- Hemophagocytic syndrome in a cat. [Journal Article]
- JOJFMS Open Rep 2018 Jul-Dec; 4(2):2055116918795023
- A 12-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for a 10 month history of weight loss. Thin body condition and a grade II/VI systolic parasternal heart murmur was noted during exami...
A 12-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for a 10 month history of weight loss. Thin body condition and a grade II/VI systolic parasternal heart murmur was noted during examination. Moderate-to-severe anemia and intermittent thrombocytopenia were identified on serial complete blood counts. Antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were detected, but vaccination for FIV occurred previously. Echocardiography revealed biatrial and biventricular enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion. Splenomegaly was present on abdominal ultrasound and cytological evaluation revealed macrophagic infiltration with erythrophagocytosis. Cytological evaluation of the bone marrow revealed similar findings. Histopathology of the spleen confirmed hemophagocytosis with no evidence of malignancy. A presumptive diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome was made. PCR testing for FIV on the splenic tissue was negative. The cat was treated with lomustine. Disease progression occurred approximately 6 months after diagnosis and the cat was euthanized.
- Twenty-three year-old with pleuritic chest pain. [Journal Article]
- HHeart 2018 Sep 04
- A 23-year-old woman followed at another medical centre for congenital heart disease (CHD) presented to our emergency clinic with 3 weeks of bilateral pleuritic chest pain. She returned from holiday i...
A 23-year-old woman followed at another medical centre for congenital heart disease (CHD) presented to our emergency clinic with 3 weeks of bilateral pleuritic chest pain. She returned from holiday in Greece 6 weeks earlier where a tattoo and nasal piercing had been performed. There was no history of night sweats or fever.Her temperature was 37.5°C, heart rate 120 beats/min, oxygen saturations 94% on room air and blood pressure 110/74. Her chest was clear and there was systolic murmur on auscultation. The chest radiograph showed peripheral bilateral lower zone atelectasis. The ECG demonstrated sinus tachycardia. The haemoglobin was 11.2 g/dL, white cell count 10.18×109/L, C-reactive protein 67 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L) and D dimer=430 ng/mL (normal <230 ng/mL).A pulmonary embolus was suspected and a CT pulmonary angiogram was performed (figure 1).
- Immediate Postnatal Ventricular Performance Is Associated with Mortality in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- PCPediatr Cardiol 2018 Sep 03
- Right ventricular (RV) function as assessed by deformation has been evaluated prenatally and after palliation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). However, limited data exist about the immediat...
Right ventricular (RV) function as assessed by deformation has been evaluated prenatally and after palliation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). However, limited data exist about the immediate postnatal cardiac adaptation and RV function in HLHS. We compared echocardiographic measures of cardiac performance in HLHS versus controls in their first week of life. As a secondary objective, we evaluated if markers at the first echocardiogram were associated with mid- and long-term outcomes. Clinical and echocardiographic data of patients with HLHS between 2013 and 2016 were reviewed. The study population was matched with controls whose echocardiograms were obtained due to murmur or rule out coarctation. Speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to assess deformation. Thirty-four patients with HLHS and 28 controls were analyzed. Age at echocardiogram was similar between HLHS and controls. The RV of HLHS was compared to both RV and left ventricle (LV) of controls. HLHS deformation parameters [RV peak global longitudinal strain (GLS), global longitudinal strain rate (GLSR)] and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were decreased compared to RV of controls. The LV-fractional area change, peak GLS, GLSR, circumferential strain, and strain rate of controls were higher than the RV of HLHS. Calculated cardiac output (CO) was higher in the HLHS group (592 vs. 183 mL/kg/min, p = 0.0001) but similar to the combined LV and RV output of controls. Later mortality or cardiac transplantation was associated with the RV CO and RV stroke distance at initial echocardiogram. Cox proportional hazard regression determined that restriction at atrial septum, decreased initial RV stroke distance and decreased TAPSE had a higher risk of death or cardiac transplantation. TAPSE and RV stroke distance by velocity time integral had adequate inter-reader variability by Bland-Altman plot and Pearson's correlation. Our study found that the HLHS RV deformation is decreased in the early postnatal period when compared to both LV and RV of controls, but deformation was not associated with mid- and long-term outcomes. Later mortality or cardiac transplantation was associated with decreased initial stroke distance and cardiac output. Early evaluation of patients with HLHS should include an assessment of stroke distance and future research should evaluate its implication in management strategies.
- The Disappearing Murmur: Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve Leaflet in a Non-hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Patient. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 21; 10(6):e2855
- Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve is a well-known phenomenon associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and hemodynamic compromise. This finding may occur in patients...
Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve is a well-known phenomenon associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and hemodynamic compromise. This finding may occur in patients with or without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In this report, a patient with no prior medical history presented to the hospital with left-sided chest pain and high-risk echocardiogram (ECG) findings. Left heart catheterization with coronary angiography was negative for coronary artery disease. His initial examination was significant for a systolic murmur due to the underlying SAM, as demonstrated by transthoracic echocardiogram. During his hospitalization, he developed acute heart failure syndrome as a result of dynamic outflow tract obstruction. He was treated with fluid resuscitation with a resolution of his hemodynamic compromise. On a follow-up examination, there was no murmur and SAM was no longer present on echocardiogram. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing the clinical manifestations of SAM as well as its role in maintaining an appropriate hemodynamic status.
- Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis and Cardiomyopathy in a Patient with Graves' Disease. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 19; 10(6):e2837
- Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) and cardiomyopathy are two established complications of thyrotoxicosis. Emergent management is essential as TPP and cardiac events secondary to thyrotoxic cardiomy...
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) and cardiomyopathy are two established complications of thyrotoxicosis. Emergent management is essential as TPP and cardiac events secondary to thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy can be fatal. We report a unique case of a patient with Graves' disease presenting with symptoms secondary to both these complications. A 34-year-old Hispanic male, diagnosed with Graves' disease, non-compliant with his medications, presented to the emergency room (ER) with complaints of generalized weakness, palpitations, chest pain and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting for one day. On presentation, the patient was tachycardiac, had a systolic flow murmur and decreased motor strength in all extremities. Blood work showed a potassium of 1.8 millimoles per liter, cardiac troponin of 0.04 nanograms per milliliter and a thyroid panel consistent with hyperthyroidism. Electrocardiogram showed atrial flutter. In the ER, Propranolol, Propylthiouracil and Hydrocortisone were administered to prevent thyroid storm. Potassium was repleted, and the patient developed rebound hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate, insulin, sodium polystyrene and admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) for further management. Echocardiogram revealed severely decreased left ventricular systolic function and an ejection fraction of 26-30%. He was diagnosed with cardiomyopathy secondary to thyrotoxicosis. He was stabilized with Methimazole, Propranolol, Lisinopril and discharged on day nine with these medications and an outpatient follow-up appointment. Thyrotoxicosis can be life-threatening. This case shows a unique instance where a Hispanic patient presented with two complications of this phenomena. The pathogenesis of TPP involves increased responsiveness of the beta-adrenergic receptors, which leads to increased activity of the Sodium/Potassium (Na+/K+) ATPase pump and a transcellular shift of potassium into cells. The condition can resolve acutely with the administration of potassium. It is important to monitor the rate of potassium replacement as rebound hyperkalemia can occur, as this case demonstrates. Propranolol is an integral part of treatment as it is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker and blocks the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in high doses. Thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy is one of the many cardiac complications that can be precipitated by Graves' disease. One probable cause is the chronic tachycardia that patients with hyperthyroidism develop. Treatment entails managing the hyperthyroidism by starting the patient on beta blockers and anti-thyroid drugs or radioactive iodine uptake. Diuretics can be started to manage patients with heart failure. It is important to identify and treat the condition immediately to prevent grave complications.
- Eighty-two-year-old man with a systolic murmur. [Journal Article]
- HHeart 2018 Aug 09
- An 82-year-old man with a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, hypertension and small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumour underwent cardiac risk evaluation prior to surgical resection of his ...
An 82-year-old man with a history of coronary artery bypass surgery, hypertension and small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumour underwent cardiac risk evaluation prior to surgical resection of his tumour. He was asymptomatic from a cardiovascular perspective, but his activity level was less than four metabolic equivalents. Physical examination was notable for a 2/6 systolic murmur at the apex. ECG showed sinus rhythm. A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed (figure 1 and online supplementary video 1).DC1SP110.1136/heartjnl-2018-313413.supp1Supplementary file 1 heartjnl;heartjnl-2018-313413v1/F1F1F1Figure 1Transthoracic echocardiography. (A) Mitral valve continuous wave Doppler and (B) tricuspid valve continuous wave Doppler.
- Woman in her 50s with shortness of breath on exertion. [Journal Article]
- HHeart 2018 Aug 09
- A 59-year-old woman visited an outpatient cardiology clinic due to shortness of breath on exertion. Physical examination showed no significant abnormality of vital signs. A III/VI systolic murmur was...
A 59-year-old woman visited an outpatient cardiology clinic due to shortness of breath on exertion. Physical examination showed no significant abnormality of vital signs. A III/VI systolic murmur was heard on the fourth intercostal space at the right sternal border. The majority of laboratory tests were normal. Chest X-ray showed a curved vessel shadow (figure 1A). Initial transthoracic echocardiography showed abnormal blood flow into the inferior vena cava (IVC) in the subxiphoid long axis view (figure 1B) and mild right heart dilatation (online supplementary figure 1). Transoesophageal echocardiography showed severe tricuspid regurgitation (online supplementary figure 2).DC1SP110.1136/heartjnl-2018-313655.supp1Supplementary data DC2SP210.1136/heartjnl-2018-313655.supp2Supplementary data heartjnl;heartjnl-2018-313655v1/F1F1F1Figure 1(A) Chest X-ray. (B) Colour Doppler image in the subxiphoid long axis view.
- Post-tuberculosis Aspergilloma in Undiagnosed Tetralogy of Fallot. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Jun 05; 10(6):e2740
- Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) with an incidence of four in every 1000 live births in Pakistan. Classically, these children present with central cyanosis ...
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common congenital heart disease (CHD) with an incidence of four in every 1000 live births in Pakistan. Classically, these children present with central cyanosis in early life; however, milder defects may remain asymptomatic for months or even years. We report a malnourished and anemic teenage male, who was admitted with shortness of breath, hemoptysis, fever, palpitations, and weight loss. On examination, vitals were stable, except for oxygen saturation, which was 84% on pulse-oximeter. Bilateral basal coarse crepitations were present on respiratory examination with a markedly reduced air entry in the right upper zone. A 2-3/6 systolic ejection murmur was appreciated on cardiac examination. The chest X-ray was consistent with a collapsed right upper lobe with fibrosis. Echocardiography was consistent with findings of TOF. Based on sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear) and GeneXpert (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, California, US) Mycobacterium tuberculosis/resistance to rifampin (MTB/RIF), the patient was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-PTB). However, when the patient didn't improve with anti-tuberculous therapy, a computed tomography (CT) scan chest was done, which raised a suspicion of aspergilloma. The culture and cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were done, which confirmed pulmonary aspergilloma. Undiagnosed congenital heart diseases are rare in adults. Pulmonary TB is rarely reported in right-to-left shunts; however, clinicians should maintain a suspicion of this correlation.
- A male with multiple cardiac masses. [Journal Article]
- EREcho Res Pract 2018; 5(3):K53-K58
- SummaryThirty-seven-year-old male presented with cough, dyspnea, significant weight loss (20 kg) and subacute fever for the past 2 months. Physical examination revealed inspiratory and expiratory whe...
SummaryThirty-seven-year-old male presented with cough, dyspnea, significant weight loss (20 kg) and subacute fever for the past 2 months. Physical examination revealed inspiratory and expiratory wheezing bilaterally. A normal S1, S2 and a 3/6 systolic ejection murmur at the left upper parasternal border with respiratory variation were found during cardiac auscultation. Kidney and bone marrow biopsy reported a high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Echocardiography and cardiac CT findings consisted of multiple intracardiac masses affecting the right ventricular (RV) outflow track, RV apex, medial portion of the right atrium and posterior left atrium, as well as mild impairment of the RV systolic function. The masses in the RV outflow track caused partial obstruction (pulmonary valve peak velocity 2.3 m/s) with a RV systolic pressure of 43 mmHg. The infiltrative mass in the interatrial septum extended into both the right and left atrial cavities. The right superior pulmonary vein was occluded. This patient was treated with aggressive chemotherapy and had a good clinical response that resulted in mass size reduction after the first course of chemotherapy. Multimodality imaging techniques such as echocardiography, cardiac CT and PET scan can provide complementary information to better evaluate, stage and manage these patients.
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- A Rare Presentation of Anterior Mediastinal Teratoma Mimicking Valvular Heart Disease with A Systolic Murmur. [Journal Article]
- EJEurasian J Med 2018; 50(2):134-136
- Extrinsic pulmonary artery stenosis caused by anterior mediastinum teratoma presenting with an ejection systolic murmur is a rare phenomenon. Till date, 15 cases have been reported (inclusive of this...
Extrinsic pulmonary artery stenosis caused by anterior mediastinum teratoma presenting with an ejection systolic murmur is a rare phenomenon. Till date, 15 cases have been reported (inclusive of this case) in the English literatures. Herein we report a 20 year old female with extrinsic pulmonary artery stenosis because of compression by an anterior mediastinal teratoma with a loud ejection systolic murmur. The case report aims to highlight the awareness of such rare presentation of anterior mediastinal teratomas that may mimic congenital valvular heart diseases among clinicians.