalic viscoelasticity separates PD and PSP. • Reduced brain viscoelasticity and brain atrophy as independent hallmarks of neurodegeneration hypothesized.
- Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis of Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Detecting Peripersonal Space by Using Ultrasonics. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neurol 2018; 9:47
- The assessment of behavioral responsiveness in patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS),...
The assessment of behavioral responsiveness in patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC), including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is challenging. Even if a patient is unresponsive, he/she may be covertly aware in reason of a cognitive-motor dissociation, i.e., a preservation of cognitive functions despite a solely reflexive behavioral responsiveness. The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS) modifies some biological measures (e.g., hand-blink reflex amplitude) to the purpose of defensive responses from threats. Such modulation depends on a top-down control of subcortical neural circuits, which can be explored through changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) and, thus, gaining useful, indirect information on brain connectivity. These data may be used for the DoC differential diagnosis. We evaluated the changes in CBFV by measuring the pulsatility index (PI) in 21 patients with DoC (10 patients with MCS and 11 with UWS) and 25 healthy controls (HC) during a passive movement and motor imagery (MI) task in which the hand of the subject approached and, then, moved away from the subject's face. In the passive movement task, the PI increased progressively in the HCs when the hand was moved toward the face and, then, it decreased when the hand was removed from the face. The PI increased when the hand was moved toward the face in patients with DoC, but then, it remained high when the hand was removed from the face and up to 30 s after the end of the movement in the patients with MCS (both MCS+ and MCS-) and 1 min in those with UWS, thus differentiating between patients with MCS and UWS. In the MI task, all the HCs, three out of four patients with MCS+, and one out of six patients with MCS- showed an increase-decrease PI change, whereas the remaining patients with MCS and all the patients with UWS showed no PI changes. Even though there is the possibility that our findings will not be replicated in all patients with DoC, we propose fTCD as a rapid and very easy tool to differentiate between patients with MCS and UWS, by identifying residual top-down modulation processes from higher-order cortical areas to sensory-motor integration networks related to the PPS, when using passive movement tasks.
- Asymmetric Drug-Induced Parkinsonism and Psychopathology: A Prospective Naturalistic Study in Long-Stay Psychiatric Patients. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2018; 9:18
- CONCLUSIONS: DIP is asymmetric in a substantial part of patients. Asymmetric presentation of DIP is of clinical relevance as it is related to the severity of psychopathology and may alert the clinician of more severe psychopathology. Future research is recommended to provide insight into the neuropsychopathology and clinical value of asymmetric parkinsonism for psychiatric patients.
- Challenges in sleep stage R scoring in patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and oculomotor abnormalities: a whole night polysomnographic evaluation. [Journal Article]
- SMSleep Med 2018; 42:97-102
- CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary saccadic eye movement velocity and rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are strongly correlated. The more severe the saccadic velocity impairment, the less likely was it to generate REMs (rapid eye movements) during stage R. Accordingly 69% of SCA2 patients with severe occulomotor impairments showed absent stage R as per the AASM sleep scoring. We presume that the impaired REMs generation in sleep could be due to oculomotor abnormality and has resulted in spuriously low or absent stage R sleep percentage in SCA patients with conventional VPSG scoring rules. The present study recommends the modification of AASM scoring rules for stage R in patients with oculomotor abnormalities.
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- Effectiveness of a transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based and mobile-supported intervention for the indicated prevention of depression and anxiety (ICare Prevent) in Dutch college students: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- TTrials 2018 Feb 20; 19(1):118
- CONCLUSIONS: Transdiagnostic individually tailored Internet-based prevention could be a (cost-)effective approach to tackle the disease burden of depression and anxiety among college students.